For many years, as I started to work in vocational management, I felt like a lonely voice in the wilderness. It seemed that apart from the people I was working with, and perhaps the compensation system, no-one was particularly interested in return to work attempts. Now it’s a slightly different story – but [...]... Read more »
Armstrong, R., & Wilkie, R. (2009) Musculoskeletal problems and work in the UK--time for a new approach?. Rheumatology, 48(7), 709-710. DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/kep071
by Vincent Racaniello in virology blog
Viruses are known to evade the early, or innate, host defenses by interfering with the sensing of infection, production of IFN, and synthesis and activity of ISGs. Today we’ll examine the evidence that the function of one or more ISGs is blocked in poliovirus-infected cells.
When IFN is added to the medium of cultured cells, hundreds of ISGs [...]... Read more »
Morrison, J., & Racaniello, V. (2009) Proteinase 2Apro Is Essential for Enterovirus Replication in Type I Interferon-Treated Cells. Journal of Virology, 83(9), 4412-4422. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.02177-08
Memory, Blake wrote, enables us to "traverse times and spaces far remote". It constitutes mental time travel, with which we can recollect, in vivid detail, events that took place many years ago. We have known, for the best part of a century, that memory is reconstructive rather than reproductive. That is, recollection involves piecing together specific details of the event, and mixing these with our own biases and beliefs. While not being completely accurate, our memories are, in most cases, rel........ Read more »
Addis, D., Pan, L., Vu, M., Laiser, N., & Schacter, D. (2009) Constructive episodic simulation of the future and the past: Distinct subsystems of a core brain network mediate imagining and remembering. Neuropsychologia, 47(11), 2222-2238. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2008.10.026
There are now several clinical trials showing that mice and dogs show evidence of cannabis withdrawal. (For THC-addicted dogs, it is the abnormal number of wet-dog shakes that give them away.) Today, scientists have a much better picture of the jobs performed by anandamide, the body’s own form of THC. This knowledge helps explain a [...]... Read more »
Budney, A. (2004) Review of the Validity and Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal Syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(11), 1967-1977. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.161.11.1967
Vandrey, R., Budney, A., Kamon, J., & Stanger, C. (2005) Cannabis withdrawal in adolescent treatment seekers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 78(2), 205-210. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2004.11.001
WILSON, D., VARVEL, S., HARLOE, J., MARTIN, B., & LICHTMAN, A. (2006) SR 141716 (Rimonabant) precipitates withdrawal in marijuana-dependent mice. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 85(1), 105-113. DOI: 10.1016/j.pbb.2006.07.018
A brief wiki-report and some wiki-links from the first short and introductory day of Network Applications and Tools in Biology (NETTAB 2009) in Sicily where there was a tutorial on Technologies of wiki resources and bio-wikis delivered by Paolo Romano and Elda Rossi. This covered Gene Wiki, Wikiproteins, Wikigenes and Wikipathways [1-4].
There is already a [...]... Read more »
Mons, B., Ashburner, M., Chichester, C., van Mulligen, E., Weeber, M., den Dunnen, J., van Ommen, G., Musen, M., Cockerill, M., Hermjakob, H.... (2008) Calling on a million minds for community annotation in WikiProteins. Genome Biology, 9(5). DOI: 10.1186/gb-2008-9-5-r89
Hoffmann, R. (2008) A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics, 40(9), 1047-1051. DOI: 10.1038/ng.f.217
Huss, J., Orozco, C., Goodale, J., Wu, C., Batalov, S., Vickers, T., Valafar, F., & Su, A. (2008) A Gene Wiki for Community Annotation of Gene Function. PLoS Biology, 6(7). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060175
Experimental philosophy in a fun, short video illustrating a question posed by Aristotle.
