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EpiBeat is an epigenetics resource and community for you to stay up-to-date and join the conversation on the rapidly expanding field of epigenetics. Here, you can read and discuss summaries of some of our favorite new epigenetic publications, each presented succinctly so you can keep current with the literature without having to read every paper in detail. It’s a simple way to keep with the beat in epigenetics! We also make it easy to learn more about epigenetics, get tips & tricks from the industry, ask questions about your research and get answers from other scientists. EpiBeat was created for scientists by scientists and is hosted by Zymo Research, The Epigenetics Company.
More than 35% of the U.S. population is considered clinically obese (body mass index of > 30), while 68% of the U.S. is considered overweight (body mass index of > 25) 1. Obesity is known to have adverse health effects, impacting the risk and prognosis for a number of diseases, ...
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Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, & Flegal KM. (2014) Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. JAMA, 311(8), 806-14. PMID: 24570244
Hu FB. (2011) Globalization of diabetes: the role of diet, lifestyle, and genes. Diabetes care, 34(6), 1249-57. PMID: 21617109
McCormick DP, Sarpong K, Jordan L, Ray LA, & Jain S. (2010) Infant obesity: are we ready to make this diagnosis?. The Journal of pediatrics, 157(1), 15-9. PMID: 20338575
Klimentidis, Y., Beasley, T., Lin, H., Murati, G., Glass, G., Guyton, M., Newton, W., Jorgensen, M., Heymsfield, S., Kemnitz, J.... (2010) Canaries in the coal mine: a cross-species analysis of the plurality of obesity epidemics. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 278(1712), 1626-1632. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2010.1890
Milagro FI, Mansego ML, De Miguel C, & Martínez JA. (2013) Dietary factors, epigenetic modifications and obesity outcomes: progresses and perspectives. Molecular aspects of medicine, 34(4), 782-812. PMID: 22771541
Prior LJ, & Armitage JA. (2009) Neonatal overfeeding leads to developmental programming of adult obesity: you are what you ate. The Journal of physiology, 587(Pt 11), 2419. PMID: 19483248
Grün F, & Blumberg B. (2007) Perturbed nuclear receptor signaling by environmental obesogens as emerging factors in the obesity crisis. Reviews in endocrine , 8(2), 161-71. PMID: 17657605
Grün F, & Blumberg B. (2006) Environmental obesogens: organotins and endocrine disruption via nuclear receptor signaling. Endocrinology, 147(6 Suppl). PMID: 16690801
Janesick A, & Blumberg B. (2011) Endocrine disrupting chemicals and the developmental programming of adipogenesis and obesity. Birth defects research. Part C, Embryo today : reviews, 93(1), 34-50. PMID: 21425440
Snedeker SM, & Hay AG. (2012) Do interactions between gut ecology and environmental chemicals contribute to obesity and diabetes?. Environmental health perspectives, 120(3), 332-9. PMID: 22042266
Somm E, Schwitzgebel VM, Toulotte A, Cederroth CR, Combescure C, Nef S, Aubert ML, & Hüppi PS. (2009) Perinatal exposure to bisphenol a alters early adipogenesis in the rat. Environmental health perspectives, 117(10), 1549-55. PMID: 20019905
Chamorro-García R, Sahu M, Abbey RJ, Laude J, Pham N, & Blumberg B. (2013) Transgenerational inheritance of increased fat depot size, stem cell reprogramming, and hepatic steatosis elicited by prenatal exposure to the obesogen tributyltin in mice. Environmental health perspectives, 121(3), 359-66. PMID: 23322813
Manikkam M, Tracey R, Guerrero-Bosagna C, & Skinner MK. (2013) Plastics derived endocrine disruptors (BPA, DEHP and DBP) induce epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of obesity, reproductive disease and sperm epimutations. PloS one, 8(1). PMID: 23359474
Grün F, Watanabe H, Zamanian Z, Maeda L, Arima K, Cubacha R, Gardiner DM, Kanno J, Iguchi T, & Blumberg B. (2006) Endocrine-disrupting organotin compounds are potent inducers of adipogenesis in vertebrates. Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.), 20(9), 2141-55. PMID: 16613991
Skinner MK, Manikkam M, Tracey R, Guerrero-Bosagna C, Haque M, & Nilsson EE. (2013) Ancestral dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exposure promotes epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of obesity. BMC medicine, 228. PMID: 24228800
Godfrey KM, Sheppard A, Gluckman PD, Lillycrop KA, Burdge GC, McLean C, Rodford J, Slater-Jefferies JL, Garratt E, Crozier SR.... (2011) Epigenetic gene promoter methylation at birth is associated with child's later adiposity. Diabetes, 60(5), 1528-34. PMID: 21471513
Herskind AM, McGue M, Iachine IA, Holm N, Sørensen TI, Harvald B, & Vaupel JW. (1996) Untangling genetic influences on smoking, body mass index and longevity: a multivariate study of 2464 Danish twins followed for 28 years. Human genetics, 98(4), 467-75. PMID: 8792824
Schuster-Böckler, B., & Lehner, B. (2012) Chromatin organization is a major influence on regional mutation rates in human cancer cells. Nature, 488(7412), 504-507. DOI: 10.1038/nature11273
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the arterial walls, and is the major cause of heart attack and stroke. Atherosclerosis is localized to curves and branches in the vasculature where disturbed blood flow (d-flow) is able to alter gene expression and induce endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction. Our lab’s work focuses on the mechanism by which ...
