by Vincent Racaniello in virology blog
During the earliest stages of a virus infection, cytokines are produced when innate immune defenses are activated. The rapid release of cytokines at the site of infection initiates new responses with far-reaching consequences that include inflammation.
One of the earliest cytokines produced is tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), which is synthesized by activated monocytes and macrophages. [...]... Read more »
Thomas, P., Dash, P., Aldridge Jr., J., Ellebedy, A., Reynolds, C., Funk, A., Martin, W., Lamkanfi, M., Webby, R., & Boyd, K. (2009) The Intracellular Sensor NLRP3 Mediates Key Innate and Healing Responses to Influenza A Virus via the Regulation of Caspase-1. Immunity, 30(4), 566-575. DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2009.02.006
Allen, I., Scull, M., Moore, C., Holl, E., McElvania-TeKippe, E., Taxman, D., Guthrie, E., Pickles, R., & Ting, J. (2009) The NLRP3 Inflammasome Mediates In Vivo Innate Immunity to Influenza A Virus through Recognition of Viral RNA. Immunity, 30(4), 556-565. DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2009.02.005
I’ve published a few papers on neurons involved in escape responses in crustaceans. In my recent review on crustacean escape responses, I noted:Giant neurons and electrical synapses provide for short latency, but stereotyped responses. The non-giant circuit for repetitive tailflipping provides crayfish with flexibility and the potential for sustained escape.I recall giving a lecture some years ago about crayfish escape responses, I remember trying to emphasize the importance of the non-giant n........ Read more »
Catania, K. (2009) Tentacled snakes turn C-starts to their advantage and predict future prey behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0905183106
Some words of caution from Buchwald and Bolm this week in the Angewandte on the use of catalysts. They observe that in certain cross-coupling reactions the reaction yield very much depends on the quality of the metal catalyst. In several reactions with ferric chloride, the yields range from the very low (10%-30%) with pure material (commercial grade 99.99%) to high (70%-90%) with regular material (commercial 98%) which is odd.... Read more »
Buchwald, S., & Bolm, C. (2009) On the Role of Metal Contaminants in Catalyses with FeCl . Angewandte Chemie International Edition. DOI: 10.1002/anie.200902237
We discussed a prior publication in the Archives of General Psychiatry about the decline of antidepressants use after the FDA black box warning. In a more recent study published in the same journal this prior study was criticized because it had some serious limitations. The study used prevalent use instead of incidence use. This [...]... Read more »
Libby, A., Orton, H., & Valuck, R. (2009) Persisting Decline in Depression Treatment After FDA Warnings. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(6), 633-639. DOI: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.46
Cell biology is a bit off my usual interests, but the title of this paper was just irresistible: Turning a plant tissue into a living cell froth through isotropic growth. Leaving aside the isotropic growth for now, the idea of a “living cell froth” intrigued me, even when I found it the day before one [...]... Read more »
Corson, F., Hamant, O., Bohn, S., Traas, J., Boudaoud, A., & Couder, Y. (2009) From the Cover: Turning a plant tissue into a living cell froth through isotropic growth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(21), 8453-8458. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0812493106
Supply Chain Management needs a new way to pursue research, a new way that is focused on theory building based on learned borrowing from other disciplines. That is how academians can breathe new life into the study of supply chain management. So say Michael E. Smith and Lee Buddress in their 2005 article, Supply chain management: borrowing our way to a discipline. But what do they actually mean? And why does supply chain management need a wider horizon in the first place?... Read more »
Smith, M., & Buddress, L. (2005) Supply chain management: borrowing our way to a discipline. International Journal of Services and Operations Management, 1(4), 305. DOI: 10.1504/IJSOM.2005.007495
New parents can come up with a seemingly endless array of vexing questions about their infants, from the best brand of stroller to the ideal song to sing them to sleep. The questions begin well before the child is born: what type of clothing should you purchase? What kind of crib?