Brain and behaviour video curating at PsychCentral, the web's most trusted source of mental health info.... Read more »
Time and time again, I tell you guys that the best way to stay healthy is to stay informed. Read labels, I say. Know what you’re eating. Know what you’re not eating. Know this, know that, etc and make informed decisions. Well, part of making informed decisions is understanding how your body works. And for that reason, I’ve decided to dive into a bit of physiology.
Even informed consumers tend to know very little about how their appetites actually work. What makes you hungry........ Read more »
Williams, K., Scott, M., & Elmquist, J. (2009) From observation to experimentation: leptin action in the mediobasal hypothalamus. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(3), 985-990. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.26788D
Havel, P. (2007) Role of adipose tissue in body-weight regulation: mechanisms regulating leptin production and energy balance. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 59(03), 359. DOI: 10.1017/S0029665100000410
Huo, L., Gamber, K., Greeley, S., Silva, J., Huntoon, N., Leng, X., & Bjørbæk, C. (2009) Leptin-Dependent Control of Glucose Balance and Locomotor Activity by POMC Neurons. Cell Metabolism, 9(6), 537-547. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2009.05.003
Pratley RE, Nicolson M, Bogardus C, & Ravussin E. (1997) Plasma leptin responses to fasting in Pima Indians. The American journal of physiology, 273(3 Pt 1). PMID: 9316457
Chin-Chance C, Polonsky KS, & Schoeller DA. (2000) Twenty-four-hour leptin levels respond to cumulative short-term energy imbalance and predict subsequent intake. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism, 85(8), 2685-91. PMID: 10946866
Enriori, P., Evans, A., Sinnayah, P., Jobst, E., Tonelli-Lemos, L., Billes, S., Glavas, M., Grayson, B., Perello, M., & Nillni, E. (2007) Diet-Induced Obesity Causes Severe but Reversible Leptin Resistance in Arcuate Melanocortin Neurons. Cell Metabolism, 5(3), 181-194. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2007.02.004
Zelissen, P., Stenlof, K., Lean, M., Fogteloo, J., Keulen, E., Wilding, J., Finer, N., Rossner, S., Lawrence, E., Fletcher, C.... (2005) Effect of three treatment schedules of recombinant methionyl human leptin on body weight in obese adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 7(6), 755-761. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2005.00468.x
Wang, J., Obici, S., Morgan, K., Barzilai, N., Feng, Z., & Rossetti, L. (2001) Overfeeding Rapidly Induces Leptin and Insulin Resistance. Diabetes, 50(12), 2786-2791. DOI: 10.2337/diabetes.50.12.2786
Keim NL, Stern JS, & Havel PJ. (1998) Relation between circulating leptin concentrations and appetite during a prolonged, moderate energy deficit in women. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 68(4), 794-801. PMID: 9771856
Shapiro A, Mu W, Roncal C, Cheng KY, Johnson RJ, & Scarpace PJ. (2008) Fructose-induced leptin resistance exacerbates weight gain in response to subsequent high-fat feeding. American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology, 295(5). PMID: 18703413
Peyron-Caso E, Taverna M, Guerre-Millo M, Véronèse A, Pacher N, Slama G, & Rizkalla SW. (2002) Dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids up-regulate plasma leptin in insulin-resistant rats. The Journal of nutrition, 132(8), 2235-40. PMID: 12163668
Nedeltcheva AV, Kilkus JM, Imperial J, Kasza K, Schoeller DA, & Penev PD. (2009) Sleep curtailment is accompanied by increased intake of calories from snacks. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 89(1), 126-33. PMID: 19056602
Taheri, S., Lin, L., Austin, D., Young, T., & Mignot, E. (2004) Short Sleep Duration Is Associated with Reduced Leptin, Elevated Ghrelin, and Increased Body Mass Index. PLoS Medicine, 1(3). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0010062
[Originally posted in February, 2007]
When you look out the window and then look away, how do you remember what you saw? Do you hold a picture of the window in your head, frame and all? What about a photo? Do you remember the physical photo, or do you imagine the real scene it represents? If you remember the scene, and not the photo, then how do you form the boundaries of the scene? Does your memory end precisely where the photo does?
