Male hypogonadism with low testosterone levels can negatively affect muscle mass and has been associated with the increased accumulation of visceral fat. Thus, in clinical practice it may be important to assess older men presenting with weight gain for testosterone deficiency.
The latest issue of the New England Journal of Medicine features two articles relevant to [...]... Read more »
Wu FC, Tajar A, Beynon JM, Pye SR, Silman AJ, Finn JD, O'Neill TW, Bartfai G, Casanueva FF, Forti G.... (2010) Identification of Late-Onset Hypogonadism in Middle-Aged and Elderly Men. The New England journal of medicine. PMID: 20554979
Basaria S, Coviello AD, Travison TG, Storer TW, Farwell WR, Jette AM, Eder R, Tennstedt S, Ulloor J, Zhang A.... (2010) Adverse Events Associated with Testosterone Administration. The New England journal of medicine. PMID: 20592293
Throughout much of our history language was transitory, existing only briefly within its speech community. The invention of writing systems heralded a way of recording some of its recent history, but for the most part linguists lack the stone tools archaeologists use to explore the early history of ancient technological industries. The question of how [...]... Read more »
African rift lake cichlids are among the most famous subjects for the study of evolution. The rift lakes formed recently in geological time, but the cichlids that got in have radiated into a dazzling array of species in short order.
But there are cichlids and other similar recent geological events in the Americas, too, just as interesting!
This research by Elmer and colleagues takes advantage of a lake made by volcanic activity, in Nicaragua. The lake appears to have been formed about 1,800 ye........ Read more »
Elmer, K., Lehtonen, T., Kautt, A., Harrod, C., & Meyer, A. (2010) Rapid sympatric ecological differentiation of crater lake cichlid fishes within historic times. BMC Biology, 8(1), 60. DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-8-60
One article I did take the time to read, though, is Race, Sex and the Regulation of Urine Osmolality-Observations Made During Water Deprivation by Hancock et al. Hancock and colleagues got an almost equal mix of white and black men and women to agree to 24 hours of water deprivation, during which time they measured urine and plasma osmolality, vasopressin levels, urine volume, and a few other things. I read it, and it had me thinking some thinky thoughts, so I figured I’d write down my thi........ Read more »
Michael L. Hancock, II, Daniel Georges Bichet, George J. Eckert, Lise Bankir, Mary Anne Wagner, and J. Howard Pratt. (2010) Race, Sex and the Regulation of Urine Osmolality-Observations Made During Water Deprivation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. info:/
What's hot? What's not? What do you consider unappealing?A greater understanding of people different from ourselves makes for a more accepting and tolerant populace. Are attempts to deliberately evoke disgust by the sexual practices of "others" an important and worthy step towards achieving this goal? Or does it further stigmatize the minority "outgroup"? What if the "outgroup" is disgusted by the practices of the majority?Different strokes for different folksAnd so on and so on and scooby dooby........ Read more »
Zhang, M., Hu, S., Xu, L., Wang, Q., Xu, X., Wei, E., Yan, L., Hu, J., Wei, N., & Zhou, W. (2010) Neural circuits of disgust induced by sexual stimuli in homosexual and heterosexual men: An fMRI study. European Journal of Radiology. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2010.05.021
Each year, the Earth’s terrestrial plants take in enormous amounts of carbon dioxide through photosynthesis. But exactly how much has been in question, due to a lack of data. Now, scientists have come up with a more detailed picture that could help refine climate models.
Using new observations and models, a team calculated that terrestrial […] Read More »... Read more »
Beer, C. (2010) Terrestrial Gross Carbon Dioxide Uptake: Global Distribution and Covariation with Climate. Science. DOI: 10.1126/science.1184984
That’s pretty much the message of new study in Geophysical Research Letters. Large deposits of methane hydrates, i.e. methane ice, occur naturally in the seafloor sediments of the Arctic continental shelf between 300-600 meters. This is dominate reservoir for methane due to the large area and extremely low temperatures.
The continued and predicted warming of the oceans would cause methane . . . → Read More: Ocean Warming Melts Methane Hydrates Which Screws Us All... Read more »
Elliott, S., Reagan, M., Moridis, G., & Smith, P. (2010) Geochemistry of clathrate-derived methane in Arctic ocean waters. Geophysical Research Letters, 37(12). DOI: 10.1029/2010GL043369
Science reviews the emerging and "seductive allure" of behavioral epigenetics, forewarning us that environmental modulation of genetic machinery is not the primary answer (i.e treatment/cure) for every known human pathology. ... Read more »
Two studies published this week in the journal Neurology add strength to the association between depression and dementia. One study came from the classic Framingham Heart Study database and the second used the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Both studies used depression symptoms as a proxy for the diagnosis of depression. There are some problems with this approach, but is seen a one valid research strategy. I thought I would summarize the two studies with Framingham listed first and (........ Read more »
Dotson VM, Beydoun MA, & Zonderman AB. (2010) Recurrent depressive symptoms and the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Neurology, 75(1), 27-34. PMID: 20603482
According to research by Matthew Longo and other neuroscientists at the University College London, you might not be as fat as your brain thinks you are.... Read more »
Longo, M., & Haggard, P. (2010) An implicit body representation underlying human position sense. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(26), 11727-11732. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1003483107
Liechty, J. (2010) Body Image Distortion and Three Types of Weight Loss Behaviors Among Nonoverweight Girls in the United States. Journal of Adolescent Health. DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2010.01.004
There aren’t too many tabloid stories that have implications for science and medical ethics. But in January 2009, the sensational saga of Nadya Suleman, the mother of octuplets crudely dubbed Octomom, simultaneously lit up the TMZs and National Enquirers of the world and posed tough questions to the field of assisted reproduction. Methods such as [...]... Read more »
Lawrence RE, Rasinski KA, Yoon JD, & Curlin FA. (2010) Obstetrician-gynecologists' beliefs about assisted reproductive technologies. Obstetrics and gynecology, 116(1), 127-35. PMID: 20567178
Most research on religion is done in the US, a country which is something of an outlier among modernised nations because of the importance of religion in daily life. So, for example, the non-religious in the US tend to be 'disagreeable' (meaning that they are nonconformist and prefer to go their own way). But is this something general about the non-religious, or does it simply tell us something about what it takes to be openly non-religious in the USA?
