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Like the clever and many-armed cephalopod, Inkfish reaches into all areas of science and brings you interpretations of the newest stories.
If turtles had realtors, their motto would also be "Location, location, location!"—but not because they care about a scenic vista. The spot a mother turtle chooses to dig her nest determines whether her young will be males or females. This might even be the most important factor in her decision.A female painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) is not an over-involved parent. She digs a hole in the dirt, lays a batch of eggs there, and buries them. Then she returns to her freshwater life without giving........ Read more »
Timothy S. Mitchell, Jessica A. Maciel, & Fredric J. Janzen. (2013) Does sex-ratio selection influence nest-site choice in a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination?. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2013.2460
Just because girl talk between bees is wordless doesn't mean it lacks for intimate details. When sister honey bees gather around their queen, they can tell from her pheromones whether she's mated—and how much. What they learn may determine whether they let her live.The queen honey bee doesn't do much day-to-day ruling, but she does lay nearly every egg in the hive. Her daughters become worker bees, who keep the colony running. Pheromones that the queen and the workers emit—then spread throug........ Read more »
Niño EL, Malka O, Hefetz A, Tarpy DR, & Grozinger CM. (2013) Chemical Profiles of Two Pheromone Glands Are Differentially Regulated by Distinct Mating Factors in Honey Bee Queens (Apis mellifera L.). PloS one, 8(11). PMID: 24236028
Feeling smug because your normal brain doesn't insist on coloring all its 2's blue and M's purple? Not so fast: you might have been a child synesthete. Some elementary schoolers have associations between colors and letters or numbers that fade as they age. Others' associations expand to take over the whole alphabet, leading them toward a rainbow-hued adult life.Studying kids with synesthesia is tricky, because first you have to find them—and at a young age, kids don't know the word, or that th........ Read more »
Julia Simner, & Angela E. Bain. (2013) A longitudinal study of grapheme-color synesthesia in childhood: 6/7 years to 10/11 years. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00603
The amount of cow dung plopped into the world every day is almost unthinkable, but Tomas Roslin is thinking about it."We can regard it as either an immense waste problem or an enormous ecosystem service," he says. He means that what starts out as a turd in a field turns into a wealth of nutrients for plants—assuming it can make its way below ground. So understanding how dung gets broken down can help us ensure an ecosystem is running smoothly. To address such a messy, large-scale question........ Read more »
Riikka Kaartinen, Bess Hardwick, & Tomas Roslin. (2013) Using citizen scientists to measure an ecosystem service nationwide. Ecology. DOI: 10.1890/12-1165.1
Window or aisle? Hamburger or hot dog? Bouquet of flowers or rotting flesh? Not all your preferences are up to you—some have been hammered into your genes by evolution.
If you're an average human, you avoid the smell of decay. It signals unsafe food and the threat of infection or disease. Other animals run toward the stench of a stale carcass, maybe because they're flies and it signals a place to lay their eggs.
Whether they love it or hate it, animals identify the scent of rot from two s........ Read more »
Ashiq Hussain, Luis R. Saraiva, David M. Ferrero, Gaurav Ahuja, Venkatesh S. Krishna, Stephen D. Liberles, & Sigrun I. Korsching. (2013) High-affinity olfactory receptor for the death-associated odor cadaverine. PNAS. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1318596110
Inside the stems of Japanese bamboo plants, tiny farmers are working in secret. They tend to their crop of fungus, growing it in plump white clusters on their walls for eating, all while sealed safely away from the rest of the world. They begin farming the day they hatch—and when they retire, tuck some of their crop into their pockets to pass on to the next generation.
The farmer is Doubledaya bucculenta, a species of lizard beetle. Many social insects (those that live in colonies) are wel........ Read more »
Wataru Toki, Yukiko Takahashi, & Katsumi Togashi. (2013) Fungal Garden Making inside Bamboos by a Non-Social Fungus-Growing Beetle. PLOS ONE. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079515
We rely on roving ocean creatures to fetch us all kinds of data we couldn't get otherwise. Carrying cameras or GPS units or sensors glued to their bodies, marine animals collect data for human scientists about the health of ocean ecosystems or how their own species migrate. Yet lugging our equipment through the sea may be harder for these creatures than we realize. By tagging them, we might be slowing down or even harming the same species we're trying to preserve.
