Some poisons are better known than others.Arsenic, for example, is famous for its participation in many a murder and suicide from the Middle Ages through to the mid-19th century (after which it became easier to detect and more difficult to acquire). Even to this day, the malicious metalloid remains in the public eye as a contaminant of groundwater in parts of South Asia and of soil in old orchards.A decidedly more obscure poison is a gooey industrial derivative of coal tar (leftovers from conver........ Read more »
Craig PH, & Barth ML. (1999) Evaluation of the hazards of industrial exposure to tricresyl phosphate: A review and interpretation of the literature. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part B, 2(4), 281-300. PMID: 10596299
Changes and developments in the way things are done are sometimes seen as threatening, as dangers. That is a natural, instinctive reaction, perhaps, but sometimes, the danger lies not so much in the development itself as in the things that the development in question prevents. There are two developments in science publishing and science communication that are seen as dangerous by many. Both developments are seen as threatening from opposite sides of the fence, so to speak. … Read More U........ Read more »
Pinfield, S., Salter, J., & Bath, P. (2015) The “total cost of publication” in a hybrid open-access environment: Institutional approaches to funding journal article-processing charges in combination with subscriptions. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. DOI: 10.1002/asi.23446
The Eatles have been busy munching away for the first time on a non-mammal vertebrate! Specifically, they are devouring the soft tissue remains of a White's Tree Frog (Litoria caerulea) from Grant's Farm in St. Louis, MO, named Nona.White's Tree Frog. Photo from Animal Diversity Web.Also known as the Smiling Frog, and the Dumpy Frog, this animal is fascinating. It belongs to the Hylidae family of frogs, which is an interesting group because it is united by a single morhpological character shared........ Read more »
Boland MP, & Separovic F. (2006) Membrane interactions of antimicrobial peptides from Australian tree frogs. Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1758(9), 1178-83. PMID: 16580625
Campbell CR, Voyles J, Cook DI, & Dinudom A. (2012) Frog skin epithelium: electrolyte transport and chytridiomycosis. The international journal of biochemistry , 44(3), 431-4. PMID: 22182598
Manzano AS, Abdala V, & Herrel A. (2008) Morphology and function of the forelimb in arboreal frogs: specializations for grasping ability?. Journal of anatomy, 213(3), 296-307. PMID: 18565111
Go ahead, try tickling yourself on your inner forearm or neck. If you're like most people, you'll find it doesn't work. The sensation would make you shiver or giggle with ticklishness if someone else did it, but when you do it yourself, it no longer has any tickle power.The inability of most people to tickle themselves has been documented by psychologists for a while, and it's thought be due to the fact that the brain creates predictions of the sensory consequences of our own actions, and ........ Read more »
Lemaitre, A., Luyat, M., & Lafargue, G. (2016) Individuals with pronounced schizotypal traits are particularly successful in tickling themselves. Consciousness and Cognition, 64-71. DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2016.02.005
Very possibly, is the answer to the question that titles this post on how the diagnostic borders between mitochondrial disease and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) might be blurred. I bring to your attention the case report published by Fernando Galán and colleagues  (open-access available here) as an example.Detailing the experiences of a 30-year old male who "appeared to meet the CDC-1994/Fukuda criteria for CFS [chronic fatigue syndrome]" and for whom 1 year of "cognitive behavioral th........ Read more »
Galán F, de Lavera I, Cotán D, & Sánchez-Alcázar JA. (2015) Mitochondrial Myopathy in Follow-up of a Patient With Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Journal of investigative medicine high impact case reports, 3(3), 2147483647. PMID: 26904705
A massive study describing the genomes of 20 species of Leptospira was published a few weeks ago in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. The deluge of sequence information will be valuable to those in the leptospirosis field. Scientists will be able to examine differences in genetic content between various categories of Leptospira species to generate hypotheses for experimental testing. For example, genes present in species that cause infections but missing in species that don't m........ Read more »
Fouts DE, Matthias MA, Adhikarla H, Adler B, Amorim-Santos L, Berg DE, Bulach D, Buschiazzo A, Chang YF, Galloway RL.... (2016) What makes a bacterial species pathogenic?: Comparative genomic analysis of the genus Leptospira. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 10(2). PMID: 26890609
Why humans and other animals sleep is one of the remaining deep mysteries of physiology. One prominent theory in neuroscience is that sleep is when the brain replays memories "offline" to better encode them ("memory consolidation"). A prominent and competing theory is that sleep is important for rebalancing activity in brain networks that have been perturbed during learning while awake.