So a recent analysis of the values of the ........ Read more »
Pepper, M., Jackson, T., & Uzzell, D. (2010) A Study of Multidimensional Religion Constructs and Values in the United Kingdom. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 49(1), 127-146. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-5906.2009.01496.x
The big bang produced only Hydrogen and Helium with trace amounts of Lithium. (For the most part.) This is a problem for star formation because stars need to be "cool" to form and typically you need heavier elements to help the star cool off. This is why:
Gravity pulls mass together. However, as matter gets pulled together it heats up and this heat causes the matter to want to expend again.
... Read more »
Kreckel, H., Bruhns, H., Cizek, M., Glover, S., Miller, K., Urbain, X., & Savin, D. (2010) Experimental Results for H2 Formation from H- and H and Implications for First Star Formation. Science, 329(5987), 69-71. DOI: 10.1126/science.1187191
In an earlier post, I explored the conflicts that can result from an attempt to compress time and space (e.g., jet lag). The question I left you with, Readers, was whether the physical and social ripples that result from navigating space-time compression can be minimized online? Recently, I suggested that the Internet may be a timeless state. But does this argument hold in virtual reality? Once
... Read more »
Are the names we use to describe objects really the result of random convention, or is there a more fundamental relation between how a word sounds and the properties of the object it describes?
To say it in Shakespear's words: "What is in a name?"... Read more »
My earlier discussion of Evans and Levinson's critique of universal grammar was vague on details. Today I wanted to look at one specific argument.
Evans and Levinson briefly touch on universal semantics (variously called "the language of thought" or "mentalese"). The basic idea is that language is a way of encoding our underlying thoughts. The basic structure of those thoughts is the same from person to person, regardless of what language they speak. Quoting Pinker, "knowing a........ Read more »
Evans, N., & Levinson, S. (2009) The myth of language universals: Language diversity and its importance for cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32(05), 429. DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X0999094X
The basic reality of agricultural activity is that it reduces biological diversity, and these reductions in diversity potentially impact ecosystem services. But do some agricultural practices impact these services less than others? In a recent paper in Nature by David Crowder and colleagues, the question of how organic versus conventional farming affects predator and herbivore pathogen diversity and how this cascades to pest suppression. They show through a meta-analysis, that organic farms tend........ Read more »
Crowder, D., Northfield, T., Strand, M., & Snyder, W. (2010) Organic agriculture promotes evenness and natural pest control. Nature, 466(7302), 109-112. DOI: 10.1038/nature09183
by Mary in OpenHelix
We’ve long been fans of the tools developed by the team responsible for MINT: Molecular INTeraction database. MINT is a curated resource full of experimentally verified protein-protein interactions, with some great visualization options. In addition to the main MINT interface, there are other aspects to the site that bring other types of visualization as well. We have done a tip on MINT in the past, but we wanted to re-visit this for our SciVee collection, and also mention a handy t........ Read more »
Ceol, A., Chatr Aryamontri, A., Licata, L., Peluso, D., Briganti, L., Perfetto, L., Castagnoli, L., & Cesareni, G. (2009) MINT, the molecular interaction database: 2009 update. Nucleic Acids Research, 38(Database). DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkp983
I watched the annual Nathan’s July Fourth Hot Dog Eating Contest this year, in which the champ Joey Chesnut consumed 54 hot dogs and buns (over 28,ooo kcal) in 10 minutes. Some observations: The majority of the eaters appeared to be thin … Continue reading →... Read more »
Readers may be well aware that the use of cannabis or “hashish” can induce the “munchies”, an acute craving for highly palatable foods.
Now Garron Dodd and colleagues from the University of Manchester, UK, have identified a new brain peptide called hemopressin that acts through cannabinoid receptors to reduce food intake in rats and mice. Their [...]... Read more »
Dodd GT, Mancini G, Lutz B, & Luckman SM. (2010) The peptide hemopressin acts through CB1 cannabinoid receptors to reduce food intake in rats and mice. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 30(21), 7369-76. PMID: 20505104
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