Post List

  • August 22, 2011
  • 08:46 AM

Brain Response to Food in Anorexia vs Bulimia

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

The eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa share some common features.  Excessive fear of being fat is a core feature of both disorders.  However, key clinical differences between the disorders exist.Most patients with bulimia nervosa are in the normal to overweight category.  Anorexia nervosa by definition requires being of low weight, often to such extreme levels to pose a danger of death due to the effects of starvation.Now we have a study using fMRI that examine........ Read more »

Brooks, S., O′Daly, O., Uher, R., Friederich, H., Giampietro, V., Brammer, M., Williams, S., Schiöth, H., Treasure, J., & Campbell, I. (2011) Differential Neural Responses to Food Images in Women with Bulimia versus Anorexia Nervosa. PLoS ONE, 6(7). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022259  

  • August 22, 2011
  • 07:02 AM

Power, Penises and the Role of the Presiding Juror

by Doug Keene in The Jury Room

So it happened again. We do a lot of pre-trial research and observe a lot of both mock jurors and the dynamics related to presiding jurors.  This past weekend, we re-experienced the frustration of how bad it can be when you get a controlling and dominant presiding juror.  In a real jury, a dominant presiding [...]

Related posts:Deliberations & the role of the presiding juror
Educating Jurors: How NOT to start deliberations
Mistrials due to lawyers making faces, internet misconduct &........ Read more »

Koenig AM, Eagly AH, Mitchell AA, & Ristikari T. (2011) Are leader stereotypes masculine? A meta-analysis of three research paradigms. Psychological Bulletin, 137(4), 616-42. PMID: 21639606  

  • August 22, 2011
  • 07:00 AM

August 22, 2011

by Erin Campbell in HighMag Blog

There are some images that just stick with you. They might be beautiful, fascinating, or terrifying. For example, I’ll never forget when my former labmates told me to Google pictures of a teratoma. Seriously, don’t do it…wait, you just did, didn’t you? Unless you are a C. elegans worm, you won’t find today’s images terrifying…instead, you are likely to be utterly fascinated.

C. elegans are small 1mm-long roundworms that are used extensively in biology research. When the head ........ Read more »

Maguire, S., Clark, C., Nunnari, J., Pirri, J., & Alkema, M. (2011) The C. elegans Touch Response Facilitates Escape from Predacious Fungi. Current Biology, 21(15), 1326-1330. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2011.06.063  

  • August 22, 2011
  • 06:44 AM

The woman misdiagnosed with Alzheimer's, and how we can all be affected by the suggestion that we have psychological problems

by BPS Research Digest in BPS Research Digest

Psychologists in the Netherlands have documented the case of a 58-year-old woman who was misdiagnosed with Alzheimer's Disease. The would-be patient consulted a neurologist at a stressful time in her life, in the knowledge that her mother had had the illness. A brain scan indicated reduced activity at the front of her brain ("hypofrontality"), and the neurologist also estimated her performance on a test of cognitive impairment as poor (though no formal test was conducted). On this basis he diagn........ Read more »

  • August 21, 2011
  • 09:34 PM

Is 10k steps a day Really a Magic Health Bullet

by mc in begin to dig (b2d)

We hear a lot about the value of getting ten thousand steps a day. Pedometers are being sold increasingly as a way to track progress towards that magic 10k. But is there any basis in this assertion of ten thousand steps that something wonderful happens at 10k that doesn't anywhere before (or after)? And are all such steps in that 10k created equal? Are all or any of these steps the same as NEPAs or non-exercise physical activity (overview here at the movement carried out over........ Read more »

Tudor-Locke C, Craig CL, Aoyagi Y, Bell RC, Croteau KA, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Ewald B, Gardner AW, Hatano Y, Lutes LD.... (2011) How many steps/day are enough? For older adults and special populations. The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity, 8(1), 80. PMID: 21798044  

Tudor-Locke C, Craig CL, Beets MW, Belton S, Cardon GM, Duncan S, Hatano Y, Lubans DR, Olds TS, Raustorp A.... (2011) How Many Steps/day are Enough? For Children and Adolescents. The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity, 8(1), 78. PMID: 21798014  

  • August 21, 2011
  • 09:26 PM

Single-atom speed-up

by Vivek Venkataraman in sciencebyte

Individual atoms speed up chemical reactions... Read more »

Qiao, B., Wang, A., Yang, X., Allard, L., Jiang, Z., Cui, Y., Liu, J., Li, J., & Zhang, T. (2011) Single-atom catalysis of CO oxidation using Pt1/FeOx. Nature Chemistry, 3(8), 634-641. DOI: 10.1038/nchem.1095  

  • August 21, 2011
  • 03:21 PM

PubMed’s Higher Sensitivity than OVID MEDLINE… & other Published Clichés.

