Hydrogen fuel production is a promising way to achieve carbon-neutral fuels to power the transportation infrastructure including automobiles and especially planes. Now, a team of scientists at the North Carolina State University has shown that a specialized coating technique can make certain devices employed for hydrogen fuel production more stable and more efficient.... Read more »
Leila Alibabaei, M. Kyle Brennaman, Michael R. Norris, Berç Kalanyan, Wenjing Song, Mark D. Losego, Javier J. Concepcion, Robert A. Binstead, Gregory N. Parsons, Thomas J. Meyer. (2013) Solar water splitting in a molecular photoelectrochemical cell. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1319628110
Aaron K. Vannucci, Leila Alibabaei, Mark D. Losego, Javier J. Concepcion, Berç Kalanyan, Gregory N. Parsons, Thomas J. Meyer. (2013) Crossing the divide between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis in water oxidation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1319832110
Astronomers have reported two of the newly discovered yet oldest known brown dwarfs in our Milky Way Galaxy moving at speeds of 100-200 km/sec.
arXiv, accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS)
It is a star-like object that is smaller than a planet and has a mass equivalent to less than one-tenth of the Sun’s mass. Brown dwarfs are unable to produce internal heat through nucle........ Read more »
D. J. Pinfield, J. Gomes, A. C. Day-Jones, S. K. Leggett, M. Gromadzki, B. Burningham, M. T. Ruiz, R. Kurtev, T. Cattermole, C. Cardoso.... (2013) A deep WISE search for very late type objects and the discovery of two halo/thick-disk T dwarfs: WISE 0013 0634 and WISE 0833 0052. arXiv. arXiv: 1308.0495v1
Scientists have presented a new way to study Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) that are the coldest objects in the Universe by canceling the damage caused by light.
New Journal of Physics
Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs):
BECs are considered as the coldest objects in the universe as they are very close to absolute zero, i.e. very near 0 K or −273.15 °C. They consist of few clusters of atoms. At such temperature, atoms behave as ........ Read more »
M R Hush et al. (2013) Controlling spontaneous-emission noise in measurement-based feedback cooling of a Bose–Einstein condensate. New Journal of Physics. DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/15/11/113060
Homocysteine - the big H - really should have its own Twitter hashtag... #thebigH.Not only because of the range of health-related conditions which seem to be correlated with particular levels of this amino acid - think coronary heart disease and elevated homocysteine for example* or more recently cerebrovascular disease** - but also because of the body of work linking elevated homocysteine levels to diagnoses like autism and schizophrenia. (Yes, I know correlation does not equal causation).The B........ Read more »
Geller V, Friger M, Sela BA, & Levine J. (2013) Elevated homocysteine level in siblings of patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry research. PMID: 24051177
The Stanford Prison Experiment has had a remarkable influence in psychology, and has been used to demonstrate the alleged power of situations to triumph over individual differences. However, closer examination of the study's methodology shows that this conclusion is completely unwarranted, and that the study did not provide an adequate test of the role of personality. ... Read more »
Carnahan T, & McFarland S. (2007) Revisiting the Stanford prison experiment: could participant self-selection have led to the cruelty?. Personality , 33(5), 603-14. PMID: 17440210
By making choices in his climate simulations other scientists disagreed with Suki Manabe led the way in showing how much warming to expect, and that abrupt changes are possible. ... Read more »
Syukuro Manabe and Richard T. Wetherald. (1975) The effects of doubling CO2 concentration on the climate of a general circulation model. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. info:/10.1175/1520-0469(1975)0322.0.CO;2
Syukuro Manabe. (1975) The use of comprehensive general circulation modelling for studies of the climate and climate variation. The Physical Basis of Climate and Climate Modelling, Report of the International Study Conference, GARP Publications Series No. 16, World Meteorological Organization. info:/
Wallace S. Broecker, Dorothy M. Peteet . (1985) Does the ocean–atmosphere system have more than one stable mode of operation?. Nature. DOI: 10.1038/315021a0
Syukuro Manabe and Ronald J Stouffer. (1988) Two stable equilibria of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Journal of Climate. DOI: 10.1175/1520-0442(1988)001
Syukuro Manabe and Ronald J Stouffer. (1995) Simulation of abrupt climate change induced by freshwater input to the North Atlantic. Nature. DOI: 10.1038/378165a0
Syukuro Manabe, and Ronald J Stouffer. (2000) Study of abrupt climate change by a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Quaternary Science Reviews. DOI: 10.1016/S0277-3791(99)00066-9
Yoko Tsushima and Suki Manabe. (2013) Assessment of radiative feedback in climate models using satellite observations of annual flux variation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(19), 7568-73. PMID: 23613585
To celebrate caturday today, we check in with a baby pincushion, erm, porcupine, and her apple.... Read more »
Cho W. K., Ankrum J. A., Guo D., Chester S. A., Yang S. Y., Kashyap A., Campbell G. A., Wood R. J., Rijal R. K., & Karnik R. (2012) Microstructured barbs on the North American porcupine quill enable easy tissue penetration and difficult removal. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(52), 21289-21294. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1216441109
Child with Cerebral Palsy being examinedThe effects of a debilitating disease like cerebral palsy on a child, as well as the family of that child, are far beyond what words can describe.Often times, these families are left with few options at the very most in terms of treatment, and have to rely heavily on physical and psychological therapy to try and improve their child’s quality of life.But are there better treatment options?In most cases, children born with cerebral palsy experience a loss ........ Read more »
Barefoot vs shod running: Effects on tibia loads... Read more »
J. Sinclair, P.J. Taylor, S. Andrews. (2013) Influence of barefoot, barefoot inspired and conventional shoes on tibial accelerations and loading kinetics during running in natural rearfoot strikers. Comparative Exercise Physiology. DOI: 10.3920/CEP13023
Scientists have estimated the age of Mars crust by studying zircons found within the Martian meteorite NWA 7533. Age of crust of red plant is found to be about 4.43 million years.
