Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common and chronic gastrointestinal disorder. Symptoms include abdominal pain and cramping accompanied by diarrhea and/or constipation. Estimated to effect 10 to 15% of the population, current drug treatment modalities are fail to relieve symptoms in many patients. There is considerable interest in novel drugs that might more effectively control symptoms while producing limited side effects. A recent review of treatments for irritable b........ Read more »
Chang JY, & Talley NJ. (2010) Current and emerging therapies in irritable bowel syndrome: from pathophysiology to treatment. Trends in pharmacological sciences, 31(7), 326-34. PMID: 20554042
This week I am attending the 2010 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting in Boston — one of the key meetings in materials science. One of the sessions is on bulk metallic glasses and their applications, which this year is a little special. It is organised in honour of the 50 year anniversary of the first demonstration [...]... Read more »
KLEMENT, W., WILLENS, R., & DUWEZ, P. (1960) Non-crystalline Structure in Solidified Gold–Silicon Alloys. Nature, 187(4740), 869-870. DOI: 10.1038/187869b0
In natural communities, each species is embedded in a web of interactions with other species—predators, prey, competitors, mutualists, and parasites. The effects of all these other species combine in complex, unpredictable ways. I recently discussed a study of protozoans living inside pitcher plants that found predators and competitors can cancel out each others' evolutionary effects. Now another study finds that parasites and predators can interact to make desert-living gerbils adopt less eff........ Read more »
Raveh, A., Kotler, B., Abramsky, Z., & Krasnov, B. (2010) Driven to distraction: detecting the hidden costs of flea parasitism through foraging behaviour in gerbils. Ecology Letters. DOI: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01549.x
One of the hot topics in cancer this year has definitely been the impressive clinical trial results from crizotinib (Pfizer) in ALK rearrangements seen in a small proportion of people with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We’ve covered the data … Continue reading →... Read more »
Kwak, E., Bang, Y., Camidge, D., Shaw, A., Solomon, B., Maki, R., Ou, S., Dezube, B., Jänne, P., Costa, D.... (2010) Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Inhibition in Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 363(18), 1693-1703. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1006448
Camidge, D., Kono, S., Flacco, A., Tan, A., Doebele, R., Zhou, Q., Crino, L., Franklin, W., & Varella-Garcia, M. (2010) Optimizing the Detection of Lung Cancer Patients Harboring Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) Gene Rearrangements Potentially Suitable for ALK Inhibitor Treatment. Clinical Cancer Research, 16(22), 5581-5590. DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-0851
One of the most important risk factors for adult obesity is excess weight in children and youth.
But exactly how strong is this relationship?
This question was recently addressed by Natalie The and colleagues from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, in a paper published this month in JAMA.
In order to determine the incidence and [...]... Read more »
The NS, Suchindran C, North KE, Popkin BM, & Gordon-Larsen P. (2010) Association of adolescent obesity with risk of severe obesity in adulthood. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association, 304(18), 2042-7. PMID: 21063014
Worldwide HIV/AIDs Epidemic Statistics (We are in the process of selling one home and buying another, while at work I just finished organizing a course on biosecurity for an international group. In the upcoming week I’m traveling to a conference in Washington. To say nothing of the Thanksgiving holiday. All this means short and scarce [...]... Read more »
Fryer, H., Frater, J., Duda, A., Roberts, M., , ., Phillips, R., & McLean, A. (2010) Modelling the Evolution and Spread of HIV Immune Escape Mutants. PLoS Pathogens, 6(11). DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001196
When two populations of a species evolve in different directions — perhaps because they live on separate islands, with different food sources or different dangers — at some point individuals from the two populations become unwilling to mate with each other. This can increase the rate at which the two populations diverge, and thus the [...]... Read more »
Sharon G, Segal D, Ringo JM, Hefetz A, Zilber-Rosenberg I, & Rosenberg E. (2010) From the Cover: Commensal bacteria play a role in mating preference of Drosophila melanogaster. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(46), 20051-6. PMID: 21041648
Quite a while ago I blogged about Learned Helplessness and I followed it up with an unsettling video in which at teacher induced learned helplessness in half a class by making them attempt impossible anagrams. So I was interested to find out about another bit of research which used impossible anagrams to get students into [...]... Read more »
Webb TL, Sheeran P, Totterdell P, Miles E, Mansell W, & Baker S. (2010) Using implementation intentions to overcome the effect of mood on risky behaviour. The British journal of social psychology / the British Psychological Society. PMID: 21050527
An interesting piece of ecological detective work from the shores of New England, which came to my attention via this blog post and this op-ed in the Cape Cod Times. Salt marshes on Cape Cod have been suffering local die-back … Continue reading →... Read more »
HOLDREDGE, C., BERTNESS, M., & ALTIERI, A. (2009) Role of Crab Herbivory in Die-Off of New England Salt Marshes. Conservation Biology, 23(3), 672-679. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.01137.x
Rapid tranquillisation is sometimes used with disturbed violent patients in adult in-psychiatric settings and emergency departments. It’s only a small part of the algorithm for the short term management of these patients. Other aspects are prediction, prevention, other interventions than medication and a post incident review.
