1037 posts · 413,205 views
Categorising small organisms, even defining those categories, is difficult... Read more »
Remember Jurassic Park? Remember those stately long-necked dinosaurs (aka sauropods)? Necks graciously curved to reach the top leaves of the giant trees, the flexibility of their necks seems to rival that of modern swans.... Read more »
Cobley, M.J.; Rayfield, E.J. . (2013) Inter-Vertebral Flexibility of the Ostrich Neck: Implications for Estimating Sauropod Neck Flexibility. PLOS ONE. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072187
The world just celebrated the 116th birthday of Besse Cooper, the currently oldest person in the world. In a few decades 116 probably isn’t that special anymore. What are your chances?... Read more »
What happens to our mood when our body is running low on glucose a.k.a. sugar? Researchers at the University of Kentucky were interested in the link between low glucose levels and aggressive behavior, so they designed a devious study to investigate the sugar-mood association.... Read more »
DeWall C.N., Deckman T., Gailliot M.T. . (2011) Sweetened blood cools hot tempers: physiological self-control and aggression. Agressive Behavior, 37(1). DOI: 10.1002/ab.20366
Passamonti L., Crockett M.J., Apergis-Schoute A.M., Clark L., Rowe J.B., Calder A.J. . (2011) Effects of acute tryptophan depletion on prefrontal-amygdala connectivity while viewing facial signals of aggression. Biological Psychiatry. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.07.033
As people age, they are more likely to break bones and suffer from osteoporosis. The elderly who have broken bones also take longer to heal than younger patients. Part of the reason for this is that bones change as we age. Bone marrow contains many cell types, including those that form new bone. As age increases, these cells shift from an osteogenic (bone forming) type and toward an adipogenic (fat forming) type. Bone grafts are used to replace missing bone when the fractures are complex, or fail to heal properly. Bone marrow from the patient is preferred, but because the marrow of elderly patients has become more adipogenic, healing may be slowed.... Read more »
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. (2013) Wnt3a reestablishes osteogenic capacity to bone grafts from aged animals. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013;95:1278-88. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. info:/
Eating disorders like anorexia nervosa and anorexia bulimia have been on the rise for decades in Western countries and now start popping up in Non-Western countries as well. Psychologist Francisco Martín Murcia argues how our more and more complicated concept of self stands in the way.... Read more »
Francisco Martín Murcia. (2009) Personality disorders and modern culture. Psychology, Society, . info:/
Makino M, Tsuboi K, & Dennerstein L. (2004) Prevalence of eating disorders: a comparison of Western and non-Western countries. MedGenMed : Medscape general medicine, 6(3), 49. PMID: 15520673
Research shows microRNA based strategy to fight against viral pathogens.... Read more »
Langlois, RA, Albrecht, RA, Kimble, B, Sutton, T, Shapiro, JS, Finch, C, Angel, M, Chua, MA, Gonzalez-Reiche, AS, Xu, K.... (2013) MicroRNA-based strategy to mitigate the risk of gain-of-function influenza studies. . Nature Biotechnology. DOI: 10.1038/nbt.2666
“I’ve heard stories that some modeling agents encourage girls to do speed and cocaine in order to speed up metabolism and eat less,” Russian model Kira Dikhtyar told Fox News.
