Whether you're talking about sport, chess or music, a surfeit of research has shown that the best performing experts practice more than their less able colleagues.What's unclear is whether the benefits of this practice are ongoing throughout a person's career and secondly, whether the benefits of practice vary with a person's level of skill. Are the most elite performers of such a high standard because of all the practice they do, or is it because of their superior talent that this practice is b........ Read more »
Anique B., Niels Smits, Remy, M., J., P. Rikers, & Henk G. Schmidt. (2008) Deliberate practice predicts performance over time in adolescent chess players and drop-outs: A linear mixed models analysis. British Journal of Psychology. DOI: 10.1348/000712608X295631
Some places are just safer to live than others.A study by Nichol et al in the latest issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association estimates one's chances of surviving a cardiac arrest in 10 different sites in North America: Regional Variation in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Incidence and Outcome.Nichol G, Thomas E, Callaway CW, Hedges J, Powell JL, Aufderheide TP, Rea T, Lowe R, Brown T, Dreyer J, Davis D, Idris A, Stiell I. (2008). JAMA, 300 (12), 1423-1431Their study populatio........ Read more »
Nichol G, Thomas E, Callaway CW, Hedges J, Powell JL, Aufderheide TP, Rea T, Lowe R, Brown T, Dreyer J, Davis D, Idris A, Stiell I. (2008) This Article • Full text • PDF • JAMA Report Video • Send to a friend • Save in My Folder • Save to citation manager • Permissions Citing Articles • Citation map • Citing articles on HighWire • Co. JAMA, 300(12), 1423-1431. DOI: http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/short/300/12/1423
Review of three new vision science papers.... Read more »
S VESER, R OSHEA, E SCHROGER, N TRUJILLOBARRETO, & U ROEBER. (2008) Early correlates of visual awareness following orientation and colour rivalry. Vision Research, 48(22), 2359-2369. DOI: 10.1016/j.visres.2008.07.024
M SHYONG, F LEE, W HEN, P KUO, A WU, H CHENG, S CHEN, T TUNG, & Y TSAO. (2008) Viral delivery of heme oxygenase-1 attenuates photoreceptor apoptosis in an experimental model of retinal detachment. Vision Research, 48(22), 2394-2402. DOI: 10.1016/j.visres.2008.07.017
Lawns in public places all suffer from the same problem: people don’t like detours. In cities throughout the world people search for the fastest route to the workplace, the shortest way to the restroom, the least pricey airline, the most convenient parking spot - depending on resources and personal preferences we optimize our day with regard to criteria we regard important. Cooks experiment with recipes to create the most delicious meals, politicians argue about taxation to score in polls, you........ Read more »
Medicine and health care are classified into various categories based on different specifying criteria. One of the classifications is a distinction on the basis of preventative and curative care: primary, secondary and tertiary cares. Primary care occurs when lifestyle modification behaviors are taught and encouraged in order to maintain a state of good health before [...]... Read more »
J PROCHASKA, W VELICER, C REDDING, J ROSSI, M GOLDSTEIN, J DEPUE, G GREENE, S ROSSI, X SUN, & J FAVA. (2005) Stage-based expert systems to guide a population of primary care patients to quit smoking, eat healthier, prevent skin cancer, and receive regular mammograms. Preventive Medicine, 41(2), 406-416. DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.09.050
You are on a date and by all accounts, it's going well. Midway through dinner, you excuse yourself and head to the bathroom where, to your chagrin, the mirror reveals that you have a streak of sauce on the side of your face. Embarrassed, you wipe it away and rejoin your date.
It's a fairly innocuous scene but it requires an ability that only the most intelligent of animals possess - self-awareness. It's the understanding that you exist as an individual, separate from others. Having it is a vita........ Read more »
J. M. Plotnik, F. B. M. de Waal, & D. Reiss. (2006) From the Cover: Self-recognition in an Asian elephant. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(45), 17053-17057. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0608062103
First we had a link to the oldest living thing on Earth [Botany Photo of the Day and the Oldest Living Organism] and now we link to the oldest thing on Earth [Oldest Rocks on Earth Discovered?].