There’s a guideline from the UK’s National Institute for Health [...]
Related posts:Rapid tranquilisation in emergency psychiatrie
Technology Review: B........ Read more »
Huf, G., Coutinho, E., Adams, C., & , . (2007) Rapid tranquillisation in psychiatric emergency settings in Brazil: pragmatic randomised controlled trial of intramuscular haloperidol versus intramuscular haloperidol plus promethazine. BMJ, 335(7625), 869-869. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.39339.448819.AE
Raveendran, N., Tharyan, P., Alexander, J., Adams, C., & , . (2007) Rapid tranquillisation in psychiatric emergency settings in India: pragmatic randomised controlled trial of intramuscular olanzapine versus intramuscular haloperidol plus promethazine. BMJ, 335(7625), 865-865. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.39341.608519.BE
Alexander, J. (2004) Rapid tranquillisation of violent or agitated patients in a psychiatric emergency setting: Pragmatic randomised trial of intramuscular lorazepam v. haloperidol plus promethazine. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 185(1), 63-69. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.185.1.63
A study that shows that values affirmation can help female students do better in a calculus based Physics course.... Read more »
Miyake A, Kost-Smith LE, Finkelstein ND, Pollock SJ, Cohen GL, & Ito TA. (2010) Reducing the gender achievement gap in college science: a classroom study of values affirmation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6008), 1234-7. PMID: 21109670
How the iPhone became divine: new media, religion and the intertextual circulation of meaning From New Media Society The labeling of the iPhone as the ‘Jesus phone’ illustrates how new media objects can possess multiple layers of meaning, which can shape how they are perceived by the public. This study explores the relationship between religious [...]... Read more »
Campbell, H., & La Pastina, A. (2010) How the iPhone became divine: new media, religion and the intertextual circulation of meaning. New Media , 12(7), 1191-1207. DOI: 10.1177/1461444810362204
The most distant object in the known universe is a highly luminous , a single explosion discovered near maximum light, at a of 8.2, a time when the universe was only 630 million years old, less than 5 percent of its current age. The most distant known galaxy lies at a redshift of 6.96, the light we see now left the galaxy just 750 million years after the . However, both these records have now been broken by a galaxy discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope which has a redshift of 8.56 and an es........ Read more »
Lehnert, M., Nesvadba, N., Cuby, J., Swinbank, A., Morris, S., Clément, B., Evans, C., Bremer, M., & Basa, S. (2010) Spectroscopic confirmation of a galaxy at redshift z . Nature, 467(7318), 940-942. DOI: 10.1038/nature09462
M. de Martel proposes a means of extending life, and youth, indefinitely. It involves preventing the igneous particles from abandoning the blood.... Read more »
de Martel, M. (1670) An Extract of a Letter Written by Monsieur de Martel of Montauban to the Publisher, Concerning a Way for the Prolongation of Humane Life, together with Some Observations Made in the Southern Parts of France, English'd as Follows. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 5(57-68), 1179-1184. DOI: 10.1098/rstl.1670.0020
Small lumps of rock hit the Moon quite regularly, but in 2009 two artificial projectiles impacted on the lunar surface in an experiment designed to search for water in the permanent shadows of a crater near the lunar south pole. Hints of subsurface water on the Moon had already been found in 1999 when NASA's spacecraft detected signatures of concentrated hydrogen, the "H" in "H2O", near the lunar poles. The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite, or , was a low-cost mission launched tog........ Read more »
Colaprete, A., Schultz, P., Heldmann, J., Wooden, D., Shirley, M., Ennico, K., Hermalyn, B., Marshall, W., Ricco, A., Elphic, R.... (2010) Detection of Water in the LCROSS Ejecta Plume. Science, 330(6003), 463-468. DOI: 10.1126/science.1186986
Gladstone, G., Hurley, D., Retherford, K., Feldman, P., Pryor, W., Chaufray, J., Versteeg, M., Greathouse, T., Steffl, A., Throop, H.... (2010) LRO-LAMP Observations of the LCROSS Impact Plume. Science, 330(6003), 472-476. DOI: 10.1126/science.1186474
Hayne, P., Greenhagen, B., Foote, M., Siegler, M., Vasavada, A., & Paige, D. (2010) Diviner Lunar Radiometer Observations of the LCROSS Impact. Science, 330(6003), 477-479. DOI: 10.1126/science.1197135
Paige, D., Siegler, M., Zhang, J., Hayne, P., Foote, E., Bennett, K., Vasavada, A., Greenhagen, B., Schofield, J., McCleese, D.... (2010) Diviner Lunar Radiometer Observations of Cold Traps in the Moon's South Polar Region. Science, 330(6003), 479-482. DOI: 10.1126/science.1187726
Mitrofanov, I., Sanin, A., Boynton, W., Chin, G., Garvin, J., Golovin, D., Evans, L., Harshman, K., Kozyrev, A., Litvak, M.... (2010) Hydrogen Mapping of the Lunar South Pole Using the LRO Neutron Detector Experiment LEND. Science, 330(6003), 483-486. DOI: 10.1126/science.1185696
Astrophysics and Gravitation:
Lensing of Black Holes Can Determine the Metric Around Them?
