Post List

  • July 30, 2014
  • 08:23 PM
  • 7 views

How the presence of a bilingual school changes the linguistic profile of a community

by Ingrid Piller in Language on the Move

It is one of the great narratives of our time that the market will fix everything. In education this means that parental choice is assumed to improve education. Rather than the state supplying high-quality education, the neoliberal credo is that … Continue reading →... Read more »

Clyne, Michael. (2005) Australia's Language Potential . Sydney, UNSW Press. . info:/

  • July 30, 2014
  • 06:48 PM
  • 6 views

Keeping lithium contained: new design allows for high energy-density anode in Li-ion batteries

by Jonathan Trinastic in Goodnight Earth

Researchers have found a way to limit volume expansion and prevent dendrite formation of all-lithium anodes. This promises to increase the energy density of Li-ion batteries!... Read more »

Zheng, G., Lee, S., Liang, Z., Lee, H., Yan, K., Yao, H., Wang, H., Li, W., Chu, S., & Cui, Y. (2014) Interconnected hollow carbon nanospheres for stable lithium metal anodes. Nature Nanotechnology. DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2014.152  

  • July 30, 2014
  • 01:31 PM
  • 16 views

Suicide, it might be in the blood

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

I tried to kill myself, more than once in fact. It was a troubling time for me and as a former active duty Marine that might not be too surprising […]... Read more »

  • July 30, 2014
  • 11:24 AM
  • 9 views

Violent Death Rates Increased After Traumatic Brain Injury

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Anecdotal reports have linked traumatic brain injury with later violent death including death by suicide.Few large epidemiological studies have been published on this association.However, a recent Swedish population study published in JAMA Psychiatry provides valuable insight into this issue.Seena Fazel and colleagues from the University of Oxford, University College London and the Karolinksa Institute examined a large database of over 200,000 patients with TBI.Cases of TBI were identified from all Swedish persons born in or after 1954 who received a ICD diagnosis of TBI.  These diagnoses were assigned by physicians treating hospitalized or clinic patients.TBI cases were then examined for cause of death using the Swedish National Cause-of-Death Register. Death rates for TBI were compared to two control groups in the period at least six months following TBI. One control group was an age and sex-matched general population group without a TBI diagnosis.A second control group was comprised of siblings of the TBI group who themselves had not suffered a TBI. This type of control group is helpful in controlling for important sociodemographic variables. The key findings from the study included:TBI cases had significantly higher rates of death during follow up with odds ratios estimates of 2.6 using sib controls and 3.2 using population controlsViolent death causes were key contributors to increased mortality in TBI including (sib OR, population control OR)motor vehicle accidents (2.5, 3.2)non-motor vehicle accidents (3.4, 5.2)assault (2.7, 3.9)suicide (2.3, 3.3) The research team examined potential mortality co-factors including pre-existing and post-TBI depression diagnosis, alcohol abuse and drug abuse. Additionally they examined effects of sex, TBI severity, brain imaging abnormalities and presence of concussion.TBI cases had higher rates compared to controls for pre-existing any psychiatric diagnosis, depression, alcohol abuse and drug abuse.TBI cases also had higher rates for a new diagnosis of any psychiatric diagnosis, depression, alcohol abuse and drug abuse.In the TBI sample with premature mortality, 61% had a lifetime diagnosis of a psychiatric or substance abuse diagnosis.Medical factors contributing to violent death including suicide were presence of a TBI-related brain imaging abnormality (edema, focal changes, hemorrhage), more severe TBI and presence of concussion.This study confirms that TBI is an independent contributor to increased premature violent death including suicide. However, pre-existing psychiatric and substance abuse problems may contribute both to risk of TBI and risk of premature violent death. Additionally, the increased rate for developing a post-TBI depression, alcohol abuse or drug abuse may also contribute to violent death risk.The highest rates for suicide were those with TBI and depression as well as for those with TBI and substance abuse.The take home message here is pretty clear. Clinicians treating and following TBI populations need to monitor closely for co-occurring psychiatric illness, depression and substance abuse. Close monitoring and intervention for these co-occurring disorders may reduce premature mortality due to suicide and other violent death in TBI.Readers with more interest in this research can access the free full-text manuscript by clicking on the PMID link in the citation below.Photo of osprey is from the author's files.Follow the author on Twitter WRY999.Fazel S, Wolf A, Pillas D, Lichtenstein P, & Långström N (2014). Suicide, fatal injuries, and other causes of premature mortality in patients with traumatic brain injury: a 41-year Swedish population study. JAMA psychiatry, 71 (3), 326-33 PMID: 24430827... Read more »

