An influential theory about the malleability of memory comes under scrutiny in a new paper in the Journal of Neuroscience.
The 'reconsolidation' hypothesis holds that when a memory is recalled, its molecular trace in the brain becomes plastic. On this view, a reactivated memory has to be 'saved' or consolidated all over again in order for it to be stored.
A drug that blocks memory formation ('amnestic') will, therefore, not just block new memories but will also cause reactivated m... Read more »
Gisquet-Verrier P, Lynch JF 3rd, Cutolo P, Toledano D, Ulmen A, Jasnow AM, & Riccio DC. (2015) Integration of New Information with Active Memory Accounts for Retrograde Amnesia: A Challenge to the Consolidation/Reconsolidation Hypothesis?. The Journal of Neuroscience, 35(33), 11623-33. PMID: 26290239
Some chimps are more outgoing than others. Some like trying out new foods and games while their friends stick to the tried and tested. In short, chimps have different personalities, just like people do. What's more, psychologists investigating chimp personality have found that their traits tend to coalescence into five main factors, again much like human personality. Three of these factors are actually named the same as their human equivalents: Extraversion, Openness and Agreeableness. The other........ Read more »
Latzman, R., Hecht, L., Freeman, H., Schapiro, S., & Hopkins, W. (2015) Neuroanatomical correlates of personality in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Associations between personality and frontal cortex. NeuroImage, 63-71. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.08.041
Today I'm bringing the paper by Kamila Castro and colleagues  to the blogging table and their systematic review of the available peer-reviewed literature on the use of a ketogenic diet (KD) when it comes to real life autism and various mouse models trying to map the label.Drawing on data derived from 8 studies - "three studies with animals and five studies with humans" - that met the relevant inclusion criteria for study, authors concluded that although the evidence looks promising for t........ Read more »
Kamila Castro, Larissa Slongo Faccioli, Diego Baronio, Carmem Gottfried, Ingrid Schweigert Perry, & Rudimar dos Santos Riesgo. (2015) Effect of a ketogenic diet on autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 31-38. info:/10.1016/j.rasd.2015.08.005
For adults, memories tend to fade with time. But a new study has shown that there are circumstances under which the opposite is true for small children: they can remember a piece of information better days later than they can on the day they first learned it. While playing a video game that asked them to remember associations between objects, 4- and 5-year-olds who re-played the game after a two-day delay scored more than 20 percent higher than kids who re-played it later the same day.... Read more »
Kevin Darby. (20115) ‘Delayed remembering’: kids can remember tomorrow what they forgot today. Psychological Science. info:/
Last week we talked about motivation quite a bit: First about why do students engage in academic tasks?, then about how motivation is proportional to the expectation of achieving a goal. Today I want to bring it all together a … Continue reading →... Read more »
Ana T. Torres-Ayala, & Geoffrey L. Herman. (2012) Motivating Learners: A Primer for Engineering Teaching Assistants. American Society for Engineering Education. info:/
by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room
This is a fascinating study on how those that kill significant others or family members are different from those who kill strangers. The first author explains how these murderers are different, saying “These murders are usually in the heat of passion and generally involve drugs or alcohol and often are driven by jealousy or revenge […]
Texas + Wealth + Family Lawsuits = Dysfunction?
You killed your spouse. But who is responsible?
When strangers are better than your Mom,........ Read more »
Hanlon, R., Brook, M., Demery, J., & Cunningham, M. (2015) Domestic Homicide: Neuropsychological Profiles of Murderers Who Kill Family Members and Intimate Partners. Journal of Forensic Sciences. DOI: 10.1111/1556-4029.12908
"Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenomenology is reported to be more common in individuals with some genetic syndromes than in the general population."That was the starting point for the systematic review and meta-analysis published by Caroline Richards and colleagues  who set about 'synthesising' the various peer-reviewed data "to provide accurate estimates about ASD phenomenology in genetic and metabolic syndromes." A scan of the cumulative literature in this area ("168 papers reportin........ Read more »
Caroline Richards, Christopher Jones, Laura Groves, Jo Moss, & Chris Oliver. (2015) Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder phenomenology in genetic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Psychiatry. info:/
by dkirsch in the Node
Genetically engineered mouse models have been used extensively to study a wide variety of biological processes in vivo, and innovations in genetic engineering have made it possible to dissect more intricate biological questions. For example, the first mice that showed successful germline transmission of foreign DNA were created in the 1980s, and this allowed the[...]
