I was recently linked to this post from PETA's blog from June of 2008. This is a great classroom exercise in evaluating media reports.1. Meat increases the risk of breast cancer. A 2007 study of 35,000 women published in the British Journal of Cancer found that women who ate meat were far more likely to develop breast cancer than women who consumed none. Will Jessica's next t-shirt will say, "Real Girls Smoke 3 Packs a Day"?The referenced study reports: "... risk of breast cancer to increase wit........ Read more »
Taylor, E., Burley, V., Greenwood, D., & Cade, J. (2007) Meat consumption and risk of breast cancer in the UK Women's Cohort Study. British Journal of Cancer, 96(7), 1139-1146. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6603689
Kabat, G., Cross, A., Park, Y., Schatzkin, A., Hollenbeck, A., Rohan, T., & Sinha, R. (2009) Meat intake and meat preparation in relation to risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study. International Journal of Cancer, 124(10), 2430-2435. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.24203
News about police, policing and security from an anthropological perspective... Read more »
Darwin, C. (2009) Comparison of the Mental Powers of Man and the Lower Animals–continued. Daedalus, 138(3), 60-67. DOI: 10.1162/daed.2009.138.3.60
Harpham, G. (2009) How do we know what we are? The science of language . Daedalus, 138(3), 79-91. DOI: 10.1162/daed.2009.138.3.79
An interesting report in New Scientist magazine suggests that insults are handled better when lying down rather than sitting or standing up. According to the article, University students who were insulted while seated exhibited neural activity consonant with "approach motivation", which describes to desire to approach and explore. This activity appeared absent in a control group insulted while lying down. Eddie Harmon-Jones, a cognitive scientist at Texas A&M University, interprets this as sugge........ Read more »
Harmon-Jones, E., & Peterson, C. (2009) Supine Body Position Reduces Neural Response to Anger Evocation. Psychological Science. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02416.x
In the previous text, I addressed why it is difficult to develop antivirals, here we will understand the characteristics of the influenza virus that worries us.
Where do viruses come from and what makes them more or less dangerous?
The virus that infects us may already be with us during our evolutive history, [...]... Read more »
Carrat, F., Vergu, E., Ferguson, N., Lemaitre, M., Cauchemez, S., Leach, S., & Valleron, A. (2008) Time Lines of Infection and Disease in Human Influenza: A Review of Volunteer Challenge Studies. American Journal of Epidemiology, 167(7), 775-785. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwm375
In " The Classical Rubber Hand Illusion", we discussed the original experiments of Botvinick and Cohen (1998). Their hypothesis for the rubber hand illusion was that vision has higher reliability and spatial acquity than proprioception, so the brain gives more weight to visual information. People would thus localize a body part to it's apparent visual location, particularly when the visible location falls within the possible range dictated by proprioception. Some support for this theory lies in ........ Read more »
Armel, K., & Ramachandran, V. (2003) Projecting sensations to external objects: evidence from skin conductance response. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 270(1523), 1499-1506. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2003.2364
There are two consumer options for "fat taxes".There's disincentive taxation whereby for instance sugar sweetened beverages are taxed so dramatically that it decreases their consumption or there's incentive taxation where a nominal tax is levied to raise money to be spent on educational programs, health food subsidies etc.Not surprisingly Big Food's not happy.So what are they doing about it?Well aside from intense lobbying and pressuring of elected officia........ Read more »
Brownell KD, & Warner KE. (2009) The perils of ignoring history: Big Tobacco played dirty and millions died. How similar is Big Food?. The Milbank quarterly, 87(1), 259-94. PMID: 19298423