  • July 30, 2014
  • 10:46 AM
  • 16 views

Influenza: How the Great War helped create the greatest pandemic the world has ever known | @GrrlScientist

by GrrlScientist in GrrlScientist

The Great War helped create the influenza pandemic of 1918, which eventually brought an early end to the Great War. Continue reading...... Read more »

  • July 30, 2014
  • 09:41 AM
  • 12 views

Video Tip of the Week: PhenDisco, “phenotype discoverer” for dbGap data

by Mary in OpenHelix

The dbGaP, database of Genotypes and Phenotypes, repository at NCBI collects information from research projects that link genotype and phenotype information and human variation, across many different types of studies, providing leads on variation that may be important to understand clinical issues. Some of the data is publicly available de-identified patient information, and some of the […]... Read more »

Doan Son, Lin Ko-Wei, Conway Mike, Ohno-Machado Lucila, Hsieh Alex, Feupe Stephanie Feudjio, Garland Asher, Ross Mindy K, Jiang Xiaoqian, & Farzaneh Seena. (2013) PhenDisco: phenotype discovery system for the database of genotypes and phenotypes. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA. PMID: 23989082  

Tryka K. A., A. Sturcke, Y. Jin, Z. Y. Wang, L. Ziyabari, M. Lee, N. Popova, N. Sharopova, M. Kimura, & M. Feolo. (2013) NCBI's Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes: dbGaP. Nucleic Acids Research, 42(D1). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkt1211  

  • July 30, 2014
  • 09:19 AM
  • 16 views

Higher Implicit Self-Esteem Linked to Positive Evaluation of Spouses

by amikulak in Daily Observations

It’s often said that we can’t love others unless we love ourselves.  According to a new study, this may be true, but perhaps in a different way than we expect: […]... Read more »