When scientists tag birds, ........ Read more »
T. Todd Jones, Kyle S. Van Houtan, Brian L. Bostrom, Peter Ostafichuk, JonMikkelsen, EmreTezcan, Michael Carey, Brittany Imlach, & Jeffrey A. Seminoff. (2013) Calculating the ecological impacts of animal-borne instruments on aquatic organisms. Methods in Ecology and Evolution. DOI: 10.1111/2041-210X.12109
Don't despair, left-handers who have just smeared the ink across your paper yet again. You have a true purpose in life, some scientists say—and it's walloping other people in the head. A flying elbow drop would work too. Researchers recently pored over video of hundreds of UFC fights to test the idea that lefties evolved with an edge in hand-to-hand combat.
Various other animals show a preference for one paw, or one swimming direction, over the other. But humans are notable for almost alwa........ Read more »
Thomas V. Pollet, Gert Stulp, & Ton G.G. Groothuis. (2013) Born to win? Testing the fighting hypothesis in realistic fights: left-handedness in the Ultimate Fighting Championship. Animal Behaviour. DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2013.07.026
If the rhinoceros beetle were the size of an actual rhinoceros, its horn could be 16 feet long. Male beetles grow this gargantuan face-fork so they can win mates (why else?). And even though evolutionary science would predict that the beetle pays a price for this appendage, it seems to come absolutely free.
Males of many animal species wear showy accessories: antlers on deer, long tails on birds. Growing one of these accessories often comes at a cost. For example, energy spent growing one la........ Read more »
Erin L. McCullough, & Douglas J. Emlen. (2013) Evaluating the costs of a sexually selected weapon: big horns at a small price. Animal Behaviour. DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2013.08.017
Does your workweek schedule dig you into an ever-deepening hole of sleep deprivation? Do you sleep in on the weekends to try to boost yourself back out? You're in good company. But even if you feel recovered by the following week, your brainpower might be suffering.
In a survey by the National Sleep Foundation, 40 percent of respondents said they try to "catch up" on sleep during the weekend. Pennsylvania State University professor and physician Alexandros Vgontzas, along with a group of col........ Read more »
Pejovic S, Basta M, Vgontzas AN, Kritikou I, Shaffer ML, Tsaoussoglou M, Stiffler D, Stefanakis Z, Bixler EO, & Chrousos GP. (2013) Effects of recovery sleep after one work week of mild sleep restriction on interleukin-6 and cortisol secretion and daytime sleepiness and performance. American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism, 305(7). PMID: 23941878
Perhaps understandably, the male toadfish doesn't rely on his looks to attract females. He uses a bellowing, foghorn-like call to lure the ladies instead. But he'd better beware of his neighbors—nearby toadfish, a scientist has discovered, use short grunts to stealthily jam each other's signals.
In the spring, at the start of breeding season, male oyster toadfish nestle into rocks and debris on shallow seafloors in the western Atlantic. From his hidden nest, the male sends out his tuba bla........ Read more »
Allen Mensinger. (2013) Disruptive communication: Stealth signaling in the toadfish. Journal of Experimental Biology. DOI: 10.1242/jeb.090316
In the avian world, cuckoos are the villains you root for. These diabolical birds can trick others into raising the cuckoos' young instead of their own. From a thick playbook of deceptions, one trick cuckoos use is to impersonate local bullies. This apparently convinces their victims to let cuckoos walk right into their nests.
Cuckoos live all over the world, and most species are model citizens, building their own nests and raising their own offspring. But many species are so-called brood p........ Read more »
Thanh-Lan Gluckman, & Nicholas I. Mundy. (2013) Cuckoos in raptors' clothing: barred plumage illuminates a fundamental principle of Batesian mimicry. Animal Behaviour. DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2013.09.020
Like sock garters and homburg hats, the equipment used by our great-grandparents doesn't always cut it for later generations. Certain male fish have evolved differently shaped genitals depending on what other fish share their caves. Attracting females, though, doesn't seem to be as important not getting eaten.
Most fish reproduce simply by scattering a lot of of eggs and sperm around their environment. But a few types of fish are "livebearers": their eggs are fertilized and hatched inside th........ Read more »
J. L. HEINEN-KAY, & R. B. LANGERHANS. (2013) Predation-associated divergence of male genital morphology in a livebearing fish. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. DOI: 10.1111/jeb.12229
A crucial tool in your social survival kit is the ability to tell when someone means the opposite of what they're saying. For centuries, writers have tried to aid readers' detection of sarcasm with various typographic contortions: backward question marks, upside-down or zigzagged exclamation marks, even left-leaning italics dubbed "ironics."* (None of these have stuck, probably because pointing out when you're being sarcastic totally ruins it.)
