Brain Posts

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597 posts · 682,758 views

I am a physician interested in clinical neuroscience research. I will use this blog to post more detailed analysis of recent studies in addition to my @WRY999 Twitter scientific reading log. I will also post some of my wildlife/sports photography. Aim to educate and amuse. Not selling anything.

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  • May 26, 2017
  • 11:42 AM
  • 80 views

Adolescent Brain Development

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Functional magnetic resonance imaging yields improvement in our understanding of brain development.A recent study out of the University of Pennsylvania is a good example. This study examined the relationship between brain connectivity and the development of cognitive executive function.The researchers imaged a group of 882 subjects between the ages of 8 and 22.Brain connectivity patterns were compared with a neurocognitive assessment of executive function. Executive function increases with age t........ Read more »

Graham L. Baum, Rastko Ciric, David R. Roalf, Richard F. Betzel, Tyler M. Moore, Russel T. Shinohara, Ari E. Kahn, Megan Quarmley, Philip A. Cook, Mark A. Elliot.... (2016) Modular Segregation of Structural Brain Networks Supports the Development of Executive Function in Youth. Current Biology. arXiv: 1608.03619v1

  • May 17, 2017
  • 11:24 AM
  • 119 views

Dad's Impact in Infant Development

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Mother's interaction with their infants play a key role in infant development.The independent role of fathers in infant development is less well known and studied.A recent study from the United Kingdom supports a important role for father-child interactions in infant development.Here are the main elements of the design of this study:Subjects: Families of infants with typical deliveries were recruited from maternity wards in two hospitals in the United Kingdom.Design: Home assessments were comple........ Read more »

  • April 3, 2017
  • 10:23 AM
  • 296 views

Financial Scam Vulnerability: Brain Risk Factors

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

It is always frustrating when you hear about a financial scam that has target a vulnerable population like the elderly population.Elderly individuals may be targeted for a variety of reasons. First, they often have financial resources. Second, they may be a generally more trustworthy group increasing risk for falling for a scam. Third, elderly may suffer from some age-related brain changes that impair cognition and judgment.A recent research study suggests specific brain deficits may increase vu........ Read more »

  • March 27, 2017
  • 12:07 PM
  • 305 views

Theory of Mind in Brain Development

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Theory of Mind (ToM) is a concept describing the ability to understand what another person is thinking or feeling.Today in my neuroscience medicine news review I ran across a novel, interesting and important research study targeting brain development in ToM.Normally developing children develop ToM around 4 years of age. In the study published in Nature Communications, a research team at the Max Planck Institute in Germany studied white matter development in 3 to 4 year old children.Using a serie........ Read more »

  • March 20, 2017
  • 11:25 AM
  • 307 views

Opioids, Benzos and Risk for Overdose

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

The evolving epidemic of opioid overdose and overdose deaths is receiving increased public and research attention.Opioids overdoses and overdose deaths are often unintentional or accidental. It has been known that concurrent use of opioids with alcohol or benzodiazepines (i.e. Valium or Xanax) increases risk for overdose toxicity.A recent study published in the British Medical Journal confirmed the association of concurrent benzodiazepine prescription with opioid overdose.This research team exam........ Read more »

  • March 15, 2017
  • 12:57 PM
  • 334 views

Emotional Intelligence and the Physician

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Emotional intelligence (EI) is characterized by the ability to recognize emotional states in self and in others.This emotional recognition may be helpful in guiding behavior and in improving interpersonal relationships.It seems logical on a face validity level to assume that higher levels of EI would be good in the selection of students for medical school.However, there are few studies assessing EI in physicians. There are fewer studies that examine whether EI influences physician behavior, pati........ Read more »

  • March 13, 2017
  • 11:38 AM
  • 316 views

Earliest Brain Changes in Alzheimer's Disease

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Amyloid brain plaques are well-known pathological changes associated with Alzheimer's disease. Changes preceding amyloid plaque build up are less well studied and understood. Some of this relates to limitations to current imaging technology.Klementieva and colleagues from Sweden and Spain recently published an important reserach topic in this area.Their studied used a rat model of Alzheimer's disease and imaging techniques that included infrared microspectroscopy and gel electrophoresis.The........ Read more »

Klementieva, O., Willén, K., Martinsson, I., Israelsson, B., Engdahl, A., Cladera, J., Uvdal, P., & Gouras, G. (2017) Pre-plaque conformational changes in Alzheimer’s disease-linked Aβ and APP. Nature Communications, 14726. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14726  

  • March 7, 2017
  • 11:01 AM
  • 319 views

Can Older Drivers Benefit From Training?