  • July 30, 2014
  • 08:30 AM
  • 12 views

The Attentive Look of a Dog in Training

by CAPB in Companion Animal Psychology Blog

Researchers investigate the body language of a dog that is performing well in training.Photo: Markus Balint / ShutterstockA new study puts dogs through the first stage of a basic training task and analyzes eye contact and posture in the most successful dogs. The research by Masashi Hasegawa et al (Azabu University School of Veterinary Medicine) is motivated by a desire to improve people’s training abilities by helping them recognize the posture associated with successful learning. One of the neat things about this paper is that the study was done with completely untrained dogs. For obvious reasons, many canine science studies use well-behaved pet dogs of the kind that is calm when taken to a strange location like a university laboratory. While these studies are valuable, not all dogs are well-socialized and it’s important that research considers all kinds of dogs. What better dog for a study of dogs-in-training than one that is totally untrained?!The dogs live at a place called the World Ranch in Osaka, Japan. 46 dogs took part, aged 1 to 6.5 (average 3 years), and a wide mix of breeds. Training was carried out by someone previously unknown to the dogs, in sessions of 5 minutes each that took place in the dogs’ exercise yard. The handler used food to lure the dog into a sit position. He only did this when he had the dog’s attention, but he did it as many times as he could in the 5 minute session. After this, there was a 3 minute rest, followed by a test in which the hand signal was performed on its own (without food) 20 times. Every time the dog sat on request, whether in the training session or the test, it was given a piece of food.Each dog had three sessions like this a day, for three days, to make a total of nine sessions. The sessions were videoed so that the dogs’ body language could be analyzed.The results showed a positive correlation between the number of trials in the training session and the number of correct responses in the tests. In other words, practice makes perfect: the more practice a dog had, the better it performed on the test. In addition, the age of the dog was not linked to the number of correct responses; dogs could learn at any age.The dogs were divided into two groups for further analysis: those that had performed especially well on the tests, and the rest. This meant the body language of dogs that are successfully learning could be compared to those that are performing less well.The high-achieving dogs had their eyes wide open, their mouths closed, their ears forward, and their tails were high but not wagging. Surprisingly, the researchers consider this in terms of dominance, the open eyes being seen as dominant but the other aspects of the posture not. It does not make sense to consider the relationship between dog and trainer as one of dominance; the dog is trying to understand how to earn the treat, and if it hasn’t figured it out yet then it shows a need for the trainer to make it clear.The most interesting finding is that the wide eyes occurred mostly when the dog looked up at the handler’s face, showing that gaze from the dog to the handler is important in training. This is in line with Braem and Mills (2010), who also found a positive association between dogs looking at the handler and their performance in learning. Deldalle and Gaunet (2014) found that dogs trained using positive reinforcement gaze more at their owners during the sit command and when walking on leash than dogs trained using negative reinforcement, demonstrating a better relationship between dog and owner in the R+ group.  This study only looked at the stage of using a lure. Dogs did not progress beyond this, even though they responded to the lure many times. One Papillion had 194 trials! (That must have been a happy dog). Even starting with a completely untrained dog, it is possible to teach ‘sit’ quickly. It would be nice to see the research repeated using an incremental training plan that progresses via hand signal to a verbal command. It's also possible body language will change in response to continued training, and future research could follow dogs as they learn a set of commands. In fact the initial lure, although exactly where you would start, is too difficult for some dogs. When this is the case, it would be more appropriate just to expect their head to follow the lure, without going into a full sit at the beginning.  We should be able to say that any dog training book will explain how to teach your dog the basics, but sadly this is not the case. Some books still recommend the use of unnecessary aversive techniques; if a book suggests hitting your dog, jerking the leash, or doing a so-called ‘alpha’ roll, discard it and choose another book instead! For an excellent example of how to fade the food lure when teaching sit, see this post on fading food lures and adding a verbal cueby Lori Nanan at Your Pit Bull and You. If you’re a keen trainer and want to get into the techie details, you’ll like Train Your Dog Like a Pro by Jean Donaldson. What’s your favourite dog training book and why?ReferenceBraem, M., & Mills, D. (2010). Factors affecting response of dogs to obedience instruction: A field and experimental study Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 125 (1-2), 47-55 DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2010.03.004Deldalle, S., & Gaunet, F. (2014). Effects of 2 training methods on stress-related behaviors of the dog (Canis familiaris) and on the dog–owner relationship Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Resear... Read more »

  • July 30, 2014
  • 08:10 AM
  • 40 views

Does Life Come In XXXS?

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Is there a minimum size for life? How would you measure it, cell volume or genome size? People do both. The current minimum example of life is Mycoplasma genitalium, at just 200 nm by 600 nm in well-fed cultures. M. genitalium also has the smallest known genome for a free-living organism (520 genes, we have about 27,000). Some organisms have fewer genes (137 or so) but are endosymbionts, so they can get away with trashing some of their DNA. New research shows that M. genitalium is a pathogenic organism as well, being sexually transmitted and more common than N. gonorrhoeae.

There are smaller structures, like nanobacteria, but we don’t know they are alive. Found in many disease states, nanobacteria are claimed to be pathogenic, but a late 2013 study showed that they are mineral formations that are generated spontaneously from many biological fluids. We’ll have to keep looking for small stuff.
... Read more »

Manhart LE. (2013) Mycoplasma genitalium: An emergent sexually transmitted disease?. Infectious disease clinics of North America, 27(4), 779-92. PMID: 24275270  

Gibson DG, Glass JI, Lartigue C, Noskov VN, Chuang RY, Algire MA, Benders GA, Montague MG, Ma L, Moodie MM.... (2010) Creation of a bacterial cell controlled by a chemically synthesized genome. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5987), 52-6. PMID: 20488990  

  • July 30, 2014
  • 07:32 AM
  • 46 views

Potentially habitable exoplanets found

by Jeffrey Daniels in United Academics

Two systems in the cosmic realm that are the closest to Earth found so far. At half the speed of light we can visit them within a single human lifetime.... Read more »

Anglada-Escude, G., Arriagada, P., Tuomi, M., Zechmeister, M., Jenkins, J., Ofir, A., Dreizler, S., Gerlach, E., Marvin, C., Reiners, A.... (2014) Two planets around Kapteyn's star: a cold and a temperate super-Earth orbiting the nearest halo red dwarf. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, 443(1). DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/slu076  