Bin-Nun, A. (2010). Gravitational lensing of stars orbiting Sgr A* as a probe of the black hole metric in the Galactic center Physical Review D, 82 (6) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.82.064009
From the abstract:
We show that a possible astrophysical experiment, detection of lensed images of stars orbiting close to Sgr A*, can provide insight into the form of the metric around a black hole. We model Sgr A* as a bl........ Read more »
Bin-Nun, A. (2010) Gravitational lensing of stars orbiting Sgr A* as a probe of the black hole metric in the Galactic center. Physical Review D, 82(6). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.82.064009
Marinoni, C., & Buzzi, A. (2010) A geometric measure of dark energy with pairs of galaxies. Nature, 468(7323), 539-541. DOI: 10.1038/nature09577
Davoudiasl, H., Morrissey, D., Sigurdson, K., & Tulin, S. (2010) Unified Origin for Baryonic Visible Matter and Antibaryonic Dark Matter. Physical Review Letters, 105(21). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.211304
Lucchesi, D., & Peron, R. (2010) Accurate Measurement in the Field of the Earth of the General-Relativistic Precession of the LAGEOS II Pericenter and New Constraints on Non-Newtonian Gravity. Physical Review Letters, 105(23). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.231103
Eugenio Bianchi. (2010) Black Hole Entropy, Loop Gravity, and Polymer Physics. arXiv. arXiv: 1011.5628v1
Looking up at the sky on any clear, dark, night, you can’t help but get a deep and often meaningful impression of the infinite voids of space. But in reality this is merely an illusion, as the universe is actually very, very crowded. I’m not talking about all the man-made space junk that we’ve launched [...]... Read more »
Chen, A., Piano, G., Tavani, M., Trois, A., Dubner, G., Giacani, E., Argan, A., Barbiellini, G., Bulgarelli, A., Caraveo, P.... (2010) Study of the gamma-ray source 1AGL J2022 4032 in the Cygnus region . Astronomy and Astrophysics. DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201015279
A true appreciation of biodiversity comes with the realization that no animal is an island. The complex meshwork of interactions between organisms is something that we, as biologists and naturalists, may never fully comprehend. Both direct and indirect interactions can affect ecosystem processes, to varying extents and at several scales. Interactions can involve both biotic [...]... Read more »
Greenwood, M., McIntosh, A., & Harding, J. (2010) Disturbance across an ecosystem boundary drives cannibalism propensity in a riparian consumer. Behavioral Ecology, 21(6), 1227-1235. DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arq140
Most of the detergents that are in use today were available 5 or 10 years ago. Maybe the purity has increased over time, but the list of detergents extracted from successfully crystallized membrane proteins really hasn't seen any substantial additions in the past few years. In the previous blog "Applying the 80/20 rule to membrane protein crystallization pre-screening" I showed a list of detergents and referenced statistics that show that with just 8 detergents (dodecyl maltoside, decyl maltosid........ Read more »
Chae, P., Rasmussen, S., Rana, R., Gotfryd, K., Chandra, R., Goren, M., Kruse, A., Nurva, S., Loland, C., Pierre, Y.... (2010) Maltose–neopentyl glycol (MNG) amphiphiles for solubilization, stabilization and crystallization of membrane proteins. Nature Methods, 7(12), 1003-1008. DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.1526
Streptococcus pyogenes (I'll call it strep for short) is one of many pathogenic bacteria which are known to colonise the respiratory tract. as a result it causes the disease known as strep throat, and another known as scarlet fever. If you are lucky, it gets confined to the respiratory tract. However, in some cases Strep can spread to other organs, where it can cause a disease known as necrotizing fasciitis.
How and why it suddenly causes this disease is not known, although there is some ........ Read more »
Kurupati, P., Turner, C., Tziona, I., Lawrenson, R., Alam, F., Nohadani, M., Stamp, G., Zinkernagel, A., Nizet, V., Edwards, R.... (2010) Chemokine-cleaving Streptococcus pyogenes protease SpyCEP is necessary and sufficient for bacterial dissemination within soft tissues and the respiratory tract. Molecular Microbiology, 76(6), 1387-1397. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07065.x
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