One question Greta and I dwelled on quite extensively when Jim was an infant was color. We were renting an apartment and couldn't paint the nursery, so we wondered about the color of the toys we bought and the blanket........ Read more »
ZEMACH, I., CHANG, S., & TELLER, D. (2007) Infant color vision: Prediction of infants’ spontaneous color preferences. Vision Research, 47(10), 1368-1381. DOI: 10.1016/j.visres.2006.09.024
An inquiry on supernatural belief and the influence via cultural factors such as family, peer groups, media influences, and the persuasive power of social institutions.... Read more »
Lindeman, M., & Aarnio, K. (2006) Paranormal beliefs: their dimensionality and correlates. European Journal of Personality, 20(7), 585-602. DOI: 10.1002/per.608
Submission and obedience are prominent themes in the major monotheisms. However, until now no-one has tested whether religion can actually make people more obedient.Vassilis Saroglou, a psychologist at Université catholique de Louvain, conducted a clever priming study. The gist of it was that the subjects were asked to write a short essay, which was then marked by another (imaginary) subject. The marker always gave a rather scathing review.Then the subject was asked to choose some questions for........ Read more »
Saroglou, V., Corneille, O., & Van Cappellen, P. (2009) “Speak, Lord, Your Servant Is Listening”: Religious Priming Activates Submissive Thoughts and Behaviors. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 19(3), 143-154. DOI: 10.1080/10508610902880063
A recent series of papers [1-3] have prompted me to write about the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis, since during the last years there has been a lot of controversy regarding the existence, function and clinical implications of cancer stem cells. This confusion stems (no pun intended) from the lack of clarity in the field nowadays, arising mainly from misconceptions regarding the origin and... Read more »
Jordan, C. (2009) Cancer Stem Cells: Controversial or Just Misunderstood?. Cell Stem Cell, 4(3), 203-205. DOI: 10.1016/j.stem.2009.02.003
Rosen, J., & Jordan, C. (2009) The Increasing Complexity of the Cancer Stem Cell Paradigm. Science, 324(5935), 1670-1673. DOI: 10.1126/science.1171837
Visvader, J., & Lindeman, G. (2008) Cancer stem cells in solid tumours: accumulating evidence and unresolved questions. Nature Reviews Cancer, 8(10), 755-768. DOI: 10.1038/nrc2499
A long while back, at the original wordpress incarnation of my usual blog, I wrote a piece on the reasons that chiropractic is unscientific nonsense. Because it was popular, I resurrected it. Well, a chiropractor has come to bravely defend his field and left me a comment.
A study in the May 2007 issue [...]... Read more »
SARNAT, R., WINTERSTEIN, J., & CAMBRON, J. (2007) Clinical Utilization and Cost Outcomes From an Integrative Medicine Independent Physician Association: An Additional 3-Year Update. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 30(4), 263-269. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2007.03.004
SARNAT, R., & WINTERSTEIN, J. (2004) Clinical and Cost Outcomes of an Integrative Medicine IPA. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 27(5), 336-347. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2004.04.007
Children and adolescents of depressed parents are four to six times more likely to develop depressive symptoms themselves than children of non-depressed parents. This translates to approximately 61% of children of parents with depression developing a psychiatric disorder during their life. Strikingly, more than one-quarter of children in America will experience at least one episode [...]... Read more »
Beardslee, W., Gladstone, T., Wright, E., & Cooper, A. (2003) A Family-Based Approach to the Prevention of Depressive Symptoms in Children at Risk: Evidence of Parental and Child Change. PEDIATRICS, 112(2). DOI: 10.1542/peds.112.2.e119
Clarke, G. (2001) A Randomized Trial of a Group Cognitive Intervention for Preventing Depression in Adolescent Offspring of Depressed Parents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58(12), 1127-1134. DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.58.12.1127
David-Ferdon, C., & Kaslow, N. (2008) Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression. Journal of Clinical Child , 37(1), 62-104. DOI: 10.1080/15374410701817865
Garber, J., Clarke, G., Weersing, V., Beardslee, W., Brent, D., Gladstone, T., DeBar, L., Lynch, F., D'Angelo, E., Hollon, S.... (2009) Prevention of Depression in At-Risk Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 301(21), 2215-2224. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2009.788
WEERSING, V. (2006) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Youth. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 15(4), 939-957. DOI: 10.1016/j.chc.2006.05.008
