The paper by Joshua Son and colleagues  (open-access here) made for some interesting reading recently and various findings including: "no significant difference in macronutrient intake between ASD [autism spectrum disorder] and NT [neurotypical] siblings", "no significant difference in ASD severity scores between ASD children with and without FGID [functional gastrointestinal disorders]" and "No significant difference in diversity or overall microbial composition" whe........ Read more »
Son JS, Zheng LJ, Rowehl LM, Tian X, Zhang Y, Zhu W, Litcher-Kelly L, Gadow KD, Gathungu G, Robertson CE.... (2015) Comparison of Fecal Microbiota in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Neurotypical Siblings in the Simons Simplex Collection. PloS one, 10(10). PMID: 26427004
Substantially smaller and longer-lasting batteries for everything from portable electronic devices to electric cars could become a reality thanks to an innovative technology developed by University of Waterloo researchers. Zhongwei Chen, a chemical engineering professor at Waterloo, and a team of graduate students have created a low-cost battery using silicon that boosts the performance and life of lithium-ion batteries.... Read more »
Hassan, F., Batmaz, R., Li, J., Wang, X., Xiao, X., Yu, A., & Chen, Z. (2015) Evidence of covalent synergy in silicon–sulfur–graphene yielding highly efficient and long-life lithium-ion batteries. Nature Communications, 8597. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9597
I've been slowly working my way through Life, a nature documentary TV series produced by the BBC. It's wonderfully shot (lots of fantastic time-lapse sequences) and there's classic Attenborough narration to walk you through a strong sampling of the amazing stuff organisms manage to get up to. The episode on plants has been on my mind lately. It touches on several of the strategies they use to obtain light (e.g. vines growing up a tree to escape its shadow) or essential nutrients (insect-capturin........ Read more »
Lerat S, Gauci R, Catford J, Vierheilig H, Piché Y, & Lapointe L. (2002) 14C transfer between the spring ephemeral Erythronium americanum and sugar maple saplings via arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in natural stands. Oecologia, 132(2), 181-187. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-002-0958-9
What do Lisbeth Salander, Chloe O'Brien and Elliot Alderson have in common? They are all expert computer programmers or hackers, and (like most fictional portrayals of people with their skills), they're all, well, rather odd and socially awkward. In other words, they all conform to the commonly held stereotype of the IT guy (or girl) – which must be one of the most stereotyped occupations in the world – as good with machines and programming code, but lousy with people and emotions......... Read more »
Gnambs, T. (2015) What makes a computer wiz? Linking personality traits and programming aptitude. Journal of Research in Personality, 31-34. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrp.2015.07.004
Reviewing gruesome photographs and listening to emotional testimony about terrible injuries is something we do routinely. When we need to test their impact in our pretrial research, sometimes mock jurors (and occasionally trial jurors as well) are given the option of not looking at the photographs. They are put in an envelope, the envelope is […]
Teary testimony from children is more credible
Conspiracy beliefs and the relation to emotional uncertainty
Eyewitness testimon........ Read more »
Matsuo, K., & Itoh, Y. (2015) Effects of Emotional Testimony and Gruesome Photographs on Mock Jurors' Decisions and Negative Emotions. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 1-17. DOI: 10.1080/13218719.2015.1032954
Take Home Message: Athletes that report a previous injury at preseason examination also reported lower physical capabilities related to the knee or upper extremity before the competitive season. Patient-reported joint-specific perceived capability assessments might supplement preseason physical examination and aid in return to play decisions following injury.... Read more »
Sciascia A, Haegele LE, Lucas J, & Uhl TL. (2015) Preseason Perceived Physical Capability and Previous Injury. Journal of Athletic Training, 50(9), 937-43. PMID: 26287492
I can appreciate that some people might have looked at the title of this post and rolled their eyes. When I first came across the paper by David Black & Norman Rosenthal  (open-access) I too felt a slight 'woo' like tingling given my unfamiliarity with transcendental meditation (TM) either personally or professionally. A bit of background reading and a reminder of some song lyrics - "sometimes truth is stranger than fiction" - and I decided that this is peer-reviewed science that per........ Read more »
Black, D., Rosenthal, N., & Walla, P. (2015) Transcendental meditation for autism spectrum disorders? A perspective. Cogent Psychology, 2(1), 1071028. DOI: 10.1080/23311908.2015.1071028
Boiling a frog In 1781, Christian Wilhelm von Dohm, a civil servant, political writer and historian in what was then Prussia published a two volume work entitled Über die Bürgerliche Verbesserung der Juden (“On the Civic Improvement of Jews”). In it, von Dohm laid out the case for emancipation for a people systematically denied the […]... Read more »
Bertrand, M., & Mullainathan, S. (2004) Are Emily and Greg More Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination. American Economic Review, 94(4), 991-1013. DOI: 10.1257/0002828042002561