These rocks are found in the Nuvvuagittuq region of Hudson Bay in Northwestern Quebec (Canada). As part of the Canadian shield they have long been known to be among the oldest rocks on Earth. Some of... Read more »
Migratory birds prey on serious insect pests on Jamaican Blue Mountain coffee farms, providing economic benefits to farmers -- as long as there was natural habitat for the birds nearby.... Read more »
J. L. Kellerman, M. D. Johnson, A. M. Stercho, & S. C. Hackett. (2008) Ecological and economic services provided by birds on Jamaican Blue Mountain coffee farms. Conservation Biology, 22(5), 1177-1185. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.00968.x
Reproductive isolation is the engine of evolutionary diversification. When two populations become unable to exchange genes, they're effectively separate species, free to evolve on independent trajectories.
Biologists have documented many examples of reproductive isolation arising from all sorts of different interactions between organisms and their environments, including incompatibilities... Read more »
D.B. Lowry, R.C. Rockwood, & J.H. Willis. (2008) Ecological reproductive isolation of coast and inland races of Mimulus guttatus . Evolution, 62(9), 2196-214. DOI: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2008.00457.x
P. Nosil, T.H. Vines, & D.J. Funk. (2005) Reproductive isolation caused by natural selection against immigrants from divergent habitats. . Evolution, 59(4), 705-19. DOI: 10.1554/04-428
One of the holy grails of modern medicine is the development of a vaccine against HIV, the virus that causes AIDs. An obstacle to attaining this goal has been the difficulty in stimulating the immune system to make it produce the right kinds of antibodies. A recent finding in Science describes a gene that controls production of these antibodies and may provide insights to the development of an effective vaccine. (1). Read the rest of this post... | Read the comments on this post...... Read more »
M. L. Santiago, M. Montano, R. Benitez, R. J. Messer, W. Yonemoto, B. Chesebro, K. J. Hasenkrug, & W. C. Greene. (2008) Apobec3 Encodes Rfv3, a Gene Influencing Neutralizing Antibody Control of Retrovirus Infection. Science, 321(5894), 1343-1346. DOI: 10.1126/science.1161121
Y. Dang, X. Wang, W. J. Esselman, & Y.-H. Zheng. (2006) Identification of APOBEC3DE as Another Antiretroviral Factor from the Human APOBEC Family. Journal of Virology, 80(21), 10522-10533. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01123-06
M MURAMATSU. (2000) Class Switch Recombination and Hypermutation Require Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID), a Potential RNA Editing Enzyme. Cell, 102(5), 553-563. DOI: 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)00078-7
Around 15 years ago, researchers discovered that the adult rodent brain contains discrete populations of stem cells which continue to divide and generate new cells throughout life. This discovery was an important one, as it overturned a persistent dogma in neuroscience which held that the adult mammalian brain cannot regenerate.
Since then, neural stem cells have been the subject of intensive investigation, in large part because of their potential uses in treating neurological conditions such a........ Read more »
Itaru Imayoshi, Masayuki Sakamoto, Toshiyuki Ohtsuka, Keizo Takao, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Masahiro Yamaguchi, Kensaku Mori, Toshio Ikeda, Shigeyoshi Itohara, & Ryoichiro Kageyama. (2008) Roles of continuous neurogenesis in the structural and functional integrity of the adult forebrain. Nature Neuroscience, 11(10), 1153-1161. DOI: 10.1038/nn.2185
The file drawer effect works like this: Numerous studies are done and the results are random. But because they are random, a small number have, randomly, strong effects that are interesting and that in isolation support some interesting hypothesis. All the results that fail to confirm the interesting (or fund able) expectation are filed away .... in the file drawer. Only the results that seem to show what the researchers want to show are made public.
In areas where research is cheap and o........ Read more »
Kirby Lee, Peter Bacchetti, Ida Sim, & Mike Clarke. (2008) Publication of Clinical Trials Supporting Successful New Drug Applications: A Literature Analysis. PLoS Medicine, 5(9). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0050191
I think the best part about this weird Friday is that I don't have to write it! A good thing too, I have a life outside the blog (crazy, I know), and that life has been nothing short of insane. Today's is courtesy of my friend Claire, who found it over at Mind Hacks.
Portenoy, et al. "Compulsive thalamic self-stimulation: a case with metabolic, electrophysiologic, and behavioral correlates" Pain, V 27, 1986.
Well, ok, maybe I'll talk about it a LITTLE... Read the rest of this post... | Rea........ Read more »
Portenoy RK, Jarden JO, Sidtis JJ, Lipton RB, Foley KM, Rottenberg DA. (1986) Compulsive thalamic self-stimulation: a case with metabolic, electrophysiologic, and behavioral correlates. Pain.