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Dunn J, Qiu H, Kim S, Jjingo D, Hoffman R, Kim CW, Jang I, Son DJ, Kim D, Pan C.... (2014) Flow-dependent epigenetic DNA methylation regulates endothelial gene expression and atherosclerosis. The Journal of clinical investigation. PMID: 24865430
Nam D, Ni CW, Rezvan A, Suo J, Budzyn K, Llanos A, Harrison D, Giddens D, & Jo H. (2009) Partial carotid ligation is a model of acutely induced disturbed flow, leading to rapid endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology, 297(4). PMID: 19684185
Ni CW, Qiu H, Rezvan A, Kwon K, Nam D, Son DJ, Visvader JE, & Jo H. (2010) Discovery of novel mechanosensitive genes in vivo using mouse carotid artery endothelium exposed to disturbed flow. Blood, 116(15). PMID: 20551377
Gerhard A. Coetzee, Wange Lu, Peggy Farnham USC Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed numerous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) where allelic frequencies differ between cases and controls of many complex diseases (NHGRI GWA Catalog). In the last decade 6,696 genetic associations of 598 traits have been reported in 16,770 papers (up to 2013). Despite these impressive ...
The post SNP-SNP here, SNP-SNP there, everywhere a SNP-SNP, old McDonald had a GWAS…… appeared first o........ Read more »
Hazelett DJ, Rhie SK, Gaddis M, Yan C, Lakeland DL, Coetzee SG, Ellipse/GAME-ON consortium, Practical consortium, Henderson BE, Noushmehr H.... (2014) Comprehensive functional annotation of 77 prostate cancer risk loci. PLoS genetics, 10(1). PMID: 24497837
Eeles RA, Olama AA, Benlloch S, Saunders EJ, Leongamornlert DA, Tymrakiewicz M, Ghoussaini M, Luccarini C, Dennis J, Jugurnauth-Little S.... (2013) Identification of 23 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci using the iCOGS custom genotyping array. Nature genetics, 45(4), 385. PMID: 23535732
Coetzee SG, Rhie SK, Berman BP, Coetzee GA, & Noushmehr H. (2012) FunciSNP: an R/bioconductor tool integrating functional non-coding data sets with genetic association studies to identify candidate regulatory SNPs. Nucleic acids research, 40(18). PMID: 22684628
The mitochondria, often referred to as the “power-house” of the cell, provide a platform for energy production through glucose metabolism. As a bi-product of this, they also are the major producer of reactive oxidative species. Mitochondria also play other important physiological roles, such as calcium homeostasis and aid in the regulation of cell death through ...
The post The Mitochondrial Epigenetic Revolution: A New Avenue for Potential Research appeared first on EpiBeat.
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Chestnut BA, Chang Q, Price A, Lesuisse C, Wong M, & Martin LJ. (2011) Epigenetic regulation of motor neuron cell death through DNA methylation. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 31(46), 16619-36. PMID: 22090490
Manev H, Dzitoyeva S, & Chen H. (2012) Mitochondrial DNA: A Blind Spot in Neuroepigenetics. Biomolecular concepts, 3(2), 107-115. PMID: 22639700
Shock LS, Thakkar PV, Peterson EJ, Moran RG, & Taylor SM. (2011) DNA methyltransferase 1, cytosine methylation, and cytosine hydroxymethylation in mammalian mitochondria. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(9), 3630-5. PMID: 21321201
Wong M, Gertz B, Chestnut BA, & Martin LJ. (2013) Mitochondrial DNMT3A and DNA methylation in skeletal muscle and CNS of transgenic mouse models of ALS. Frontiers in cellular neuroscience, 279. PMID: 24399935
Tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are both treatment options for patients with breast tumors that express estrogen receptor (ER) α and that require estrogen for growth. Tamoxifen competes with estrogen in binding to the ER, but does not activate the receptor. In comparison, AIs lower estrogen levels in the body by blocking the conversion of ...The post The Battle for HOXC10 in the War Against Breast Cancer appeared first on EpiBeat.... Read more »
Pathiraja TN, Nayak SR, Xi Y, Jiang S, Garee JP, Edwards DP, Lee AV, Chen J, Shea MJ, Santen RJ.... (2014) Epigenetic reprogramming of HOXC10 in endocrine-resistant breast cancer. Science translational medicine, 6(229). PMID: 24670685
The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and the creation of clinically relevant cell types derived from them, have been great leaps toward the implementation of stem cell based therapies and disease models. But in recent years, concerns have risen about iPSCs “remembering” their original cell types and favoring differentiation towards their origins. This ...The post iPSC Epigenetic Memory: One more Roadblock for Regenerative Medicine? appeared first on EpiBeat.... Read more »
Roessler R, Smallwood SA, Veenvliet JV, Pechlivanoglou P, Peng SP, Chakrabarty K, Groot-Koerkamp MJ, Pasterkamp RJ, Wesseling E, Kelsey G.... (2014) Detailed Analysis of the Genetic and Epigenetic Signatures of iPSC-Derived Mesodiencephalic Dopaminergic Neurons. Stem cell reports, 2(4), 520-33. PMID: 24749075
