Spiders Sailing The Seven Seas
Discovery of a new type of behaviour shows that some spiders are really good sailors.
With the exception of the coldest places on our planet, spiders are almost everywhere. From giant bird-eating tarantulas to pin-prick-sized web-builders, from solitary hunters to social colonies, spiders are versatile in more ways than one.
Some of our eight-legged friends on the smaller side of the size/weight scale even know how to fly! ... Read more »
Hayashi M, Bakkali M, Hyde A, & Goodacre SL. (2015) Sail or sink: novel behavioural adaptations on water in aerially dispersing species. BMC evolutionary biology, 118. PMID: 26138616
Watching toddlers pinch, hit and bite each other doesn't fill you with confidence about human nature. But there's no need to be down about it – the little devils don't yet have the self-control to manage their anger and frustration, that's all. Right?Not according to a new study published in Developmental Science, which is the first to systematically investigate the use of force in infants from age 11 months and up. Audun Dahl at the University of California, Santa Cruz, finds that in fac........ Read more »
The title of this (hopefully) brief post mirrors the conclusion reached by Åsa Blomström and colleagues  who analysed data pertinent to all children "born in Sweden 1978-1997" to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) of nonaffective psychosis "in relation to maternal infection during pregnancy." Also detailing RERI - relative excess risk due to interaction - bringing in factors such as maternal history of psychiatric disorder as part and parcel of any effect, and authors reported that: "Among ........ Read more »
Blomström Å, Karlsson H, Gardner R, Jörgensen L, Magnusson C, & Dalman C. (2015) Associations Between Maternal Infection During Pregnancy, Childhood Infections and the Risk of Subsequent Psychotic Disorder-A Swedish Cohort Study of Nearly 2 Million Individuals. Schizophrenia bulletin. PMID: 26303935
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Metin Akgun, MD, FCCP Department of Pulmonary Medicine Atatürk University, Faculty of Medicine Erzurum, Turkey Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Akgun: The first cases of silicosis due … Continue reading →
The post Denim Sandblasters At High Risk of Pulmonary Silicosis appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Studies with Interviews and News.
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MedicalResearch.com Interview with:, & Metin Akgun, MD, FCCP. (2015) Denim Sandblasters At High Risk of Pulmonary Silicosis. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
A multinational team of scientists have sifted through cells of vastly different organisms, from amoebae to worms to mice to humans, to reveal how proteins fit together to build different cells and bodies. This tour de force of protein science, a result of a collaboration between seven research groups from three countries, led by Professor Andrew Emili from the University of Toronto’s Donnelly Centre, uncovered tens of thousands of new protein interactions, accounting for about a quarter of al........ Read more »
Wan, C., Borgeson, B., Phanse, S., Tu, F., Drew, K., Clark, G., Xiong, X., Kagan, O., Kwan, J., Bezginov, A.... (2015) Panorama of ancient metazoan macromolecular complexes. Nature. DOI: 10.1038/nature14877
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Eric A.F. Herbst MSc Ph.D. student Human Health and Nutritional Sciences University of Guelph Guelph, ON Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Many neurological diseases result in declines in … Continue reading →
The post Exercise Did Not Improve Mitochondrial Content in Healthy Brains appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Studies with Interviews and News.
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Eric A.F. Herbst MSc Ph.D. student. (2015) Exercise Did Not Improve Mitochondrial Content in Healthy Brains. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Alberto Lana Department of Medicine, Preventive Medicine and Public Health Area School of Medicine and Health Sciences University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? … Continue reading →
The post Study Addresses Dairy Consumption and Frailty in Older Adults appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Studies with Interviews and News.
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MedicalResearch.com Interview with:, & Dr. Alberto Lana. (2015) Study Addresses Dairy Consumption and Frailty in Older Adults. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
Last week, the Open Science Collaboration reported that only 36% of a sample of 100 claims from published psychology studies were succesfully replicated: Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science.
A reproducibility rate of 36% seems bad. But what would be a good value? Is it realistic to expect all studies to replicate? If not, where should we set the bar?
In this post I'll argue that it should be 100%.