From A History of British Fish (William Yarrell, 1835)
Antibodies bind to their target antigens because the bumps and crannies in an antibody’s binding site complement the crannies and bumps in the antigen.
Antibodies were invented by vertebrates; sharks and all their progeny have antibodies, while lampreys and hagfish, which have a common ancestor with sharks some [...]... Read more »
B. W. Han, B. R. Herrin, M. D. Cooper, & I. A. Wilson. (2008) Antigen Recognition by Variable Lymphocyte Receptors. Science, 321(5897), 1834-1837. DOI: 10.1126/science.1162484
If you knew that your husband was twice as likely to be unfaithful in your marriage than another man, would you still marry him? Scientists have discovered a gene that may be able to tell just that. The question is: would you want to know if he had the gene?
We know strong emotional relationships are [...]... Read more »
M LIM, & L YOUNG. (2006) Neuropeptidergic regulation of affiliative behavior and social bonding in animals. Hormones and Behavior, 50(4), 506-517. DOI: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2006.06.028
H. Walum, L. Westberg, S. Henningsson, J. M. Neiderhiser, D. Reiss, W. Igl, J. M. Ganiban, E. L. Spotts, N. L. Pedersen, E. Eriksson.... (2008) Genetic variation in the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (AVPR1A) associates with pair-bonding behavior in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(37), 14153-14156. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0803081105
Dear Oyster’s Garter,
I am an attractive male sea squirt (a Styela plicata, in case you were wondering) in the prime of life. I live alone on the underside of a nice dock, I’ve got plenty of tasty phytoplankton to eat, and my siphons have extremely handsome pleats. But I’m worried, because every time I [...]... Read more »
A. J. Crean, & D. J. Marshall. (2008) Gamete plasticity in a broadcast spawning marine invertebrate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(36), 13508-13513. DOI/10.1073/pnas.0806590105
Gossip and rumours, they are the life force of cultural interaction. Just ask Guy Kawasaki, whose Truemors.com website took off last year, the hundreds of hacks who peddle the minutiae of celebrity lifestyles complete with the Photoshopped products of the paparazzi, or Perez Hilton. But, there is a serious side to rumours. In the midst [...]... Read more »
In a recent commentary in the Journal of Chemical Education W.B. Jensen questions certain claims made by Wang et al. in their 2007 publication on the detection of the elusive molecule mercury(IV) fluoride. Also in 2008 Rooms et al. report they were unable to repeat a similar feat. About time to shelve mercury(IV).... Read more »
John F. Rooms, Antony V. Wilson, Ian Harvey, Adam J. Bridgeman, & Nigel A. Young. (2008) Mercury–fluorine interactions: a matrix isolation investigation of Hg⋯F2, HgF2 and HgF4 in argon matrices. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 10(31), 4594. DOI: 10.1039/b805608k
Richard L. Deming, A. L. Allred, Alan R. Dahl, Albert W. Herlinger, & Mark O. Kestner. (1976) Tripositive mercury. Low temperature electrochemical oxidation of 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecanemercury(II) tetrafluoroborate . Journal of the American Chemical Society, 98(14), 4132-4137. DOI: 10.1021/ja00430a020
Individuals with profiles on social networking websites have greater risk taking attitudes than those who do not.
Greater risk taking attitudes exist among men than women.
Facebook has a greater sense of trust than MySpace.
General privacy concerns and identity information disclosure concerns are of greater concern to women than men.
Greater percentages of men than women display their [...]... Read more »
J FOGEL, & E NEHMAD. (2008) Internet social network communities: Risk taking, trust, and privacy concerns. Computers in Human Behavior. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2008.08.006
A neat study in Educational Studies in Mathematics (Link) points to a familiar yet disturbing characteristic of mathematics textbooks.
In the study, samples from eighteen different elementary mathematics texts used in the UK were analyzed. Researchers were interested in how often the texts provided "reasons" for the mathematics they presented—that is, how often the texts explained a mathematical idea (or solicited an explanation from students) in terms of purposes and causes:... Read more »
Douglas P. Newton, & Lynn D. Newton. (2006) Could Elementary Mathematics Textbooks Help Give Attention to Reasons in the Classroom?. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 64(1), 69-84. DOI: 10.1007/s10649-005-9015-z
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