The post Novel mouse alleles allow for sequential mutagenesis using the dual recombinase technology appeared first on ........ Read more »
Zhang, M., & Kirsch, D. (2015) The generation and characterization of novel Col1a1FRT-Cre-ER-T2-FRT and Col1a1FRT-STOP-FRT-Cre-ER-T2 mice for sequential mutagenesis. Disease Models , 8(9), 1155-1166. DOI: 10.1242/dmm.021204
Neural stem cells generate new neurons throughout life in the mammalian brain. However, with advancing age the potential for regeneration in the brain dramatically declines. Scientists now identified a novel mechanism of how neural stem cells stay relatively free of aging-induced damage. A diffusion barrier regulates the sorting of damaged proteins during cell division.... Read more »
Moore, D., Pilz, G., Arauzo-Bravo, M., Barral, Y., & Jessberger, S. (2015) A mechanism for the segregation of age in mammalian neural stem cells. Science, 349(6254), 1334-1338. DOI: 10.1126/science.aac9868
The effect of ‘energy boost’ footwear on running economy... Read more »
Sinclair, J., Mcgrath, R., Brook, O., Taylor, P., & Dillon, S. (2015) Influence of footwear designed to boost energy return on running economy in comparison to a conventional running shoe. Journal of Sports Sciences, 1-5. DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2015.1088961
Research led by scientists from Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore (Duke-NUS) has linked the abnormal behaviour of two genes (BDNF and DTNBP1) to the underlying cause of schizophrenia. These findings have provided a new target for schizophrenia treatment.... Read more »
Yuan, Q., Yang, F., Xiao, Y., Tan, S., Husain, N., Ren, M., Hu, Z., Martinowich, K., Ng, J., Kim, P.... (2015) Regulation of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Exocytosis and Gamma-Aminobutyric Acidergic Interneuron Synapse by the Schizophrenia Susceptibility Gene Dysbindin-1. Biological Psychiatry. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.08.019
I was really quite interested in the paper by Seref Simsek and colleagues  looking at how adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) in cases of paediatric coeliac disease might also confer psychological benefits too. To quote: "[a] Significant decrease was observed in the depression scores... of celiac patients who were able to actually adhere to the GFD compared with nonadherent patients."So: "The aim of this study was to investigate the level of depression and quality of life in child........ Read more »
Simsek S, Baysoy G, Gencoglan S, & Uluca U. (2015) Effects of Gluten-Free Diet on Quality of Life and Depression in Children With Celiac Disease. Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition, 61(3), 303-306. PMID: 26322559
Using endurance training or strength and resistance training not only prepares an athlete for different types of sports, they can also change the way the brain and muscles communicate with each other.... Read more »
Trevino, M., & Herda, T. (2015) The effects of chronic exercise training status on motor unit activation and deactivation control strategies. Journal of Sports Sciences, 1-10. DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2015.1046396
Herda, T., Siedlik, J., Trevino, M., Cooper, M., & Weir, J. (2015) Motor unit control strategies of endurance- versus resistance-trained individuals. Muscle . DOI: 10.1002/mus.24597
A significant fraction of the functional variation in humans lies outside of known protein-coding regions. We all know that. Yet every individual’s genome harbors millions of noncoding variants, most of which are likely neutral with respect to phenotypes. Identifying the subset of noncoding variants that are functional remains notoriously difficult, and represents a considerable scientific challenge we face as […]... Read more »
Petrovski S, Gussow AB, Wang Q, Halvorsen M, Han Y, Weir WH, Allen AS, & Goldstein DB. (2015) The Intolerance of Regulatory Sequence to Genetic Variation Predicts Gene Dosage Sensitivity. PLoS genetics, 11(9). PMID: 26332131
A study a while back showed ‘above chance’ guessing of sexual orientation based on photographs of faces alone. The results were explained as proof of gaydar. Now, a new study says gaydar is not real and is a way to stereotype others that is seen as more “socially and personally acceptable”. They point to a […]
The Danger of Stereotyping: Does Gay + Black = Likable?