Colman, A., Hargreaves, D., & Sluckin, W. (1981) Preferences for Christian names as a function of their experienced familiarity. British Journal of Social Psychology, 20(1), 3-5. DOI: 10.1111/j.2044-8309.1981.tb00465.x
Fryer, R., & Levitt, S. (2004) The Causes and Consequences of Distinctively Black Names. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 119(3), 767-805. DOI: 10.1162/0033553041502180
Nunley, J.M., Pugh, A., Romero, N., & Seals, R.A. (2014) An Examination of Racial Discrimination in the Labor Market for Recent College Graduates: Estimates from the Field. Auburn Economics Working Paper Series. info:/
Is ketamine a destructive club drug that damages the brain and bladder? With psychosis-like effects widely used as a model of schizophrenia? Or is ketamine an exciting new antidepressant, the “most important discovery in half a century”?For years, I've been utterly fascinated by these separate strands of research that rarely (if ever) intersect. Why is that? Because there's no such thing as “one receptor, one behavior.” And because like most scientific endeavors, neuro-pharmacology/psyc........ Read more »
Pollak, T., De Simoni, S., Barimani, B., Zelaya, F., Stone, J., & Mehta, M. (2015) Phenomenologically distinct psychotomimetic effects of ketamine are associated with cerebral blood flow changes in functionally relevant cerebral foci: a continuous arterial spin labelling study. Psychopharmacology. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-015-4078-8
There's simply not enough time in the week to write about everything that I'd like! So here are 6 extra short summaries of scientific studies published during the past week, available free via open-access journals for anyone and everyone to read and enjoy!... Read more »
Bergmann, M., Sandhop, N., Schewe, I., & D’Hert, D. (2015) Observations of floating anthropogenic litter in the Barents Sea and Fram Strait, Arctic. Polar Biology. DOI: 10.1007/s00300-015-1795-8
Padowski, J., Gorelick, S., Thompson, B., Rozelle, S., & Fendorf, S. (2015) Assessment of human–natural system characteristics influencing global freshwater supply vulnerability. Environmental Research Letters, 10(10), 104014. DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/10/10/104014
Conrad, T., & Ayasse, M. (2015) The Role of Vibrations in Population Divergence in the Red Mason Bee, Osmia bicornis. Current Biology. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2015.08.059
Luo J, Ault JS, Shay LK, Hoolihan JP, Prince ED, Brown CA, & Rooker JR. (2015) Ocean Heat Content Reveals Secrets of Fish Migrations. PloS one, 10(10). PMID: 26484541
Yoon JH, Wang SY, Gillies RR, Kravitz B, Hipps L, & Rasch PJ. (2015) Increasing water cycle extremes in California and in relation to ENSO cycle under global warming. Nature communications, 8657. PMID: 26487088
Lively, J. (2015) A new species of baenid turtle from the Kaiparowits Formation (Upper Cretaceous, Campanian) of southern Utah. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2015.1009084
When dealing with bacteria, antibiotics are usually the frontrunner, but there are cases where antibiotics are a big no. Take baby formula for instance, we cannot use antibiotics to keep bacteria at bay. This has posed a safety problem in recent years, but researchers have shown that we can use a natural enemy of bacteria to fight back without risk to infants’ health.... Read more »
Lee, J., Bai, J., Shin, H., Kim, Y., Park, B., Heu, S., & Ryu, S. (2015) A Novel Bacteriophage Targeting is a Potential Biocontrol Agent in Foods . Applied and Environmental Microbiology. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.01827-15
Last week, I introduced my Human Evolution students to the “robust” australopithecines. It was a very delicate time, when we had to have a grown up, mature conversation about adult things. I reminded the students that they’re only human, but they must resist urges that seem only natural. No matter how much they want to, even if their friends are doing it, […]... Read more »
Asfaw B, White T, Lovejoy O, Latimer B, Simpson S, & Suwa G. (1999) Australopithecus garhi: a new species of early hominid from Ethiopia. Science (New York, N.Y.), 284(5414), 629-35. PMID: 10213683
Domínguez-Rodrigo, M., Pickering, T., Baquedano, E., Mabulla, A., Mark, D., Musiba, C., Bunn, H., Uribelarrea, D., Smith, V., Diez-Martin, F.... (2013) First Partial Skeleton of a 1.34-Million-Year-Old Paranthropus boisei from Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. PLoS ONE, 8(12). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080347
Haile-Selassie Y, Gibert L, Melillo SM, Ryan TM, Alene M, Deino A, Levin NE, Scott G, & Saylor BZ. (2015) New species from Ethiopia further expands Middle Pliocene hominin diversity. Nature, 521(7553), 483-8. PMID: 26017448
Walker, A., Leakey, R., Harris, J., & Brown, F. (1986) 2.5-Myr Australopithecus boisei from west of Lake Turkana, Kenya. Nature, 322(6079), 517-522. DOI: 10.1038/322517a0
Carri Westgarth and Francine Watkins new paper explores the perspectives of victims of dog bites. The results give important new insights into dog bite prevention. Carri kindly agreed to answer questions about her research on dog bites, dog walking, and puppies, and her own companion animals. How did you get interested in studying dog bite prevention?Carri as a child; Top photo: Carri with her dogs Jasmyn andBen, and her friend's dogs Alfie and ZephyrMy mum might say it started as a toddler........ Read more »
Westgarth, C., & Watkins, F. (2015) A qualitative investigation of the perceptions of female dog-bite victims and implications for the prevention of dog bites. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research. DOI: 10.1016/j.jveb.2015.07.035