The meteorite NWA (North West Africa) 7533 was discovered by Bedouin tribesmen in the Sahara desert. It is chemically similar to Martian soil analyzed by Martian Rovers that enables the researchers to study the Martian crustal processes and conditions. ........ Read more »
M. Humayun et al. (2013) Origin and age of the earliest Martian crust from meteorite NWA 7533. Nature. DOI: 10.1038/nature12764
We all injure ourselves often- a cut finger when doing the washing up, that scab we can’t resist picking. We don’t usually think much of it, maybe a quick curse, but the wound stops bleeding, stops hurting and heals. But what would happen if scabs didn’t form and if small cuts didn’t stop bleeding? Well for some people this is the case. Haemophilia A, a haemorrhagic disorder, is generally an X-linked recessive trait and effects 1 in 10000 males. It involves defects of p........ Read more »
Du LM, Nurden P, Nurden AT, Nichols TC, Bellinger DA, Jensen ES, Haberichter SL, Merricks E, Raymer RA, Fang J.... (2013) Platelet-targeted gene therapy with human factor VIII establishes haemostasis in dogs with haemophilia A. Nature communications, 2773. PMID: 24253479
Some vertebrates seem to have found the fountain of youth, at least when it comes to their heart. In many amphibians and fish, for example, this important organ has a marked capacity for regeneration and self-healing.There are even some species that have perfected this capability and can completely repair damage caused to heart tissue, thus maintaining the organ's full functionality.However, up until recently it was widely accepted that the mammalian heart had little to no regenerative capac........ Read more »
Uchida S, De Gaspari P, Kostin S, Jenniches K, Kilic A, Izumiya Y, Shiojima I, Grosse Kreymborg K, Renz H, Walsh K.... (2013) Sca1-Derived Cells Are a Source of Myocardial Renewal in the Murine Adult Heart. Stem cell reports, 1(5), 397-410. PMID: 24286028
We already use nanoparticles for various ends. What if they could also act as pills to carry the insulin to our blood instead of having to take insulin shots? Wouldn’t it be so much more easy and painless for diabetes patients?... Read more »
Pridgen EM, Alexis F, Kuo TT, Levy-Nissenbaum E, Karnik R, Blumberg RS, Langer R, & Farokhzad OC. (2013) Transepithelial transport of fc-targeted nanoparticles by the neonatal fc receptor for oral delivery. Science translational medicine, 5(213). PMID: 24285486
Researchers have found that there are some unconscious feelings in the married couples that can better predict the future happiness. So, don’t worry about the apparent behavior or conscious thinkings.
Researchers, in the present study, worked with 135 newlywed couples (270 individuals) for the first four years and found that gut-level feelings are better indicators for the outcome of the relationship. These gut-level feelings ........ Read more »
James K. McNulty et al. (2013) Though They May Be Unaware, Newlyweds Implicitly Know Whether Their Marriage Will Be Satisfying. Science. DOI: 10.1126/science.1243140
Last week, the UK Strategy for Rare Diseases was launched by the Department of Health, which sets out targets to improve and standardise care for rare disease patients across the UK. The strategy concentrates on five main areas: empowering patients; … Continue reading →... Read more »
The blight of Black Friday is upon us. What better time to look at a recent paper on compulsive shopping? Sohn and Choi (2013) adopted a qualitative approach and recruited a small group of Korean housewives with problematic shopping habits via consumer news websites. These nine women ranged in age from 22 to 40. The authors identified their target group as individuals with compulsive buying disorder, who reported a "preoccupation with shopping, pre-purchase tension or anxiety, and sense of reli........ Read more »
Sang-Hee Sohn and Yun-Jung Choi. (2013) Phases of Shopping Addiction Evidenced by Experiences of Compulsive Buyers. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. DOI: 10.1007/s11469-013-9449-y
Scientists have reported that presence of such black holes that are neither very large nor very small.