For reasons that are not to hard to fathom, myths about chameleons abound. The Victorians thought they lived entirely on air; a common Zulu superstition is that they're evil (as I confirmed for myself a while back when I tried to show a chameleon I had caught to our gardener); and, more recently, I've been hearing a lot of people say chameleon color changing has nothing to do with camouflage. Even Cracked has got in on the act with an article on "bullshit animals facts",........ Read more »
Stuart-Fox D, & Moussalli A. (2008) Selection for social signalling drives the evolution of chameleon colour change. PLoS biology, 6(1). PMID: 18232740
I suppose that just about everyone knows of the important role the p53 protein plays in protecting cells from becoming cancerous. The protein was identified 30 years ago and its gene (TP53) cloned soon thereafter. What's not so widely known is just how complex the operation of p53 in protecting against cancer really is. And very recent research shows the complexity is even more than previously thought. However, the complexity is to be expected, because evolution doesn't "design" cellular mechani........ Read more »
It seems young lemon sharks that live in the waters around the Bahamas are homebodies. Recent research has revealed that these "teenage" sharks stay close to their birthplace as they mature. Previously, little was known about the wanderings of the sharks after they reached 3 years of age. Scientists were uncertain whether they dispersed into new territory as they gained experience or if they lingered close to their nursery sites. These new findings reveal that more than half of teenage........ Read more »
CHAPMAN, D., BABCOCK, E., GRUBER, S., DIBATTISTA, J., FRANKS, B., KESSEL, S., GUTTRIDGE, T., PIKITCH, E., & FELDHEIM, K. (2009) Long-term natal site-fidelity by immature lemon sharks ( ) at a subtropical island . Molecular Ecology, 18(16), 3500-3507. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04289.x
There is a significant decline in empathy occurs during the third year of medical school. This decline occurs during a time when the curriculum is shifting toward patient-care activities.
There is a significant decline in empathy during third year of medical school, regardless of gender or specialty interest.
Every year women scored significantly higher than men.This seems [...]... Read more »
Hojat, M., Vergare, M., Maxwell, K., Brainard, G., Herrine, S., Isenberg, G., Veloski, J., & Gonnella, J. (2009) The Devil is in the Third Year: A Longitudinal Study of Erosion of Empathy in Medical School. Academic Medicine, 84(9), 1182-1191. DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181b17e55
Crandall, S., & Marion, G. (2009) Commentary: Identifying Attitudes Towards Empathy: An Essential Feature of Professionalism. Academic Medicine, 84(9), 1174-1176. DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181b17b11
TTypically, the research on symmetry and attractiveness does not take the specific location of the asymmetry or asymmetries into account. Springer, et.al. (2007) compared attractiveness ratings of photos of 2 men and 2 women (like the one to the right) in the following conditions:
nevus free (birthmark, beauty mark, or blemish)
a digitally added single nevus at [...]... Read more »
DNA barcodes could assist tracking of illegal bushmeat
... Read more »
Eaton, M., Meyers, G., Kolokotronis, S., Leslie, M., Martin, A., & Amato, G. (2009) Barcoding bushmeat: molecular identification of Central African and South American harvested vertebrates. Conservation Genetics. DOI: 10.1007/s10592-009-9967-0
Unicolonial ants, such as these Argentine ants (Linepithema humile), are genetically unrelated but will cooperate to defeat a much larger adversary.
Source: Alex Wild / Live Science
It has been a mainstay of evolutionary theory since the 1970s. Natural selection acts purely on the level of the individual and any cooperation observed between organisms merely hides a selfish genetic motive. There have been two pioneering theories to explain cooperation in the natural world given this framework:........ Read more »
Helantera, H., Strassman, J.E., Carrillo, J., Queller, D.C. (2009) Unicolonial ants: where do they come from, what are they and where are they going? . Trends in Ecology and Evolution.
If I had a dollar for every time that I’ve asked someone what they would like from pain management and they’ve answered ‘take my pain away’ – well I wouldn’t be writing this blog early in the morning before work!