Westgarth, C., Christley, R., & Christian, H. (2014) How might we increase physical activity through dog walking?: A comprehensive review of dog walking correlates. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 11(1), 83. DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-11-83
Westgarth, C., Reevell, K., & Barclay, R. (2012) Association between prospective owner viewing of the parents of a puppy and later referral for behavioural problems. Veterinary Record, 170(20), 517-517. DOI: 10.1136/vr.100138
In the spirit of Halloween we bring you the science fact and fiction behind the undead. Zombies, those brain loving little guys, (and girls) are everywhere. We are all familiar (if you are horror fans, or at least not living on an Amish compound) with the classic zombie. But did you know that we aren’t the only zombie lovers out there? It turns out that nature has its own special types of zombies, but this isn’t a science fiction movie, this is science fact!... Read more »
Lafferty KD. (2006) Can the common brain parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, influence human culture?. Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society, 273(1602), 2749-55. PMID: 17015323
Vyas A, Kim SK, Giacomini N, Boothroyd JC, & Sapolsky RM. (2007) Behavioral changes induced by Toxoplasma infection of rodents are highly specific to aversion of cat odors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(15), 6442-7. PMID: 17404235
Passamonti L, Crockett MJ, Apergis-Schoute AM, Clark L, Rowe JB, Calder AJ, & Robbins TW. (2012) Effects of acute tryptophan depletion on prefrontal-amygdala connectivity while viewing facial signals of aggression. Biological psychiatry, 71(1), 36-43. PMID: 21920502
Thomas, F., Schmidt-Rhaesa, A., Martin, G., Manu, C., Durand, P., & Renaud, F. (2002) Do hairworms (Nematomorpha) manipulate the water seeking behaviour of their terrestrial hosts?. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 15(3), 356-361. DOI: 10.1046/j.1420-9101.2002.00410.x
W. Wesołowska T. Wesołowski. (2014) Do Leucochloridium sporocysts manipulate the behaviour of their snail hosts?. Journal of Zoology , 292(3), 151-155. info:/10.1111/jzo.12094
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Benjamin Freedman, Ph.D. Assistant Professor | University of Washington Department of Medicine | Division of Nephrology Member, Kidney Research Institute Member, Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Seattle WA 98109 Medical Research: What is the background … Continue reading →
The post Gene-edited Kidney Organoids Re-Create Human Disease appeared first on MedicalResearch.com.
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Benjamin Freedman, Ph.D. (2015) Gene-edited Kidney Organoids Re-Create Human Disease. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Geoffrey M. Calvert MD Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health CDC Cincinnati, Ohio Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Calvert: Since 1987, acute occupational pesticide-related … Continue reading →
The post Acute Occupational Pesticide-Related Illness Highest in Agricultural Workers appeared first on MedicalResearch.com.
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Geoffrey M. Calvert MD. (2015) Acute Occupational Pesticide-Related Illness Highest in Agricultural Workers. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Matthew S. Thiese, PhD, MSPH Assistant Professor Rocky Mountain Center for Occupational and Environmental Health University of Utah School of Medicine Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Thiese: The nearly 3 million truck … Continue reading →
The post Health Factors Put Truck Drivers At Increased Crash Risk appeared first on MedicalResearch.com.
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Matthew S. Thiese, PhD, MSPH. (2015) Health Factors Put Truck Drivers At Increased Crash Risk. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Johannes Kettunen Computational Medicine, Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki NMR Metabolomics Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Finland Medical Research: What is the background … Continue reading →
The post Chronic Inflammatory Biomarker May Predict Mortality appeared first on MedicalResearch.com.
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Dr. Johannes Kettunen. (2015) Chronic Inflammatory Biomarker May Predict Mortality. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Simple Singh MD Epidemiologist Division of Cancer Prevention and Control CDC Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Singh: This report provides official federal statistics on the occurrence of cancer for 2011 and trends … Continue reading →
The post Black Men, White Women Have Highest Cancer Incidence in US appeared first on MedicalResearch.com.
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Dr. Simple Singh MD. (2015) Black Men, White Women Have Highest Cancer Incidence in US. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: H.A. (Hendrika) van den Ham PharmD Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences Utrecht University The Netherlands. Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. van … Continue reading →
The post Study Compares Anticoagulation Risk Scores in Atrial Fibrillation appeared first on MedicalResearch.com.
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H.A. (Hendrika) van den Ham PharmD. (2015) Study Compares Anticoagulation Risk Scores in Atrial Fibrillation. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
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