A new phase of matter known as topological insulators, until recently known only for esoteric quantum-mechanical properties, might have a practical use in controlling magnetic memory and logic devices. ... Read more »
Mellnik, A., Lee, J., Richardella, A., Grab, J., Mintun, P., Fischer, M., Vaezi, A., Manchon, A., Kim, E., Samarth, N.... (2014) Spin-transfer torque generated by a topological insulator. Nature, 511(7510), 449-451. DOI: 10.1038/nature13534
There is evidence that chronic stress increases the risk of atherosclerosis, but no mechanism linking the two phenomena has been demonstrated so far. Since stressful emotional states can affect the function of the immune system, Heidt and colleagues of the Massachusetts General Hospital hypothesized that stress increases the activity of inflammatory cells in the plaques facilitating their rupture, as you can read in their recently published article.... Read more »
Heidt T, Sager HB, Courties G, Dutta P, Iwamoto Y, Zaltsman A, von Zur Muhlen C, Bode C, Fricchione GL, Denninger J.... (2014) Chronic variable stress activates hematopoietic stem cells. Nature medicine, 20(7), 754-8. PMID: 24952646
"Our results, combined with previous findings, suggest a 27% increase in the expected prevalence of ADHD [attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder] among young adults, comparing DSM-IV to DSM-5 criteria". So said the paper by Matte and colleagues  who as part of their study looked at "the prevalence of ADHD according to DSM-5 criteria".Europa @ Wikipedia The changes to the diagnosis of ADHD in DSM-5 can be seen here. The main difference between DSM-IV and DSM-5 diagnosis s........ Read more »
Matte, B., Anselmi, L., Salum, G., Kieling, C., Gonçalves, H., Menezes, A., Grevet, E., & Rohde, L. (2014) ADHD in DSM-5: a field trial in a large, representative sample of 18- to 19-year-old adults. Psychological Medicine, 1-13. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291714001470
Is 50% dextrose as good as 10% dextrose for treating symptomatic hypoglycemia?
If the patient is disoriented, but becomes oriented before the full dose of dextrose is given, is it appropriate to continue to treat the patient as if the patient were still disoriented? If your protocols require you to keep giving dextrose, do the same protocols require you to keep giving opioids after the pain is relieved? Is there really any difference?
50% dextrose has problems.... Read more »
Kiefer MV, Gene Hern H, Alter HJ, & Barger JB. (2014) Dextrose 10% in the treatment of out-of-hospital hypoglycemia. Prehospital and disaster medicine, 29(2), 190-4. PMID: 24735872
Levy SB, & Rosh AJ. (2006) Images in emergency medicine. Dextrose extravasation causing skin necrosis. Annals of emergency medicine, 48(3). PMID: 16934641
There is a war going on and it's not on foreign soil. This war is the fight for the status quo, a war where you are only worth your skin color, a war where you are only worth as much as your gender. This war is all around us, we see it everyday, yet we let it quietly pass us by. We do this because, in all actuality, we are losing this war. I don't blame you if you don't believe me, you shouldn't.[…]... Read more »
Weisman CS, & Chuang CH. (2014) Making the Most of the Affordable Care Act's Contraceptive Coverage Mandate for Privately-Insured Women. Women's health issues : official publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. PMID: 25128037
Think of life without tubes for a moment. Not only would our huge bodies cease to exist, but our homes’ plumbing would be a mess and my 5-year old’s marble run would be pretty boring. The formation of tubes during development is a fascinating topic. Today’s image is from a paper describing the role of endocytosis in seamless tube formation. The trachea of the fruit fly is a simple tubular system that functions as the respiratory system of the fly. The star-shaped tracheal terminal cel........ Read more »
Schottenfeld-Roames, J., Rosa, J., & Ghabrial, A. (2014) Seamless Tube Shape Is Constrained by Endocytosis-Dependent Regulation of Active Moesin. Current Biology, 24(15), 1756-1764. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.06.029
Short term effects of the Twin Block I am now back from my summer holidays and ready to start up the blog again. While I was away several systematic reviews have been published and there have been several comments on my blog post on self ligation. I will do my best to cover these over […]
The post Short term effects of the Twin Block appliance? appeared first on Kevin O'Brien's Orthodontic Blog.