For kids, sarcasm is a developmental hurdle to ........ Read more »
Andrew Nicholson, Juanita M. Whalen, & Penny M. Pexman. (2013) Children's processing of emotion in ironic language. Frontiers in Psychology. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00691
What ocean mammal is a rare bird but not a lone wolf? Meet the false killer whale. You're not likely to ever spot one in the wild, but if you do, it won't be alone. These animals prefer to travel with a crowd—not just of their own species, but also including their closest companion, the bottlenose dolphin.
False killer whales are so named because the look a little like killer whales, or orcas.* Yet unlike their showy namesake, false killer whales are rarely encountered by humans. In most p........ Read more »
JOCHEN R. ZAESCHMAR, INGRID N. VISSER, DAGMAR FERTL, SARAH L. DWYER, ANNA M. MEISSNER, JOANNE HALLIDAY, JO BERGHAN, DAVID DONNELLY, & KAREN A. STOCKIN. (2013) Occurrence of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) and their association with common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) off northeastern New Zealand. Marine Mammal Science. DOI: 10.1111/mms.12065
Jochen R. Zaeschmar, Sarah L. Dwyer, & Karen A. Stockin. (2013) Rare observations of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) cooperatively feeding with common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand. Marine Mammal Science. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2012.00582.x
The wisdom of aging may not apply to economic decisions. In a study of choices make about money, the oldest people performed the worst—even beating out the usual bad-decision champions, adolescents.
Agnieszka Tymula, a decision scientist at the University of Sydney in Australia, studies economic decision making in humans (and sometimes monkeys). With colleagues at Yale and New York University, she gathered 135 total subjects in four different age groups: teens (12-17), young adults (21-25)........ Read more »
Agnieszka Tymula, Lior A. Rosenberg Belmaker, Lital Ruderman, Paul W. Glimcher, & Ifat Levy. (2013) Like cognitive function, decision making across the life span shows profound age-related changes. PNAS. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1309909110
Like warring street-corner troubadours, certain mice sing to claim their territory. They may not get any tips in their guitar cases, but by knowing where it's safe to sing, they keep the whole neighborhood harmonious.
Two related species of singing mice share the mountains of Costa Rica and Panama. One, Scotinomys teguina or Alston's singing mouse, lives at lower altitudes and is widespread in the forests of Central America. The other species, Scotinomys xerampelinus or the Chiriquí si........ Read more »
Bret Pasch, Benjamin M. Bolker, & Steven M. Phelps. (2013) Interspecific Dominance Via Vocal Interactions Mediates Altitudinal Zonation in Neotropical Singing Mice. The American Naturalist. DOI: 10.1086/673263
Nothing says "Let's hit the outlet mall" like nearly being wiped out by a rocket. A study of both Americans and terrorized Israelis suggests that certain people respond to the threat of death by going shopping. Because if it's your time to go, you may as well be wearing the latest from Forever 21.
Michigan State University marketing professor Ayalla Ruvio and her colleagues performed two studies of potential shoppers. The first took place in Israel. Questionnaires were handed out at a commun........ Read more »
Ayalla Ruvio, Eli Somer, & Aric Rindfleisch. (2013) When bad gets worse: the amplifying effect of materialism on traumatic stress and maladaptive consumption. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. DOI: 10.1007/s11747-013-0345-6
Remember when you were a kid and the magic marker boxes always had some sort of really elaborate drawing on the back? As if to say, "Buy these eight wide-tip Mr. Sketches and you, too, will be able to create a photorealistic portrait of a scarlet macaw"? But when you bought the markers and tried to copy the picture, it always came out as a stupid magic marker bird? You might have gotten more realistic results by coloring directly on a real animal. Some scientists tried this, and changed the b........ Read more »
Maren N. Vitousek, Rosemary A. Stewart, & Rebecca J. Safran. (2013) Female plumage colour influences seasonal oxidative damage and testosterone profiles in a songbird. Biology Letters. DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2013.0539
Even single-celled farmers have to protect their crop from hungry mouths. That's why slime molds carry certain toxic bacteria inside their bodies on their way to farming others in the soil. Like living Roundup, these bacteria harm competitors while helping their farmer hosts to survive and even thrive.
Slime molds start out life as one-celled amoebae, living in soil or mulch and munching their way through the bacteria there. Once food becomes scarce, they seek each other out and glom togethe........ Read more »
Debra A. Brock, Silven Read, Alona Bozhchenko, David C. Queller, & Joan E. Strassmann. (2013) Social amoeba farmers carry defensive symbionts to protect and privatize their crops. Nature Communications. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms3385
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