  • July 30, 2014
  • 06:59 AM
  • 44 views

Efficient Room-Temperature Phosphorescent OLEDs Developed

by dailyfusion in The Daily Fusion

The team of Jinsang Kim, a professor of materials science and engineering and chemical engineering at the University of Michigan, developed bright, metal-free, organic, phosphorescent light emitters.... Read more »

  • July 30, 2014
  • 05:35 AM
  • 38 views

When the cuddle hormone turns nasty - oxytocin linked with violent intentions

by Christian Jarrett in BPS Research Digest

For many years, the hormone oxytocin was caricatured as the source of all human goodness - trust, altruism, love, and morality. Among the findings that contributed to this picture were the discovery that sniffing oxytocin increases people's trust and generosity in financial games; that it aids face recognition; and that its release is associated with maternal bonding; and with orgasm.However, the picture has grown a lot more complicated of late, with findings showing that oxytocin has a "dark side" - for example, boosting envy and shadenfreude. Now a team of researchers led by Nathan DeWall has further sullied the reputation of this once idolised molecule. They've demonstrated that for certain people in particular circumstances, exposure to oxytocin might actually lead to increased violence.The researchers split 93 undergraduates (47 men) into two groups - one group sniffed oxytocin, the other group sniffed a salt water solution. The students didn't know whether they'd received the oxytocin or the placebo, and the researchers were also blinded to who'd received what. Next the students completed two tasks designed to make them stressed, including giving a public presentation to an unfriendly audience. Finally, they answered two questions about their tendency to be physically aggressive, and further questions about how likely it was that they'd engage in violence towards a current or former romantic partner based on how they currently felt.Here's the main finding - oxytocin boosted the self-confessed likelihood of being violent towards a partner, specifically in those students who admitted that they have a proclivity for physical aggression. DeWall's team think this fits with an emerging, more nuanced understanding of oxytocin's effects. It remains true that the hormone plays an important role in maintaining human relationships, but this isn't always an innocent function. Previous research shows oxytocin can increase intolerance and aggression towards outsiders. Now we learn that for people who typically resort to aggression to keep hold of their romantic partners, stress plus increased oxytocin nudges them towards violence."Our findings add to the understanding of the 'prickly side of oxytocin'," said DeWall and his team. "Far from being a panacea for all social ills, oxytocin may have a much more diversified effect, as in the current case."_________________________________  DeWall, C., Gillath, O., Pressman, S., Black, L., Bartz, J., Moskovitz, J., & Stetler, D. (2014). When the Love Hormone Leads to Violence: Oxytocin Increases Intimate Partner Violence Inclinations Among High Trait Aggressive People Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5 (6), 691-697 DOI: 10.1177/1948550613516876 --further reading--A social 'Viagra' for shy people?Why do some men insult their partners?Post written by Christian Jarrett (@psych_writer) for the BPS Research Digest.

... Read more »

  • July 30, 2014
  • 05:27 AM
  • 17 views

Subduing the Hive Mind: An enemy’s enemy could become an unlikely friend

by socgenmicro in Microbe Post

Leafcutter ants form some of the biggest, most remarkable animal societies on Earth, living in sprawling colonies of up to 8 million individuals. These ants harvest more greenery in South American rainforests than any other animal, consuming almost 20% of … Continue reading →... Read more »