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Older drivers are over-represented in motor-vehicle driving accidents.The lowest rate of fatal vehicle crashes per 100 million miles driven is found in drivers between the ages of 30-69 years of age.Fatal vehicle driving rates per miles driven is 4 to 5 times higher in drivers over 80 years of age. (IIHS.org data)So can older drivers be trained or educated to improve their safety (and the safety o those around them)?A recent randomized controlled trial examined an educational intervention in dri........ Read more »

  • March 2, 2017
  • 12:19 PM
  • 320 views

Improving Hearing-Aid Access in Older Adults

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

There are significant barriers to widespread use of hearing-aids in older adults with age-related hearing loss.Sensitivity to the stigma of wearing a hearing-aid is one barrier.Cost is another significant barrier. In the U.S., bilateral hearing-aid purchase amounts to a cost of $2400 to $5800. This cost is typically not covered by Medicare or other health insurance plans.I ran into a interesting manuscript on looking at an alternative less costlier approach to hearing-aid selection and purchase......... Read more »

  • February 28, 2017
  • 10:43 AM
  • 323 views

Outcome in Early Education Interventions (Educare)

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Despite centuries of experience in education, the best time to start formal education is still under debate. Is five years of age too old? Is three years of age too early?One issue with early education interventions is the potential for catch-up in children starting school later. In other words, early gains with younger children may evaporate overtime.One recent research study examines effectiveness of a child development intervention known as Educare. Educare seeks to reduce the achievement gap........ Read more »

Yazejian, N., Bryant, D., Hans, S., Horm, D., St. Clair, L., File, N., & Burchinal, M. (2017) Child and Parenting Outcomes After 1 Year of Educare. Child Development. DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12688  

  • February 3, 2017
  • 11:22 AM
  • 216 views

Brain Shape and Personality Type

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Personality has often been conceptualized a a human feature shaped largely by nurture and environment.Unlike major neuroscience medicine disorders, personality features have been considered less influenced by brain structure and genetic influences.A recent brain structure (morphology) study puts these assumptions at risk.Roberta Riccelli along with colleagues in Italy and Florida State University studied brain structural features across 507 participants in the Human Connectome Project.All subjec........ Read more »

  • January 25, 2017
  • 12:06 PM
  • 444 views

Jet Lag and Baseball (MLB) Performance

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Abrupt changes in the biological clock or circadian rhythm are noted to contribute to significant cognitive and psychomotor impairments.One practical area for this effect to potentially be important is in the area of sports performance.Alex Song and colleagues recently completed an interesting study of major league baseball (MLB) performance related to team travel patterns.The major leagues are divided into regional divisions (western, central and eastern) to minimize length of travel to and fro........ Read more »

Song A, Severini T, & Allada R. (2017) How jet lag impairs Major League Baseball performance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. PMID: 28115724  

  • January 23, 2017
  • 10:59 AM
  • 400 views

Processing Speed Cognition in Elderly: Clinical Trial

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Processing speed declines significantly with age and contributes to impairment and disability in old age.There is little known about whether age-related processing speed decline can be slowed with interventionA recent clinical trial by a Japanese group targeted processing speed training in a group of 72 elderly.This study found significant effects for a daily 15 minute processing speed training game over 4 weeks.In contrast to a control group, the intervention group found specific improvement in........ Read more »