... Read more »
Ehsani S, Nebbe B, Normando D, Lagravere MO, & Flores-Mir C. (2014) Short-term treatment effects produced by the Twin-block appliance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European journal of orthodontics. PMID: 25052373
In a recent article, scientists proof that cats do not evidently set aside special attentions to their owners when called, even though they were able to recognize a familiar voice. Twenty domestic cats simply moved their head or their ears when called by whomever, owners or strangers, but almost no cat replied, “saying something”. They tried with everything: official names, nicknames, etc. but cats never said a word. In addition, hearing the owners’ voice did not result in a ma........ Read more »
Saito A, & Shinozuka K. (2013) Vocal recognition of owners by domestic cats (Felis catus). Animal cognition, 16(4), 685-90. PMID: 23525707
They've barely taken their seat, but it's obvious that your interviewee is nervous. You give her a reassuring smile and nod affirmatively at each of her answers, hoping to put her at ease. Unfortunately, it turns out that positive feedback does a socially anxious interviewee no favours. In fact, it would be better to turn that smile upside-down.We know this from a new study from North Illinois University where a "careers counsellor" (actually a research assistant) conducted practice interviews w........ Read more »
Budnick CJ, Kowal M, & Santuzzi AM. (2014) Social anxiety and the ironic effects of positive interviewer feedback. Anxiety, stress, and coping, 1-17. PMID: 24773204
The paper by Woodman and colleagues  looking at trajectory and autism in adolescents and adults is the source material for today's post (another micropost). Concluding that: "Overall, autism symptoms and maladaptive behaviors were observed to improve over the study period" of about 8 years, the authors also reported that "greater improvements were associated with higher levels of maternal praise (based on maternal speech samples) and higher quality mother-child relationships". If I remember c........ Read more »
Woodman AC, Smith LE, Greenberg JS, & Mailick MR. (2014) Change in Autism Symptoms and Maladaptive Behaviors in Adolescence and Adulthood: The Role of Positive Family Processes. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. PMID: 25070471
Have you heard of Malcom Gladwell’s 10,000-hour rule? The key to success in any field is practice, and not just a little. A new publication in the journal Psychological Science had a good look at all the evidence and concludes that this rule is nonsense. No Einstein in you, I am afraid. The authors of […]... Read more »
Macnamara, B.N., Hambrick, D.Z., & Oswald, F.L. (2014) Deliberate Practice and Performance in Music, Games, Sports, Education, and Professions: A Meta-Analysis. Psychological Science. DOI: 10.1037/e633262013-474
A new material, designed and patented by researchers at Berkeley Lab, converts ethane to ethanol with an efficiency that could cut natural-gas refining costs.... Read more »
Xiao, D., Bloch, E., Mason, J., Queen, W., Hudson, M., Planas, N., Borycz, J., Dzubak, A., Verma, P., Lee, K.... (2014) Oxidation of ethane to ethanol by N2O in a metal–organic framework with coordinatively unsaturated iron(II) sites. Nature Chemistry, 6(7), 590-595. DOI: 10.1038/nchem.1956
How does the old saying go? Imitation, is the sincerest form of flattery? Well that is what we’ve been trying to do for a very long time, but mimicking the intricate networks and dynamic interactions that are inherent to living cells is difficult to achieve outside the cell. Unfortunately despite all our intelligence nature has had the upper hand on us for a long time. That has not changed… until now that is.[…]... Read more »
Karzbrun E, Tayar AM, Noireaux V, & Bar-Ziv RH. (2014) Programmable on-chip DNA compartments as artificial cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6198), 829-32. PMID: 25124443
Don't just throw away your Sunday morning egg shell. The humble eggshell and the shell membrane – the thin paperish sheet on the inner part of the eggshell- has a large number of surprising uses. Here’s a short list of five:... Read more »
Baláž M. (2014) Eggshell membrane biomaterial as a platform for applications in materials science. Acta biomaterialia, 10(9), 3827-3843. PMID: 24681370
Guru PS, & Dash S. (2014) Sorption on eggshell waste--a review on ultrastructure, biomineralization and other applications. Advances in colloid and interface science, 49-67. PMID: 24456801
Ruff KJ, Winkler A, Jackson RW, DeVore DP, & Ritz BW. (2009) Eggshell membrane in the treatment of pain and stiffness from osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. Clinical rheumatology, 28(8), 907-14. PMID: 19340512