  • July 30, 2014
  • 04:52 AM
  • 16 views

Immunological effects from risperidone treatment in autism

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

The findings from Jai Eun Choi and colleagues [1] suggesting that use of the antipsychotic risperidone may impact on levels of certain cytokines - messenger cells of the immune system - in some cases of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) grabbed my attention recently. I've always been pretty interested in the complexity of the immune system when it comes to something like autism (see here) as well as the various examples of how many of the medications used to 'manage' aspects of autism appear to have quite a few more biological effects over and above those listed on the patient information leaflet. Think melatonin for example, and what a molecular handyperson this pharmaceutic has turned out to be (see here).Could it be magic... @ Wikipedia The Choi paper worked on the assumption that use of risperidone and other antipsychotics have previously been shown to correlate with changes to serum levels of certain cytokines as per examples of work in the area of schizophrenia [2] and here [3]. Some of this research even hinted that part of the reason why antipsychotics might 'work' in some cases of schizophrenia was to do with their potential effect on "the inflammatory-like situation" present [4]. Certainly it's been noted before on this blog how inflammation may very well play some role when it comes to psychiatry (see here) particularly in light of some of the research on the various inflammatory markers (see here) accepting the chicken-and-egg question of what comes first: inflammation or symptoms?Anyhow, based on a small-ish sample (n=45), Choi et al looked at plasma levels of "27 different cytokines" both before risperidone treatment was introduced and after 8 weeks on the drug. Interestingly the words 'responders' and 'nonresponders' were included in the analyses undertaken to look for any changes/trends following antipsychotic use (something which I think more studies should head towards). As it happens, "2 of the 27 plasma cytokines showed statistically significant decreases in median levels" - eotaxin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Further, when those responders and non-responders were separated out "the median values of interleukin (IL)-5 were significantly higher (p=0.005) in the overall responder group than in nonresponders".Obviously one has to be a little bit guarded about the conclusions reached from this fairly small and fairly short study. Whilst risperidone does have a place in the medicines cabinet for some people with autism (see here), paediatric use (as was the case in the Choi study) is not without risks as per a recent entry on the SFARI website (see here). The guidance from NICE here in the UK (well, England at least) also mentioned how cautious physicians must be when using antipsychotics "for behaviour that challenges" with autism in mind.I was quite interested in the Choi findings particularly that of the elevations in IL-5 in the responder group. I'm no expert on IL-5 but some light reading around the topic (see here) seems to imply that elevations of this cytokine are probably not going to be a great thing from the point of view of their involvement in the activation of eosinophils [5]. I've talked before on this blog about some of the work looking at eosinophils and autism (see here) and some potentially interesting correlations with other research (see here). I'd perhaps like to see more about this correlation in future studies particularly building on other findings in relation to IL-5 and autism [6] (open-access here) including as part of being a risk factor for offspring autism [7] (open-access here).Insofar as the eotaxin and MCP-1 findings, well, again there is probably a lot more work to do on these compounds as a function of their mention in other autism research [8] (open-access here). The paper by Paul Ashwood [9] (who incidentally was an author on the Choi paper) looking at Fragile X syndrome (FXS) with and without autism also caught my eye: "significant differences were observed between the FXS group with autism and the FXS without autism for IL-6, eotaxin, MCP-1" as another avenue for further study.So then... somewhere the drinks are free (or should that be all-inclusive).----------[1] Choi JE. et al. Change in Plasma Cytokine Levels During Risperidone Treatment in Children with Autism. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2014 May 14.[2] Zhang XY. et al. Changes in serum interleukin-2, -6, and -8 levels before and during treatment with risperidone and haloperidol: relationship to outcome in schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004 Jul;65(7):940-7.[3] Kim DJ. et al. Effect of risperidone on serum cytokines. Int J Neurosci. 2001;111(1-2):11-9.[4] Cazzullo CL. et al. Cytokine profiles in schizophrenic patients treated with risperidone: a 3-month follow-up study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2002 Jan;26(1):33-9.[5] Takatsu K. & Nakajima H. IL-5 and eosinophilia. Curr Opin Immunol. 2008 Jun;20(3):288-94.[6] Suzuki K. et al. Plasma cytokine profiles in subjects with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. PLoS One. 2011;6(5):e20470.[7] Goines PE. et al. Increased midgestational IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 in women bearing a child with autism: A case-control study. Mol Autism. 2011 Aug 2;2:13.[8] Ashwood P. et al. Associations of impaired behaviors with elevated plasma chemokines in autism spectrum disorders. J Neuroimmunol. 2011 Mar;232(1-2):196-9.[... Read more »

Choi JE, Widjaja F, Careaga M, Bent S, Ashwood P, & Hendren RL. (2014) Change in Plasma Cytokine Levels During Risperidone Treatment in Children with Autism. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology. PMID: 24828014  

  • July 30, 2014
  • 12:05 AM
  • 11 views

The Devil Is In The Details…If You Can Get The Details Out

by Kyle Harris in Sports Medicine Research (SMR): In the Lab & In the Field

Over 75% of surveyed collegiate athletes, who believed they sustained a concussion in the past year, reported not seeking proper medical attention for that concussion. The most common reason athletes reported not seeking proper medical attention was not believing the concussion was severe enough to warrant stopping the activity to seek out a medical professional.... Read more »

  • July 29, 2014
  • 05:00 PM
  • 9 views

A simple and useable classification of software by Aral Balkan via Wuthering Bytes

by Duncan Hull in O'Really?