  • December 6, 2016
  • 12:07 PM
  • 526 views

Online Insomnia Therapy Effective in Clinical Trial

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Insomnia of sufficient severity to meet clinical significance is estimated to affect up to 20% of the general population.This makes insomnia an important public health challenge.Effective, inexpensive and accessible programs to treat insomnia are needed.One recent controlled clinical trial supports the promise of an online intervention that incorporates key elements of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).Lee Ritterband and colleagues at the University of Virginia recently published a controlled c........ Read more »

  • November 29, 2016
  • 11:24 AM
  • 560 views

Your Brain On God: Reward and Motivation

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

William James authored a seminal book titled The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature that was published in 1902.In this work, James reviewed the nature of religious experiences and noted a lack of scientific inquiry into this human phenomenon.James would have been extremely interested in a recent scientific inquiry into the religious experience from brain researchers at the University of Utah and Harvard University.In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI........ Read more »

Ferguson MA, Nielsen JA, King JB, Dai L, Giangrasso DM, Holman R, Korenberg JR, & Anderson JS. (2016) Reward, Salience, and Attentional Networks are Activated by Religious Experience in Devout Mormons. Social neuroscience. PMID: 27834117  

  • November 21, 2016
  • 11:10 AM
  • 534 views

Benefits of Physical Activity in Parkison's Disease

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegerative disorder estimated to affect 7 to 10 million individual worldwide.The primary mechanism for Parkinson's disease is a reduction in the neurotransmitter dopamine in the midbrain region of the substantia nigra highlighted in red in the figure.PD impairs motor and cognitive functions and leads to significant decline in psychosocial functioning.Drugs for PD can be effective in reversing and slowing the progression of the illness. However, resp........ Read more »

Lauzé M, Daneault JF, & Duval C. (2016) The Effects of Physical Activity in Parkinson's Disease: A Review. Journal of Parkinson's disease, 6(4), 685-698. PMID: 27567884  

  • November 17, 2016
  • 11:00 AM
  • 562 views

Missed Opportunities in Stroke Prevention

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Rates of myocardial infarction and stroke have been declining over the last decade in the U.S. and Europe. However, a recent manuscript suggests there are still significant missed opportunities to prevent stroke.This manuscript presents results of review of electronic primary care records in the United Kingdom.The authors examines a group of over 29,000 subjects with a diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack over a 10 year period.Records were reviewed to assess for compliance with guide........ Read more »

  • November 15, 2016
  • 11:38 AM
  • 529 views

Celebrex Boosts Antidepressant Response

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

I ran into an interesting article at ScienceDaily providing data on a small sample size study of the anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib (Celebrex) in depression.Access the ScienceDaily report on this study by clicking HERE.This study focused on subjects with bipolar depression. All subjects were in a depressed phase and received the antidepressant drug escitalopram (Lexapro).Although only 55 subjects participated in this study, the results were significant and large. Adding Celebrex to escitalopra........ Read more »

  • November 2, 2016
  • 11:09 AM
  • 504 views

Weight Training Boosts Brain Size and Performance

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Aerobic exercise increases brain blood flow and has demonstrated beneficial effects on cognition.The effects of weight training exercise on the brain is less frequently studied. Hence, we know little about the effect and mechanism of weight training on brain function and performance.A recent study provides some needed insight on this topic.A study by C Suo and colleagues from Australia examined the effects of resistance training and cognitive skills training on brain structure and function.The k........ Read more »

Suo C, Singh MF, Gates N, Wen W, Sachdev P, Brodaty H, Saigal N, Wilson GC, Meiklejohn J, Singh N.... (2016) Therapeutically relevant structural and functional mechanisms triggered by physical and cognitive exercise. Molecular psychiatry, 21(11), 1645. PMID: 27090304  

  • October 24, 2016
  • 11:19 AM
  • 554 views

Exercise After Study Boosts Memory

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

There is significant interest in activities that may boost academic achievement in the classroom.I previously posted on evidence that exercise prior to a learning task improved reading comprehension scores.You can access that post by clicking HERE.Now a study has compared two types of activities after a memorization task in male students.In this study, 60 male students completed a learning task and then were randomized into one of three activities for one hour. The three activities were playing ........ Read more »

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