Although the paper addresses Tanzanian lions, this is a photograph of a Namibian lion Starting some years ago, we began to hear about revisions of the standard models of lion behavioral biology coming out of Craig Packer's research in the Serengeti. One of the most startling findings, first shown (if memory serves) as part of a dynamic optimization model and subsequently backed up with a lot of additional information, is the idea that lions do not benefit by living in a group with respect to h........ Read more »
Mosser, A., & Packer, C. (2009) Group territoriality and the benefits of sociality in the African lion, Panthera leo. Animal Behaviour. DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2009.04.024
“It has the most primitive form of nervous system of any bilateral animal,” intones the voiceover for the National Geographic video.The “it” being referred to is an acorn worm, a little known kind of invertebrate that is actually relatively closely related to the vertebrates. Vertebrates belong to the chordate phylum, and acorn worms are hemichordates – literally, “half chordates.” Hemichordates are interesting in studies of chordate evolution (and thus, in a roundabout way, hu........ Read more »
Nomaksteinsky, M., Röttinger, E., Dufour, H., Chettouh, Z., Lowe, C., Martindale, M., & Brunet, J. (2009) Centralization of the Deuterostome Nervous System Predates Chordates. Current Biology. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2009.05.063
Scientists at the University of California in San Diego (UCSD) Scripps Institution of Oceanography led by biological oceanographer David Checkley, have recently discovered that the high levels of carbon dioxide in the oceans are causing mutations in fish, specifically affecting the bones in a fish’s ear.... Read more »
Checkley, D., Dickson, A., Takahashi, M., Radich, J., Eisenkolb, N., & Asch, R. (2009) Elevated CO2 Enhances Otolith Growth in Young Fish. Science, 324(5935), 1683-1683. DOI: 10.1126/science.1169806
Brains are crazy places.So neuroscientists using fancy brain imaging (fMRI) devices have demonstrated that nicotine stimulates the brain's mesocorticolimbic system (a reward centre).Other research has demonstrated those same centres lighting up with food cravings.Old news, no?Sure, but new fMRI studies combining smoking cues with exercise may help to explain how exercise helps with weight loss.Now most people believe exercise's role in weight loss is purely mathematical - it burns calories. Whi........ Read more »
Janse Van Rensburg, K., Taylor, A., Hodgson, T., & Benattayallah, A. (2008) Acute exercise modulates cigarette cravings and brain activation in response to smoking-related images: an fMRI study. Psychopharmacology, 203(3), 589-598. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-008-1405-3
A foundation is offering to fund research into novel psychiatric medications, we read in the latest Nature Neuroscience:The Broad Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts has launched an initiative called ‘PsychHTS’ inviting scientists with ideas and data suggesting novel mechanisms contributing to psychiatric disease to apply for access to the Broad’s infrastructure and expertise for high throughput screening (HTS) of chemical compound libraries.HTS is a clever technique for discovering new........ Read more »
Using more machines in war may diminish a force's chance of success according to a new study authored by Jason Lyall of Princeton and Isaiah Wilson III of the US Military Academy.... Read more »
Lyall, J., & Wilson, I. (2009) Rage Against the Machines: Explaining Outcomes in Counterinsurgency Wars. International Organization, 63(01), 67. DOI: 10.1017/S0020818309090031
Those following our Spot the Mistake posts (here, and here) will notice someone has claimed we've gone "...on a chiropractic witch hunt". As it happens, I disagree. Those who haven't been following along, this post is an overview of the evidence for or against manipulative therapies (which includes chiropractic) in neck pain, as covered by this particular article from spine. It's framed as a response to a specific commentors post here.... Read more »
They say you should walk a mile in a person's shoes before judging them. Virtual reality technology offers this possibility by allowing us to control a digital representation of another person. Unfortunately, the first ever investigation of racial perspective-taking in an immersive virtual environment has found that assuming a different racial identity leads to increased racial bias, not less.Victoria Groom and colleagues invited 98 participants, half of whom were of White ethnicity, to view a p........ Read more »
Groom, V., Bailenson, J., & Nass, C. (2009) The influence of racial embodiment on racial bias in immersive virtual environments. Social Influence, 1-18. DOI: 10.1080/15534510802643750
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