It’s getting pretty hard to do anything these days that doesn’t involve software. Our governments, businesses, laboratories, personal lives and entertainment would look very different without the software that makes them tick. How can we classify all this software to make sense of it all? The likes of this huge list of software categories on wikipedia are pretty bewildering, and projects such as the Software Ontology (SWO) [1] are attempting to make sense of swathes of software too. There’s lots of software out there.... Read more »

  • July 29, 2014
  • 01:15 PM
  • 41 views

Can’t Handle the Stress? Blame your Brain

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

Do you rise to the occasion, or do you fold under the pressure? No matter which side of the fence you’re, you can thank [or blame] your brain. Some people […]... Read more »

  • July 29, 2014
  • 12:32 PM
  • 34 views

Are silly superstitions useful because they are silly?

by neuroecology in Neuroecology

(Attention warning: massive speculation ahead.) Auguries often seem made up, useless. Is that why they are useful? Dove figured that the birds must be serving as some kind of ecological indicator. Perhaps they gravitated toward good soil, or smaller trees, or some other useful characteristic of a swidden site. After all, the Kantu’ had been […]... Read more »

  • July 29, 2014
  • 12:02 PM
  • 37 views

When Mom and Dad Have Different Migratory Routes, Kids Fly Right Down the Middle

by Elizabeth Preston in Inkfish

It sounds like the setup to a bad joke told by zoologists: What do you get when you cross a bird that always flies to the west with one that always flies east? But the punch line is weirder than you’d guess. Birds’ migratory routes are partly coded into their DNA. A baby that inherits […]The post When Mom and Dad Have Different Migratory Routes, Kids Fly Right Down the Middle appeared first on Inkfish.... Read more »

  • July 29, 2014
  • 11:55 AM
  • 34 views

Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Coronavirus, Autophagy, and the ER stress response

by thelonevirologist in Virology Tidbits

The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER lumen induces a stress response commonly known as the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) or ER stress response, an adaptive signalling pathway increasing the expression of ER chaperones, inhibiting mRNA translation, and stimulating ER associated degradation (ERAD) of accumulated proteins. The degradation via the ERAD pathway in particular requires the formation of double membrane vesicles -more commonly referred to as autophagosomes - which subsequently fuse with lysosomes to form the autolysosome. The ERAD pathway can be induced by all three branches of the ER stress response -PERK, ATF6, and IRE1- which increase the expression of ER degradation enhancer, mannosidase alpha-like-1/-2 (EDEM1/2) proteins in addition to other components of the ERAD pathway either by ATF4 (in conjunction with sXBP1) by cleaved ATF6α. Binding of cytosolic misfolded proteins to components of the ERAD pathway allows the retrotranslocation of these protein into the ER lumen where ER chaperones may assist these proteins to be folded correctly and/or be glycosylated in a process which involves binding to EDEM1/2/3. JEV induces autophagy early in the infection but apoptosis at later stages. The pathways linking autophagy and apoptosis to ER stress response are discussed and the role of JEV proteins in the induction of both apoptosis and autophagy via CHOP is highlighted and compared to Coronavirus nsp -3/-4/-6.... Read more »

Rzymski T, Milani M, Pike L, Buffa F, Mellor HR, Winchester L, Pires I, Hammond E, Ragoussis I, & Harris AL. (2010) Regulation of autophagy by ATF4 in response to severe hypoxia. Oncogene, 29(31), 4424-35. PMID: 20514020  

Li JK, Liang JJ, Liao CL, & Lin YL. (2012) Autophagy is involved in the early step of Japanese encephalitis virus infection. Microbes and infection / Institut Pasteur, 14(2), 159-68. PMID: 21946213  

Cottam EM, Whelband MC, & Wileman T. (2014) Coronavirus NSP6 restricts autophagosome expansion. Autophagy, 10(8). PMID: 24991833  

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