It’s an alarming phenomenon that many models and socialites use cocaine to stay thin. And this is not just a lady thing. Nowadays, prevailing beauty standards also influence men in a way some opt to use the same method to lose weight.... Read more »
Ersche, KD, Stochl, J, Woodward, JM, & Fletcher, PC. (2013) The skinny on cocaine. Insights into eating behavior and body weight in cocaine-dependent men. Appetite. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2013.07.011
Too much internet is bad for your health, media say. It would even cause sleeping disorders and depression. But the actual research report reveals something else.... Read more »
Thomée S, Härenstam A, & Hagberg M. (2012) Computer use and stress, sleep disturbances, and symptoms of depression among young adults--a prospective cohort study. BMC psychiatry, 176. PMID: 23088719
Hydrogen is one of the most promising alternative fuels being investigated. Not only because burning it only produces water but because it can act as a sort of chemical storage for more intermittent sources of energy. While there are many ways to chemically produce hydrogen gas, most involve expensive metals like platinum as a catalyst to make the process at all economical. Another approach borrows from biology, and in particular the enzyme hydrogenase. As with many things borrowed from nature it’s extremely good at what it does, the issue is extracting the enzyme from a living organism for use on its own. Fortunately some researchers from Germany (Ruhr-Universität Bochum) have managed to do the next best thing.... Read more »
Esselborn J, Lambertz C, Adamska-Venkatesh A, Simmons T, Berggren G, Noth J, Siebel J, Hemschemeier A, Artero V, Reijerse E.... (2013) Spontaneous activation of [FeFe]-hydrogenases by an inorganic [2Fe] active site mimic. Nature chemical biology. PMID: 23934246
The point of surgical procedures is to save or improve the quality of our lives, but things can and do go wrong because of system or human errors. In too many cases patients are failed because of so called “never events” – serious incidents that should never happen because they’re entirely preventable.
The official list of never events in surgery includes operating on the wrong part of the body, performing the wrong procedure, leaving instruments or swabs inside the body, or having the wrong prosthesis or medical device implanted.
Never events, such as having the wrong testicle removed, can be devastating, while others prove fatal.... Read more »
Blaming Facebook is a popular train of thought, also for scientists. They already conducted many studies on the, mostly negative, psychological effects of the social network. Here are 8 findings, some of them contradictive.... Read more »
Fenne große Deters, & Matthias R. Mehl. (2013) Does Posting Facebook Status Updates Increase or Decrease Loneliness? An Online Social Networking Experiment. Social Psychological and Personality Science . DOI: 10.1177/1948550612469233
Stephanie Tom Tong. (2012) Facebook Use During Relationship Termination: Uncertainty Reduction and Surveillance. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. DOI: 10.1089/cyber.2012.0549
Tara C. Marshall. (2012) Facebook Surveillance of Former Romantic Partners: Associations with PostBreakup Recovery and Personal Growth. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. DOI: 10.1089/cyber.2012.0125
Clayton RB, Nagurney A, & Smith JR. (2013) Cheating, Breakup, and Divorce: Is Facebook Use to Blame?. Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking. PMID: 23745615
Chen W, & Lee KH. (2013) Sharing, Liking, Commenting, and Distressed? The Pathway Between Facebook Interaction and Psychological Distress. Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking. PMID: 23745614
Gonzales AL, & Hancock JT. (2011) Mirror, mirror on my Facebook wall: effects of exposure to Facebook on self-esteem. Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking, 14(1-2), 79-83. PMID: 21329447
Chou HT, & Edge N. (2012) "They are happier and having better lives than I am": the impact of using Facebook on perceptions of others' lives. Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking, 15(2), 117-21. PMID: 22165917
Objective quantification of taste intensity would be extremely useful for product development and quality control in the food industry. The tastes of industrial food products in development are still usually discriminated by trained food panelists that sense and score the tastes of foods by tasting the products themselves. Therefore there is a limit number of products that can be evaluated in a single sitting, and this limitation poses a crucial disadvantage in the case of quality control in an industrial production area.... Read more »
Misaka, T. (2013) Development of a Cultured Cell-Based Human-Taste Evaluation System. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 77(8). DOI: 10.1271/bbb.130288
Yarmolinsky, DA, Zuker, CS, & Ryba, NJP. (2009) Common sense about taste: from mammals to insects. Cell. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2009.10.001
In the news we only hear about teenagers and politicians ruining their reputation by sexting. But how about the other part of society? Who else is sending nude photo’s or sexually explicit messages via the phone or social networks? To whom? And how often? Researchers of the University of Indiana looked at the demographics of sexting.... Read more »
Allyson L. Dir, Ayca Coskunpinar, Jennifer L. Steiner, and Melissa A. Cyders. (2013) Understanding Differences in Sexting Behaviors Across Gender, Relationship Status, and Sexual Identity, and the Role of Expectancies in Sexting. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. DOI: 10.1089/cyber.2012.0545
Researchers in Uppsala, Sweden accidentally left a reaction running over the weekend and ended up resolving a century-old chemistry problem. Their work has led to the development of a new material, dubbed Upsalite, with remarkable water-binding properties. Upsalite promises to find applications in everything from humidity control at home to chemical manufacturing in industry.... Read more »
Forsgren J, Frykstrand S, Grandfield K, Mihranyan A, & Strømme M. (2013) A template-free, ultra-adsorbing, high surface area carbonate nanostructure. PloS one, 8(7). PMID: 23874640
Migraine headaches are recurrent, painful and debilitating headaches. Estimates from the World Health Organization (WHO) suggest that ~47% of the world’s adult population suffers from headaches. Women are more prone to migraine attacks as compared to men.... Read more »
Cucchiara, B, Wolf, RL, Nagae, L, Zhang, Q, Kasner, S, Datta, R, Aguirre, GK, & Detre, JA. (2013) Migraine with Aura Is Associated with an Incomplete Circle of Willis: Results of a Prospective Observational Study. PLoS ONE. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071007
Autism reveals itself in different ways in women than in men, according to new research from the University of Cambridge. And this has the potential to great advance our understanding of the condition.