by Laika in Laika's Medliblog

Is it just me, or are biomedical papers about searching for a systematic review often of low quality or just too damn obvious? I’m seldom excited about papers dealing with optimal search strategies or peculiarities of PubMed, even though it is my specialty. It is my impression, that many of the lower quality and/or less relevant papers are [...]... Read more »

Leclercq E, Kramer B, & Schats W. (2011) Limitations of the MEDLINE database in constructing meta-analyses. Annals of internal medicine, 154(5), 371. PMID: 21357916  

  • August 21, 2011
  • 02:57 PM

Mirrors are Literally Windows to Another World

by Andrew Wilson in Notes from Two Scientific Psychologists

The other day, psychologist Tom Hartley tweeted "Your reflection is always half the size of the real thing - no matter how far from mirror. Hard to believe but true." and linked to this post in which someone demonstrates this effect. I had never quite thought about it, but realised it was of course always true: the mirror is at half the distance specified in the reflection. Then I read this post linked from the original, which reviewed an article by Lawson et al (2007) describing how people mis........ Read more »

Gibson, J. (1950) The Perception of Visual Surfaces. The American Journal of Psychology, 63(3), 367. DOI: 10.2307/1418003  

Lawson, R., Bertamini, M., & Liu, D. (2007) Overestimation of the projected size of objects on the surface of mirrors and windows. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 33(5), 1027-1044. DOI: 10.1037/0096-1523.33.5.1027  

  • August 21, 2011
  • 02:16 PM

Hydrogen as a fuel? No this is not about cars, this is about animals and their symbionts in the deep sea

by Jonathan Eisen in The Tree of Life

As many of you know, I generally avoid writing about non open access publications here.  But occasionally I make exceptions.  And I am making one today.  There is a wicked cool paper out in Nature today.  Entitled "Hydrogen is an energy source for hydrothermal vent symbioses" comes from Nicole Dubilier, Jillian Petersen and others.  It is about my favorite ecosystem(s) on the planet - hydrothermal vents.  I became interested in these vents in 1989 when I met Colleen Cavan........ Read more »

Petersen JM, Zielinski FU, Pape T, Seifert R, Moraru C, Amann R, Hourdez S, Girguis PR, Wankel SD, Barbe V.... (2011) Hydrogen is an energy source for hydrothermal vent symbioses. Nature, 476(7359), 176-80. PMID: 21833083  

  • August 21, 2011
  • 02:14 PM

What is in a name? A case study of genomic epidemiology w/ Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis

by Jonathan Eisen in The Tree of Life

There is a very interesting new paper that just came online in the Archives of Pathology: Rapidly Progressive, Fatal, Inhalation Anthrax-Like Infection in a Human: Case Report, Pathogen Genome Sequencing, Pathology, and Coordinated Response

I was alerted to the paper by Eileen Choffnes of the National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine Forum on Microbial Threats (which I am a member of).  In the paper, James Musser, Angela Wright and colleagues, the authors discuss the use of genome........ Read more »

  • August 21, 2011
  • 02:09 PM

Get to know Jack & the story behind the paper by @gilbertjacka "Defining seasonal marine microbial community dynamics"

by Jonathan Eisen in The Tree of Life

A few days ago I became aware of the publication of a cool new paper: "Defining seasonal marine microbial community dynamics" by Jack A. Gilbert, Joshua A Steele, J Gregory Caporaso, Lars Steinbrück, Jens Reeder, Ben Temperton, Susan Huse, Alice C McHardy, Rob Knight, Ian Joint, Paul Somerfield, Jed A Fuhrman and Dawn Field.  The paper was published in the ISME Journal and is freely available using the ISME Open option.

If you want to know more about Jack (in case you don't k........ Read more »

Gilbert JA, Steele JA, Caporaso JG, Steinbrück L, Reeder J, Temperton B, Huse S, McHardy AC, Knight R, Joint I.... (2011) Defining seasonal marine microbial community dynamics. The ISME journal. PMID: 21850055  

  • August 21, 2011
  • 01:19 PM

Reading a CAM (Ayurveda) paper

by Debajyoti Datta in Medicine...Life

A critical look at a CAM paper... Read more »

  • August 21, 2011
  • 12:43 PM

Neuro self-help?

by davejhayes in neurosphere

Does knowledge of brain function alter brain function? The development of psychology is based on this premise, either implicitly or explicitly. Where psychologists focus on behaviour as the main measure of interest, linking behaviour directly to brain function has been one of the popular mysteries and goals of neuroscience throughout the last few decades. ... Read more »