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Hengen, K., Torrado Pacheco, A., McGregor, J., Van Hooser, S., & Turrigiano, G. (2016) Neuronal Firing Rate Homeostasis Is Inhibited by Sleep and Promoted by Wake. Cell. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2016.01.046
by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room
In a word, yes. But perhaps not in the way you might think. Researchers were interested in seeing if the race of parties involved in battered spouse syndrome case defenses would make a difference in how jurors made decisions about verdicts. The researchers say their study is a contribution to the “scarce literature on the […]
Playing the race card: When it works and why it doesn’t
Is it possible that jurors will be misled by emotional testimony and gruesome photos? ........ Read more »
Mossiere, A., Maeder, E., & Pica, E. (2016) Racial Composition of Couples in Battered Spouse Syndrome Cases: A Look at Juror Perceptions and Decisions. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. DOI: 10.1177/0886260516632355
According to UltraRunning Magazine, an ultra run is anything longer than a standard marathon of 26 miles, but it’s not unusual for people to participate in gruelling runs that take place in punishing environments over days or even weeks. For people who struggle to run to catch a bus, the idea of deliberately putting yourself through this kind of physical punishment, for fun, seems little short of crazy. Yet this is a sport that’s on the increase – the number of official events has doubled ........ Read more »
Johnson, U., Kenttä, G., Ivarsson, A., Alvmyren, I., & Karlsson, M. (2015) An ultra-runner's experience of physical and emotional challenges during a 10-week continental run. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 14(1), 72-84. DOI: 10.1080/1612197X.2015.1035736
Different humeral elevation exercises result in different levels of scapulothoracic muscle activity. Knowledge of muscle activity levels for different exercises could help clinicians optimize rehabilitation protocols.... Read more »
Castelein B, Cagnie B, Parlevliet T, & Cools A. (2016) Superficial and Deep Scapulothoracic Muscle Electromyographic Activity During Elevation Exercises in the Scapular Plane. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 46(3), 184-93. PMID: 26868896
"People with autism 'die younger', warns charity" went the very stark BBC headline recently.Today I'd like to bring your attention to the recent report published by Autistica titled: 'Personal tragedies, public crisis' making the headlines, highlighting how people with autism face a considerably enhanced risk of early mortality compared with the general population  (see here for my take).Although making quite sober reading and rightly using some very emotive language, I think m........ Read more »
A new study is the first to report that the relationship between nightmares and suicidal behaviors is partially mediated by a multi-step pathway via defeat, entrapment, and hopelessness. Results show that suicidal thoughts, plans or attempts were present in 62 percent of participants who experienced nightmares and only 20 percent of those without nightmares.