For a long time, scientists were aware of only two types of black holes. One of the types is about the masses of only 10 times that of our sun and the other is about the masses of 10 billion suns, which are also known as supermassive black holes, i.e. there are only two extremes. Supermassive black holes are present at the heart of g........ Read more »
Matteo Bachetti, Vikram Rana, Dominic J. Walton, Didier Barret, Fiona A. Harrison, Steven E. Boggs, Finn E. Christensen, William W. Craig, Andrew C. Fabian, Felix Fürst.... (2013) The ultraluminous X-ray sources NGC 1313 X-1 and X-2: a broadband study with NuSTAR and XMM-Newton. arXiv. arXiv: 1310.0745v3
The discovery and characterization of microbial species continues to be a long and painstaking process. Scientists have spent decades (well... really centuries) carefully studying the distinct properties of different microbes, examining the evolutionary relationships between different microbes, and organizing microbes into taxonomic groups based on various commonalities.... Read more »
Kang, Ilnam; Oh, Hyun-Myung M; Kang, Dongmin; Cho, Jang-Cheon C. (2013) Genome of a SAR116 bacteriophage shows the prevalence of this phage type in the oceans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1219930110
Early orthodontic treatment for Class II malocclusion reduces the risk of trauma to the front teeth: How do we interpret this data; Odds, Risk and Numbers needed to treat? In my last blog, I described the results of our Cochrane Systematic review into the effectiveness of treatment for Class II malocclusion (http://goo.gl/9aLWlU). In the review […]The post Orthodontic treatment and trauma to the front teeth: Are the risks reduced? appeared first on Kevin O'Brien's Orthodontic........ Read more »
Badri Thiruvenkatachari,, Jayne E Harrison,, Helen V Worthington,, & Kevin D O'Brien. (2013) Orthodontic treatment for prominent upper front teeth in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003452.pub3
New research contradicts the idea that the first farmers were responsible for domesticating dogs. It turns out that dogs became our faithful companions even before the appearance of the first settlements. The appeal presented by hunter-gatherers was enough to arouse the wolf’s curiosity and approach humans.... Read more »
Thalmann O, Shapiro B, Cui P, Schuenemann VJ, Sawyer SK, Greenfield DL, Germonpré MB, Sablin MV, López-Giráldez F, Domingo-Roura X.... (2013) Complete mitochondrial genomes of ancient canids suggest a European origin of domestic dogs. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6160), 871-4. PMID: 24233726
Larson G, Karlsson EK, Perri A, Webster MT, Ho SY, Peters J, Stahl PW, Piper PJ, Lingaas F, Fredholm M.... (2012) Rethinking dog domestication by integrating genetics, archeology, and biogeography. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(23), 8878-83. PMID: 22615366
Vilà C, Savolainen P, Maldonado JE, Amorim IR, Rice JE, Honeycutt RL, Crandall KA, Lundeberg J, & Wayne RK. (1997) Multiple and ancient origins of the domestic dog. Science (New York, N.Y.), 276(5319), 1687-9. PMID: 9180076
Thalmann O, Shapiro B, Cui P, Schuenemann VJ, Sawyer SK, Greenfield DL, Germonpré MB, Sablin MV, López-Giráldez F, Domingo-Roura X, Napierala H,Uerpmann HP, Loponte DM, Acosta AA, Giemsch L, Schmitz RW, Worthington B, Buikstra JE, Druzhkova A, Graphoda. (2013) Fossil dogs and wolves from Palaeolithic sites in Belgium, the Ukraine and Russia: osteometry, ancient DNA and stable isotopes. Science . DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2008.09.033
Ovodov ND, Crockford SJ, Kuzmin YV, Higham TF, Hodgins GW, & van der Plicht J. (2011) A 33,000-year-old incipient dog from the Altai Mountains of Siberia: evidence of the earliest domestication disrupted by the Last Glacial Maximum. PloS one, 6(7). PMID: 21829526
Pang JF, Kluetsch C, Zou XJ, Zhang AB, Luo LY, Angleby H, Ardalan A, Ekström C, Sköllermo A, Lundeberg J.... (2009) mtDNA data indicate a single origin for dogs south of Yangtze River, less than 16,300 years ago, from numerous wolves. Molecular biology and evolution, 26(12), 2849-64. PMID: 19723671
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