Autism is estimated to affect 1% of the population and is believed to be more prevalent in males. As most studies have focused on this gender, this has led to a male-biased understanding of autism and, the Cambridge researchers say, the prevalence of female autism could be largely underestimated.... Read more »
Meng-Chuan Lai, Michael V. Lombardo, John Suckling, Amber N. V. Ruigrok, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Christine Ecker, Sean C. L. Deoni, Michael C. Craig, Declan G. M. Murphy, Edward T. Bullmore, MRC AIMS Consortium, Simon Baron-Cohen. (2013) Biological sex affects the neurobiology of autism. Brain. DOI: 10.1093/brain/awt216
In humans, recent theories have suggested that contagious yawning is an indicator of empathy. When we yawn in response to someone else’s yawn, we are communicating that we empathise with them. Being the social creatures that we are, empathy is an important social emotion that can strengthen the bonds between people.
But what about when a dog yawns after seeing a human yawn? Is the dog being empathic, or is there some other explanation?... Read more »
Romero T, Konno A . (2013) Familiarity bias and physiological responses in contagious yawning by dogs support link to empathy. PLoS ONE. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071365
What do bankers and bacteria have in common? Finite resources, quick decision-making and an appreciation of trade-offs, according to a study in Ecology Letters. So could bacterial modelling ever help us avoid another banking crash?... Read more »
Ram Maharjan1,Susanna Nilsson, Judy Sung, Ken Haynes, Robert E. Beardmore, Laurence D. Hurst, Tom Ferenci, Ivana Gudelj. (2013) The form of a trade-off determines the response to competition. Ecology Letters. DOI: 10.1111/ele.12159
Therapies used to eradicate cancer can have harmful side-effects. The main culprits are chemotherapy and radiation. When surgery is not an option, these treatments often kill late-stage cancer patients before the cancer itself. A research team at The University of Michigan has, however, shown this risk can be lowered if the health of your digestive system is boosted.
Fast-growing cells within your body are targeted by both radio- and chemotherapy. This means that not only cancer cells are killed but blood cells, hair cells and cells lining your gastrointestinal (GI) tract are also damaged, resulting in side-effects such as hair loss, fatigue and GI problems. In response, our body’s repair system kicks into action by activating the multiplication of stem cells to repair the damage. In advanced stages of cancer, when the tumour has spread to other organs, lethal doses of chemoradiotherapy are required. Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) found within your GI walls are unable to rebuild tissues faster than their destruction leading to inefficient absorption of nutrients, systemic infection and thus putting the lives of these patients at risk. It is for this reason that a much higher and more effective dose of chemoradiotherapy cannot be used. How can we improve resistance to chemoradiotherapy toxicity?... Read more »
W-J. Zhou, Z.H., Geng, J.R., Spence and J-G. Geng. (2013) Induction of intestinal stem cells by R-spondin 1 and Slit2 augments chemoradioprotection. Nature. DOI: 10.1038/nature12416
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