Here's a little test to see how accurate your short-term me........ Read more »
Intraub, H., Hoffman, J.E., Wetherhold, J., & Stoehs, S. (2006) More than meets the eye: The effect of planned fixations on scene representation. Perception , 68(5), 759-769.
This is one of those science stories that is on one hand fairly simple, and on the other hand fairly complex, where the interface between simplicity and complexity causes little balls of misunderstanding to come flying out of the mix like pieces of raw pizza dough if the guy making the pizza was the Tasmanian Devil from the cartoons.
What is true: A scientist named Ryskin proposes that decadal or century scale minor wiggling in the measured Earth's magnetic field is influenced by changes in ........ Read more »
Ryskin, G. (2009) Secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field: induced by the ocean flow?. New Journal of Physics, 11(6), 63015. DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/11/6/063015
Many living things, from chameleons to fish to squid, have the ability to change their colour. But flowers? Yes, over 450 species of flower have the ability to shapeshift, altering their colour and positions over the course of a day. The goal, as with many aspects of a flower's nature, is communication. The secondary palette tells pollinators that a particular flower has already been visited and not only needs no pollen but has little nectar to offer as a reward. The visitor's attentions (and th........ Read more »
Willmer, P., Stanley, D., Steijven, K., Matthews, I., & Nuttman, C. (2009) Bidirectional Flower Color and Shape Changes Allow a Second Opportunity for Pollination. Current Biology, 19(11), 919-923. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2009.03.070
by Nestor Lopez-Duran PhD in Child-Psych
This past week, police officers in Florida arrested an 18-year-old kid as prime suspect in a wave of cat killings and mutilations. The killing and torturing of animals for pleasure (excluding traditional hunting) is one of the strongest signs of serious psychopathology. Firesetting is likely a close second, with most adults and adolescents who engage [...]... Read more »
MacKay, S., Paglia-Boak, A., Henderson, J., Marton, P., & Adlaf, E. (2009) Epidemiology of firesetting in adolescents: mental health and substance use correlates. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02103.x
Brunthaler et al (2009, A&A, 499, L17) have just reported the discovery of a new radio transient in the nucleus of the nearby starburst galaxy Messier 82 (M82).In short, radio telescopes see something now that wasn't there two years ago, and this is most probably a radio supernova, indeed, one of the closest supernova to Earth in the last five years.But why is this scientifically interesting?M82 has been called the "exploding galaxy" with good reason: huge filaments and arcs of very hot gas ........ Read more »
Brunthaler, A., Menten, K., Reid, M., Henkel, C., Bower, G., & Falcke, H. (2009) Discovery of a bright radio transient in M 82: a new radio supernova?. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 499(2). DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200912327
Andrea Wiggins [1,2] from Syracuse University, New York is visiting Manchester this week and will be doing a seminar on “Little e-Science“, the details of which are below.
Date, time: 12 and 2pm on Thursday 18th June
Location: Atlas 1&2, Kilburn building
Title: Little eScience
Abstract: An interdisciplinary community of researchers has started to coalesce around the study of [...]... Read more »
Andrea Wiggins, James Howison, & Kevin Crowston. (2008) Social dynamics of FLOSS team communication across channels. Open Source Development, Communities and Quality. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-09684-1_11
Stein, L. (2008) Towards a cyberinfrastructure for the biological sciences: progress, visions and challenges. Nature Reviews Genetics, 9(9), 678-688. DOI: 10.1038/nrg2414
Tuberculosis and the Grim Reaper
A while ago I made the point that many of the biggest killers of 19th-century London were almost unknown today, because of vaccination (”hooping cough”, measles, smallpox) and sanitation (typhus, cholera) (see “Life & Death, pre-vaccination“).