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Littlewood, D., Gooding, P., Panagioti, M., & Kyle, S. (2016) Nightmares and Suicide in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: The Mediating Role of Defeat, Entrapment, and Hopelessness. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 12(03), 393-399. DOI: 10.5664/jcsm.5592
Many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. What do these general relations predict for European cities?... Read more »
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, is a substantial head injury that results in damage to the brain. This damage can cause a wide spectrum of possible health outcomes. Factors that are likely to influence neuropsychiatric outcome in TBI can be classified as pre-injury, injury and post-injury factors. Injury-related factors include a) the type of physical injury
The post Neuropsychiatric Outcomes Of Traumatic Brain Injury appeared first on UBRF: UberBrain R........ Read more »
Arciniegas DB, Anderson CA, Topkoff J, & McAllister TW. (2005) Mild traumatic brain injury: a neuropsychiatric approach to diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment, 1(4), 311-27. PMID: 18568112
Bigler ED. (2001) Distinguished Neuropsychologist Award Lecture 1999. The lesion(s) in traumatic brain injury: implications for clinical neuropsychology. Archives of clinical neuropsychology : the official journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists, 16(2), 95-131. PMID: 14590180
Bigler ED. (2007) Anterior and middle cranial fossa in traumatic brain injury: relevant neuroanatomy and neuropathology in the study of neuropsychological outcome. Neuropsychology, 21(5), 515-31. PMID: 17784800
Our bodily sense of self contributes to our personal feelings of awareness as a conscious being. How we see our bodies and move through space and feel touched by loved ones are integral parts of our identity. What happens when this sense of self breaks down? One form of dissolution is Depersonalization Disorder (DPD).1 Individuals with DPD feel estranged or disconnected from themselves, as if their bodies belong to someone else, and “they” are merely a detached observer. Or the self feel........ Read more »
Adler, J., Schabinger, N., Michal, M., Beutel, M., & Gillmeister, H. (2016) Is that me in the mirror? Depersonalisation modulates tactile mirroring mechanisms. Neuropsychologia. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.03.009
Lenggenhager, B., Pazzaglia, M., Scivoletto, G., Molinari, M., & Aglioti, S. (2012) The Sense of the Body in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury. PLoS ONE, 7(11). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050757
THE AMYGDALA SHOWN ALONG WITH OTHER LIMBIC SYSTEM STRUCTURES.
The amygdala---or, more appropriately, amygdalae, as there is one in each cerebral hemisphere---was not recognized as a distinct brain region until the 1800s, and it wasn't until the middle of the twentieth century that it began to be considered an especially significant area in mediating emotional responses. Specifics about the role of the amygdala in emotion remained somewhat unclear, however, ........ Read more »
LeDoux, Joseph. (2007) The Amygdala. Current Biology. info:/
They say that once you’ve learned to ride a bicycle, you never forget how to do it. Unfortunately for students who hope this applies to studying, they might not like new research suggesting that while learning, the brain is actively trying to forget. While this may at first blush seem like a bad thing, it actually may be useful for those suffering from PTSD.
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Madroñal, N., Delgado-García, J., Fernández-Guizán, A., Chatterjee, J., Köhn, M., Mattucci, C., Jain, A., Tsetsenis, T., Illarionova, A., Grinevich, V.... (2016) Rapid erasure of hippocampal memory following inhibition of dentate gyrus granule cells. Nature Communications, 10923. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms10923
Colin Camerer and colleagues recently published a Science article on the replicability of behavioural economics. ‘It appears that there is some difference in replication success’ between psychology and economics, they write, given their reproducibility rate of 61% and psychology’s of 36%. I took a closer look at the data to find out whether there really […]... Read more »
Camerer, C., Dreber, A., Forsell, E., Ho, T., Huber, J., Johannesson, M., Kirchler, M., Almenberg, J., Altmejd, A., Chan, T.... (2016) Evaluating replicability of laboratory experiments in economics. Science. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf0918
Open Science Collaboration. (2015) Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science. Science, 349(6251). DOI: 10.1126/science.aac4716
The findings reported by Yu-Wen Lin and colleagues  (open-access available here) examining the "characteristics and suicide methods of patients with suicide-related behaviors" and "influential factors for repeated suicide-related behaviors and death by suicide" might not make for 'great dinner-party conversation' but are nevertheless important.Drawing on data from one of the world's premier 'big data' research sources - the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) - ........ Read more »
Lin YW, Huang HC, Lin MF, Shyu ML, Tsai PL, & Chang HJ. (2016) Influential Factors for and Outcomes of Hospitalized Patients with Suicide-Related Behaviors: A National Record Study in Taiwan from 1997-2010. PloS one, 11(2). PMID: 26900930
Hong Kong and Japanese teachers appear to be more attentive to the processing demands of relational comparisons than are U.S teachers. Their teaching reflects the use of strategies to reduce processing demands on their students. Such differences in adherence to sound cognitive principles may have a real impact on the likelihood that students benefit from analogies as instructional tools.... Read more »
Richland, L., Zur, O., & Holyoak, K. (2007) MATHEMATICS: Cognitive Supports for Analogies in the Mathematics Classroom. Science, 316(5828), 1128-1129. DOI: 10.1126/science.1142103
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