The Libertarian Orientation Scale: Who’s the (real) Libertarian?
Real-life Sopranos: It’s isn’........ Read more »
Cox, W., Devine, P., Bischmann, A., & Hyde, J. (2015) Inferences About Sexual Orientation: The Roles of Stereotypes, Faces, and The Gaydar Myth. The Journal of Sex Research, 1-15. DOI: 10.1080/00224499.2015.1015714
Polyglot like a pitcher plant or cryptolectic like a sperm whale?
A: “Pitcher Tower, this is Bat K hardwickii, established ILS 16. Do you copy me?”
B: “Bat K hardwickii, clear to land. Please confirm: are you ready to discharge the cargo?”
A: “Roger. Affirmative.”
This is how I imagined a conversation between the tropical carnivorous pitcher plant Nepenthes hemsleyana and the bat Kerivoula hardwickii would go. No, I am not on drugs; bats and plants can........ Read more »
Cantor M, Shoemaker LG, Cabral RB, Flores CO, Varga M, & Whitehead H. (2015) Multilevel animal societies can emerge from cultural transmission. Nature communications, 8091. PMID: 26348688
Schöner MG, Schöner CR, Simon R, Grafe TU, Puechmaille SJ, Ji LL, & Kerth G. (2015) Bats Are Acoustically Attracted to Mutualistic Carnivorous Plants. Current biology : CB, 25(14), 1911-6. PMID: 26166777
"Compared to children from the general population, children born to women with SLE [systemic lupus erythematosus] have an increased risk of ASD [autism spectrum disorder], although in absolute terms it represents a rare outcome."That was the bottom line reported in the results published by Évelyne Vinet and colleagues . Based on data derived from the "Offspring of SLE mothers Registry (OSLER)", researchers identified children born to mothers with SLE alongside a matc........ Read more »
Vinet É, Pineau CA, Clarke AE, Scott S, Fombonne É, Joseph L, Platt RW, & Bernatsky S. (2015) Increased Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Children Born to Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Results from the OSLER Cohort. Arthritis . PMID: 26315754
Partial nephrectomies are technically challenging surgeries but preserve healthy renal tissue and therefore function. To minimise bleeding the major blood vessels are usually clamped and tumour extraction completed under ischemic conditions – the renal tissue is deprived of oxygen and nutrients due to restricted blood flow. Although ischemic conditions for less than 25 minutes have minimal reported impact on renal function (Volpe et al., 2015), more complex tumours result in prolonged isch........ Read more »
Weibl P, Shariat SF, & Klatte T. (2015) Partial nephrectomy driven by cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator under zero ischemia: a pilot study. World journal of urology. PMID: 25935329
Scientists have used a genetically engineered vaccine to successfully eradicate high-grade precancerous cervical lesions in nearly one-half of women who received the vaccine in a clinical trial. The goal, say the scientists, was to find nonsurgical ways to treat precancerous lesions caused by HPV.... Read more »
Prof Cornelia L Trimble, MD et. al. (2015) Safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity of VGX-3100, a therapeutic synthetic DNA vaccine targeting human papillomavirus 16 and 18 E6 and E7 proteins for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2b trial. Lancet. DOI: http://dx.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00239-1
A research conducted by the Nature Publishing Group indicates that the perception of open access (OA) publishing is rapidly changing among researchers. In 2014, 40% of authors who have not published in OA journals declared themselves concerned about the quality of publications, a percentage which fell to 27% in 2015. The NPG supports OA publications and recognizes its importance, publishing 56% of the articles in this format. … Read More →... Read more »
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