First off however, I'll note that no single replication attemp... Read more »
Open Science Collaboration. (2015) Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6251). PMID: 26315443
By guest blogger Tom StaffordWe all know that fashion models have unrealistic bodies. Even if they aren’t photoshopped, most of us could never be that thin, at least not without making ourselves ill. Previous research has suggested that viewing pictures of unrealistically thin female models makes young women feel bad – leaving them dissatisfied with their own bodies, more sad, angry and insecure.A crucial question is whether the effect of these thin-ideal images is automatic. Does the compar........ Read more »
Want, S., Botres, A., Vahedi, Z., & Middleton, J. (2015) On the Cognitive (In)Efficiency of Social Comparisons with Media Images. Sex Roles. DOI: 10.1007/s11199-015-0538-1
I recently, via the blogpost “lessons from a toy” by Eyler (2015), came across the article “The Double-edged Sword of Pedagogy: Instruction limits spontaneous exploration and discovery” by Bonawitz, Shafto, Gweon, Goodman, Spelke and Schulz (2011). The article sets out to find out whether children primarily … Continue reading →... Read more »
Bonawitz, E., Shafto, P., Gweon, H., Goodman, N., Spelke, E., & Schulz, L. (2011) The double-edged sword of pedagogy: Instruction limits spontaneous exploration and discovery. Cognition, 120(3), 322-330. DOI: 10.1016/j.cognition.2010.10.001
"Although these findings must be interpreted with caution because of the small sample size, the study does not provide evidence to support general use of the GFCF [gluten-free/casein-free] diet."So said the results of the study finally published by Susan Hyman and colleagues  detailing the effects (or not) of a small (n=14) "double-blind, placebo-controlled challenge study" of the use of a diet devoid of gluten and casein for young children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD........ Read more »
Hyman, S., Stewart, P., Foley, J., Cain, U., Peck, R., Morris, D., Wang, H., & Smith, T. (2015) The Gluten-Free/Casein-Free Diet: A Double-Blind Challenge Trial in Children with Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. DOI: 10.1007/s10803-015-2564-9
According to the current view of Lyme disease pathogenesis, tissue damage is caused by the inflammatory response to the spirochetes. Borrelia species do not produce toxins that injure the host directly. A new study published in BMC Microbiology may force us to modify our view.The study shows that some Borrelia strains carry a set of genes with the potential to generate a peptide resembling streptolysin S (SLS), a potent toxin produced by the pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. The........ Read more »
Molloy EM, Casjens SR, Cox CL, Maxson T, Ethridge NA, Margos G, Fingerle V, & Mitchell DA. (2015) Identification of the minimal cytolytic unit for streptolysin S and an expansion of the toxin family. BMC Microbiology, 141. PMID: 26204951
Molloy EM, Cotter PD, Hill C, Mitchell DA, & Ross RP. (2011) Streptolysin S-like virulence factors: the continuing sagA. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 9(9), 670-81. PMID: 21822292
Shoe inserts for Sacroiliac Joint Pain?... Read more »
Cho, B., & Yoon, J. (2015) The effect of gait training with shoe inserts on the improvement of pain and gait in sacroiliac joint patients. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27(8), 2469-2471. DOI: 10.1589/jpts.27.2469
Just like attempts at influencing hairstyles or clothing can backfire, adults who try to guilt middle-schoolers into exercising won’t get them to be any more active. The study found students who don’t feel in control of their exercise choices or who feel pressured by adults to be more active typically aren’t.... Read more »
DISHMAN, R., MCIVER, K., DOWDA, M., SAUNDERS, R., & PATE, R. (2015) Motivation and Behavioral Regulation of Physical Activity in Middle School Students. Medicine , 47(9), 1913-1921. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000616
One of my goals in teaching is to introduce students to how we come to know things in biological anthropology, and lab activities give students hands-on experience in using scientific approaches to address research questions. Biological anthropology (really, all biology) is about understanding variation, and I’ve created some labs for students to scrutinize biological variation within the classroom. In my Introduction class, the first aspect of […]... Read more »
Bartholomeusz, H., Courchesne, E., & Karns, C. (2002) Relationship Between Head Circumference and Brain Volume in Healthy Normal Toddlers, Children, and Adults. Neuropediatrics, 33(5), 239-241. DOI: 10.1055/s-2002-36735
Can we please talk about how we keep kids trapped for too long in counting number land? I've got this marvelous study to show you which might provides some good reasons to interleave different number systems throughout students' educations. It's this one.... Read more »
Birnbaum, M., Kornell, N., Bjork, E., & Bjork, R. (2012) Why interleaving enhances inductive learning: The roles of discrimination and retrieval. Memory , 41(3), 392-402. DOI: 10.3758/s13421-012-0272-7
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Paul Miller PhD student The University of Queensland Australia Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: All humans have a blind spot in each eye where the optic nerve, which … Continue reading →
The post Visual Training Can Reduce Extent of Functional Blindness appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Studies with Interviews and News.
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MedicalResearch.com Interview with:, & Paul Miller PhD student. (2015) Visual Training Can Reduce Extent of Functional Blindness. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
“Gaydar” — the purported ability to infer whether people are gay or straight based on their appearance — seemed to get a scientific boost from a 2008 study that concluded people could accurately guess someone’s sexual orientation based on photographs of their faces. In a new paper researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison challenge what they call “the gaydar myth.” William Cox, an assistant scientist in the Department of Psychology and the lead author, says gaydar isn’t ........ Read more »
Cox, W., Devine, P., Bischmann, A., & Hyde, J. (2015) Inferences About Sexual Orientation: The Roles of Stereotypes, Faces, and The Gaydar Myth. The Journal of Sex Research, 1-15. DOI: 10.1080/00224499.2015.1015714
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Christine McGarrigle PhD Research Director The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) Lincoln Gate Trinity College Dublin Dublin Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. McGarrigle: Mild cognitive impairment … Continue reading →
The post Orthostatic Hypotension and Blood Pressure Variability Linked to Cognitive Decline appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Studies with Intervi........ Read more »
Christine McGarrigle P. (2015) Orthostatic Hypotension and Blood Pressure Variability Linked to Cognitive Decline. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
Most Psychology findings are not replicable. What can be done? Stanford psychologist Michael Frank has an idea : Cumulative study sets with internal replication. ‘If I had to advocate for a single change to practice, this would be it.’ I took a look whether this makes any difference. A recent paper in the journal Science […]... Read more »
Bem DJ. (2011) Feeling the future: experimental evidence for anomalous retroactive influences on cognition and affect. Journal of personality and social psychology, 100(3), 407-25. PMID: 21280961
Open Science Collaboration. (2015) PSYCHOLOGY. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6251). PMID: 26315443
Ritchie SJ, Wiseman R, & French CC. (2012) Failing the future: three unsuccessful attempts to replicate Bem's 'retroactive facilitation of recall' effect. PloS one, 7(3). PMID: 22432019
Schimmack U. (2012) The ironic effect of significant results on the credibility of multiple-study articles. Psychological methods, 17(4), 551-66. PMID: 22924598
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