I have a small confession to make: I kind of rigged that chart, because I wanted to avoid [...]... Read more »
Wilson, L. (2004) Commentary: Medicine, population, and tuberculosis. International Journal of Epidemiology, 34(3), 521-524. DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyh196
When I see a car fast approaching in the rear-view mirror, I find I can't help but make assumptions about the personality of the driver based on the model of car they're driving. Now a new study suggests these kinds of stereotypes can affect our memory for how fast a car was travelling - a finding that could have important implications for the trustworthiness of eye witness statements.In an initial experiment, Graham Davies played ten-second video clips of a BMW and a (smaller, less powerful) Vo........ Read more »
Davies, G. (2009) Estimating the speed of vehicles: the influence of stereotypes. Psychology, Crime , 15(4), 293-312. DOI: 10.1080/10683160802203971
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is often a convenient diagnosis for many actually suffering with other endocrine disorders. Cushing's patients are frequently misdiagnosed with PCOS. It is an easy diagnosis (in layman's terms) and avoids the multiple tests and confusion which suspicion of Cushing's seems to bring. In a previous post, I wrote about 4 cases of Cushing's misdiagnosed as PCOS. Once treated for the Cushing's, all symptoms which had been attributed to PCOS resolved.A new article in........ Read more »
Noordam C, Dhir V, McNelis JC, Schlereth F, Hanley NA, Krone N, Smeitink JA, Smeets R, Sweep FC, Claahsen-van der Grinten HL, Arlt W. (2009) Inactivating PAPSS2 mutations in a patient with premature pubarche. New England Journal of Medicine, 360(22), 2310-2318. DOI: 19474428
After a late (early) night yesterday, I started my day at the R.A. Fisher Award talk, a presentation of results from "an outstanding Ph.D. dissertation paper published in the journal Evolution." This year's winner turned out to be a paper I remember reading when it was first published, in which Megan Higgie and Mark Blows showed that sexual selection for mate-signaling hydrocarbons in Drosophila serrata is opposed by selection to avoid mating with the closely related D. birchii. Populations of D........ Read more »
Higgie, M., & Blows, M. (2008) The evolution of reproductive character displacement conflicts with how sexual selection operates within a species. Evolution, 62(5), 1192-203. DOI: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2008.00357.x
This comprehensive systematic review by the Rational Clinical Examination is very helpful after a few adjustments. First, the review allows source studies to place patients with symptoms of irritable bowel who are found to have diverticulosis or polyps into the category of underlying organic illness...... Read more »
Ford, A., Talley, N., Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S., Vakil, N., Simel, D., & Moayyedi, P. (2008) Will the History and Physical Examination Help Establish That Irritable Bowel Syndrome Is Causing This Patient's Lower Gastrointestinal Tract Symptoms?. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 300(15), 1793-1805. DOI: 10.1001/jama.300.15.1793
It must be really difficult to be a reductionist, biomedically-oriented doctor who believes fervently in the need to ‘abolish pain’ in order for people to recover from low back pain. It must be even more difficult when the ’source of the nociception’ fails to be identified even after numerous placebo-controlled ‘diagnostic’ nerve blocks have [...]... Read more »
Mayor, S. (2009) NICE recommends early intensive management of persistent low back pain. BMJ, 338(may27 1). DOI: 10.1136/bmj.b2115
Salvia divinorum (Salvia, Magic Mint) is a plant used for entheogenic purposes by the Mazatec people of Mexico. A relative of the common garden plant "scarlet sage" (Salvia splendens), S. divinorum contains several hallucinogens that include salvinorin A, the first non-nitrogenous agonist known for kappa opioid receptors (KOR).
I had known of salvinorin A since a highly-cited 2002 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences paper by Bryan Roth, Richard Rothman and colleagues (full text her........ Read more »
Roth, B. (2002) Salvinorin A: A potent naturally occurring nonnitrogenous kappa opioid selective agonist. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99(18), 11934-11939. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.182234399
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