  • August 21, 2011
  • 12:26 PM

Dopamine: prediction-error vs. incentive salience

by sandygautam in The Mouse Trap

The exact role that dopamine plays in learning remains controversial; some think it acts as a prediction error signal, while Berrdige et al believe that dopamine codes for incentive salience.
A recent paper throws some light on the issue. It uses a  simple Pavlovian conditioning paradigm. To recap, US and CS are paired and after some [...]Rating: 0.0/10 (0 votes cast)... Read more »

Flagel, S., Clark, J., Robinson, T., Mayo, L., Czuj, A., Willuhn, I., Akers, C., Clinton, S., Phillips, P., & Akil, H. (2010) A selective role for dopamine in stimulus–reward learning. Nature, 469(7328), 53-57. DOI: 10.1038/nature09588  

  • August 21, 2011
  • 08:32 AM

Is Sleep Brain Defragmentation?

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic

After a period of heavy use, hard disks tend to get 'fragmented'. Data gets written all over random parts of the disk, and it gets inefficient to keep track of it all.

That's why you need to run a defragmentation program occasionally. Ideally, you do this overnight, while you're asleep, so it doesn't stop you from using the computer.

A new paper from some Stanford neuroscientists argues that the function of sleep is to reorganize neural connections - a bit like a disk defrag for the brain - a........ Read more »

Wang G, Grone B, Colas D, Appelbaum L, & Mourrain P. (2011) Synaptic plasticity in sleep: learning, homeostasis and disease. Trends in neurosciences. PMID: 21840068  

  • August 21, 2011
  • 07:37 AM

eFfing Fossil Friday (another late edition)

by zacharoo in Lawn Chair Anthropology

I'm sitting at a cafe in Tbilisi, departing at 4:00 am tomorrow for America. Readers will notice that I've been MIA while working with the second annual Dmanisi Paleoanthropology Field School. I hate to say it but I'm glad I was too busy to blog all the goings-on (though sorry if it disappointed anyone). All in all it was another great year, and we found some great fossils (about which I don't think I have permission to say anything at all). Here's this year's class with their certification of b........ Read more »

Green, R., Krause, J., Briggs, A., Maricic, T., Stenzel, U., Kircher, M., Patterson, N., Li, H., Zhai, W., Fritz, M.... (2010) A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome. Science, 328(5979), 710-722. DOI: 10.1126/science.1188021  

Reich D, Green RE, Kircher M, Krause J, Patterson N, Durand EY, Viola B, Briggs AW, Stenzel U, Johnson PL.... (2010) Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia. Nature, 468(7327), 1053-60. PMID: 21179161  

  • August 21, 2011
  • 07:00 AM

When Anthrax first came to North America

by Michelle Ziegler in Contagions

When pathogens arrived in the Americas is important for understanding the demographic history and biogeography of humans, animals and microbes of the Western Hemisphere. There have been two major periods of human migration to this hemisphere: across the Bering Land Bridge from Asia during the last Ice Age and the arrival of Christopher Columbus in [...]... Read more »

Kenefic LJ, Pearson T, Okinaka RT, Schupp JM, Wagner DM, Hoffmaster AR, Trim CB, Chung WK, Beaudry JA, Jiang L.... (2009) Pre-Columbian origins for North American anthrax. PloS one, 4(3). PMID: 19283072  

  • August 20, 2011
  • 10:19 PM

Emotion Regulation: Emotional Intelligence for Personal Growth

by David Johnson, MSW, LICSW in Dare To Dream

This is the eighth in a series of articles about emotional intelligence for personal growth.

Emotions give our experiences a sort of color, a dimension of experience very different from other senses, different from even thoughts. Yet many of us find our emotions at times more of an enemy than a friend. Our emotions serve a purpose, one that is not entirely obvious.

Most current theories of emotion share the assumption that emotions serve an adaptive function in human life. Emotions play an im........ Read more »

  • August 20, 2011
  • 05:40 PM

Human pathogen can cause coral disease

by Uncharted Atolls in Uncharted Atolls

Despite the resilience of corals as a taxonomic group through geologic time, warming oceans, shifting seawater chemistry, overfishing, pollution, and disease currently threaten these habitat-building invertebrates with many coral reef ecosystems in a state of decline.  Researchers have identified a bacterium, Serratia marcescens as the cause … Continue reading →... Read more »

  • August 20, 2011
  • 05:37 PM

If religion makes you happy, why are people turning away from it?

by Tom Rees in Epiphenom

Every now and then a study comes along that cuts with laser-like precision into one or two of the murky questions that haunt the sociology of religion. Just such a study has recently been done by Ed Diener, at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, and colleagues (earlier this year Diener published another great study on happiness and inequality in the USA).

What Diener et al wanted to know is simply this: why, if religion is supposed to make you happy, are people in the West leaving........ Read more »

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