Despite the prevalence and impact of problem gambling, few summaries or guidelines address treatment.Searching the guideline.gov website shows no recent additions to the guideline literature.A guideline was published by the Singapore Ministry of Health in 2011. This guideline is still relevant and highlights some of the key elements of a problem gambling treatment program.I will summarize some of these key elements from this source titled: "Management of gambling disorders". In their summa........ Read more »
Lee KM, Chan HN, Cheah B, Gentica GF, Guo S, Lim HK, Lim YC, Noorul F, Tan HS, Teo P.... (2011) Ministry of Health clinical practice guidelines: management of gambling disorders. Singapore medical journal, 52(6), 456. PMID: 21732000
It’s hard to know why research that is a almost a decade old is seen as fodder for a recent Op-Ed in the New York Times, but so it goes. Jennifer Mnookin, a law professor at UCLA, certainly has an impressive resumé, and it is likely most readers of the NYT are not familiar with […]
Simple Jury Persuasion: When a Picture Can Sink Your Case
Simple Jury Persuasion: Being “right” versus being persuasive
Simple Jury Persuasion: Make Your Expert Optimally Persuasive
... Read more »
Lassiter GD. (2010) Videotaped interrogations and confessions: what's obvious in hindsight may not be in foresight. Law and Human Behavior, 34(1), 41-2. PMID: 20087637
How most of us choose to behave is shaped powerfully by the behaviour of others (or, more specifically, our perception of their behaviour). Psychologists call this the influence of "social norms", and its potency has been investigated extensively in the context of environmentally friendly behaviours like recycling, and health behaviours, such as binge drinking and frequency of exercise.What if this same psychological lever could be exploited, not to encourage people to take up more physical acti........ Read more »
Priebe, C., & Spink, K. (2014) Blood, sweat, and the influence of others: The effect of descriptive norms on muscular endurance and task self-efficacy. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(5), 491-497. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.04.012
"Compared with published general population prevalence, there is a fivefold increase in prevalence of ADHD in youth prison populations (30.1%) and a 10-fold increase in adult prison populations (26.2%)"."Mianly dry" apparently @ Paul WhiteleyThat was the primary conclusion reached in the meta-analysis by Young and colleagues  looking at the collected peer-reviewed literature on "the variable prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in incarcerated populations".There ........ Read more »
Young S, Moss D, Sedgwick O, Fridman M, & Hodgkins P. (2014) A meta-analysis of the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in incarcerated populations. Psychological medicine, 1-12. PMID: 25066071
It is a truth all but universally acknowledged that a eukaryotic cell entering mitosis must be in want of the canonical proteins for mitotic checkpoints. And then there is Giardia intestinalis. A notorious flagellate pathogen, this binucleate protist belongs to one of the major eukaryotic lineages now called the "Excavates." Like all other Excavates, Giardia is weird, says Zacheus Cande of the University of California, Berkeley, but weird in a good way because of its ancient evolutiona........ Read more »
Vicente JJ, & Cande WZ. (2014) Mad2, Bub3 and Mps1 regulate chromosome segregation and mitotic synchrony in Giardia intestinalis, a binucleate protist lacking an Anaphase Promoting Complex. Molecular biology of the cell. PMID: 25057014
Paredez AR, Assaf ZJ, Sept D, Timofejeva L, Dawson SC, Wang CJ, & Cande WZ. (2011) An actin cytoskeleton with evolutionarily conserved functions in the absence of canonical actin-binding proteins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(15), 6151-6. PMID: 21444821
Some psychological conditions receive a disproportionate amount of attention in popular media relative to how frequently they actually occur in the population. One of those is psychopathy, a personality disorder that is characterized by antisocial behavior, impulsivity, and a lack of empathy. Psychopaths may be charming on the surface but tend towards pathological deception and indifferent manipulation of other people. And they are more likely to have behavioral problems or be involved in crimin........ Read more »
Polaschek, D. (2014) Adult Criminals With Psychopathy: Common Beliefs About Treatability and Change Have Little Empirical Support. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23(4), 296-301. DOI: 10.1177/0963721414535211
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