The findings from this piece of research by Thorne and Morley (2009) suggests that people think [...]... Read more »
Thorne, F., & Morley, S. (2009) Prospective judgments of acceptable outcomes for pain, interference and activity: Patient-determined outcome criteria. Pain, 144(3), 262-269. DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2009.04.004
by Manasi in Wissenschaft
Individuals vary in their sociosexual behavior and reactivity. How an organism interacts with the environment to produce these variations has been a focus in psychology since its inception as a scientific discipline.There is now no question that cumulative experiences throughout life history interact with genetic predispositions to shape the individual's behavior. Recent evidence suggests that events in the past generations may also influence how an individual responds to events in their own li........ Read more »
CREWS, D. (2008) Epigenetics and its implications for behavioral neuroendocrinology. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 29(3), 344-357. DOI: 10.1016/j.yfrne.2008.01.003
Hammerschmidt and colleagues (2009) recently published an empirical investigation of optimal host switching. Parasites that must infect multiple hosts to complete their life cycle face a complex set of challenges. One of these is determining the timing of the switch. The authors of this paper look at the trade-off involved in staying in an intermediate host so as to become larger and more fecund in the next host and the increased chance of mortality in the current host. The authors conduct t........ Read more »
Hammerschmidt, K., Koch, K., Milinski, M., Chubb, J., & Parker, G. (2009) Whe to go: Optimzation of host switching in parasites with complex life cycles. Evolution, 63(8), 1976-1986. DOI: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2009.00687.x
More than 50 years ago, the first antipsychotic medications appeared in the United States. While these drugs -– fluphenazine, haloperidol, chlorpromazine, and others — were effective in treating a variety of psychiatric conditions, their safety and tolerability presented many drawbacks. It was not until the 1990s when a new class of antipsychotic medications emerged that [...]... Read more »
Bishara, D., & Taylor, D. (2008) Upcoming Agents for the Treatment of Schizophrenia. Drugs, 68(16), 2269-2292. DOI: 10.2165/0003495-200868160-00002
Peritogiannis, V., Stefanou, E., Lixouriotis, C., Gkogkos, C., & Rizos, D. (2009) Atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of delirium. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1819.2009.02002.x
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) will announce the 50 millionth registered chemical substance in its Registry, tomorrow (8th September).
According to the email I received from a CAS spokesman, “The number itself represents an important milestone both for researchers and CAS, but even more significant is the pace of scientific discovery around the world.” Roger Schenck, Manager [...]50 Million Chemicals and Counting is a post from: Sciencebase Science Blog
... Read more »
Lipkus, A., Yuan, Q., Lucas, K., Funk, S., Bartelt, W., Schenck, R., & Trippe, A. (2008) Structural Diversity of Organic Chemistry. A Scaffold Analysis of the CAS Registry. The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 73(12), 4443-4451. DOI: 10.1021/jo8001276
As many know, this is the 150th anniversary of the publication of On the Origin of Species. If I may be so bold, one of the things that might distinguish our thinking about evolution in the last 50 years from the first hundred years might be the speed at which natural selection can operate. For a long time, we thought of evolution taking long times: millions of years would be needed to see the gradual accumulation of changes. We learned in the past few decades that we can see the effects of sele........ Read more »
Boronow, K., & Langkilde, T. (2009) Sublethal effects of invasive fire ant venom on a native lizard. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology. DOI: 10.1002/jez.570
Today’s post is a review of a recent meta-analysis looking at the accuracy of clinical tests for meniscal lesions from our friend Dan Lorenz, MS, PT, ATC/L, CSCS. RESEARCH UPDATE: Clinical Tests for Meniscal Lesions Dan Lorenz, MS, PT, ATC/L, CSCS It has been estimated that approximately 27% of all outpatient physical therapy visits are for knee pain.1 Of the many possible lesions causing pain, one common source is from a meniscal lesion. Recently, Meserve et al2 did a meta-analysis summar........ Read more »
Meserve BB, Cleland JA, & Boucher TR. (2008) A meta-analysis examining clinical test utilities for assessing meniscal injury. Clinical rehabilitation, 22(2), 143-61. PMID: 18212035
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