There is now mounting evidence that diet and other environmental factors can have widespread and long-lasting influences on a developing fetus. Historically, folic acid supplementation is recommended to pregnant mothers as a means to prevent developmental disorders and birth defects. However, there is still no clear understanding how such supplementation may influence a developing child’s ...The post Maternal Diet Affects DNA Methylation Patterns in Offspring appeared first on EpiBeat.... Read more »
Barua S, Kuizon S, Chadman KK, Flory MJ, Brown WT, & Junaid MA. (2014) Single-base resolution of mouse offspring brain methylome reveals epigenome modifications caused by gestational folic acid. Epigenetics , 7(1), 3. PMID: 24484737
The prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has increased by roughly 30% since 2012. The CDC recently reported that one in 68 children in the United States is affected by ASD, compared to one in 88 just two years ago. This enhanced occurrence could be attributed to advancements in the detection and diagnosis, increased awareness, ...The post April is Autism Awareness Month: Increased levels of 5-hmC may influence gene regulation in Autism Spectrum Disorder appeared first on EpiBeat.... Read more »
Zhubi A, Chen Y, Dong E, Cook EH, Guidotti A, & Grayson DR. (2014) Increased binding of MeCP2 to the GAD1 and RELN promoters may be mediated by an enrichment of 5-hmC in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cerebellum. Translational psychiatry. PMID: 24448211
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide in females. Researchers from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) found that PIAS1 is linked to breast tumorigenesis. PIAS1 is a transcriptional repressor that has SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) E3 ligase activity. Recently, it had been explored that PIAS1 facilitates a novel epigenetic mechanism ...The post NEW LINK FOUND BETWEEN BREAST CANCER AND EPIGENETICS appeared first on EpiBeat.... Read more »
Liu B, Tahk S, Yee KM, Yang R, Yang Y, Mackie R, Hsu C, Chernishof V, O'Brien N, Jin Y.... (2014) PIAS1 Regulates Breast Tumorigenesis through Selective Epigenetic Gene Silencing. PloS one, 9(2). PMID: 24586797
Cigarette smoking leads to some of the most preventable causes of death and illness in the world. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in the United States has reported that there are approximately 440,000 deaths due to smoking each year, and an additional 49,000 deaths due to secondhand smoke. Roughly 600 chemicals are found in ...The post Cigarette Smoking and Epigenetics: DNA Methylation Differences Between Ethnic Groups appeared first on EpiBeat.... Read more »
Elliott HR, Tillin T, McArdle WL, Ho K, Duggirala A, Frayling TM, Davey Smith G, Hughes AD, Chaturvedi N, & Relton CL. (2014) Differences in smoking associated DNA methylation patterns in South Asians and Europeans. Clinical epigenetics, 6(1), 4. PMID: 24485148
Many scientists are hopeful that studying aberrant epigenetic patterns will help us find promising biomarkers for early diagnosis and prognosis of carcinogenesis. Among such markers, there has recently been heightened interest in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), which is an enzymatically-modified form of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC). A group of researchers in Europe investigated changes in 5-mC as well as ...The post DNA Hydroxymethylation as an Up-and-Coming Epigenetic Biomarker for Liver Cancer........ Read more »
Thomson JP, Hunter JM, Lempiäinen H, Müller A, Terranova R, Moggs JG, & Meehan RR. (2013) Dynamic changes in 5-hydroxymethylation signatures underpin early and late events in drug exposed liver. Nucleic acids research, 41(11), 5639-54. PMID: 23598998
The potential use of induced pluripotent stem cells in medicine has the power to completely revolutionize the way physicians treat human diseases. Imagine the possibility of treating diseased or damaged tissue by taking a patient’s own cells from an unaffected tissue, and turning them into healthy cells to replace the bad ones. This idea has ...The post Somatic Cells Turned Pluripotent by Acid Treatment – Major Breakthrough, Or Too Good To Be True? appeared first on EpiBeat.... Read more »
Obokata H, Wakayama T, Sasai Y, Kojima K, Vacanti MP, Niwa H, Yamato M, & Vacanti CA. (2014) Stimulus-triggered fate conversion of somatic cells into pluripotency. Nature, 505(7485), 641-7. PMID: 24476887
Over 27 million Americans are estimated to be living with osteoarthritis (OA), a debilitating joint disorder that results from continual loss of cartilage that cushions the bones. OA is accompanied by increased levels of the cytokines Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in cartilage cells called chondrocytes. These cytokines have been shown to ...The post 5-hmC Leading the Pain in Osteoarthritis appeared first on EpiBeat.... Read more »
Haseeb A, Makki MS, & Haqqi TM. (2014) Modulation of Ten Eleven Translocation 1 (TET1), Isocitrate Dehydrogenases (IDHs) expression, α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and DNA hydroxymethylation levels by IL-1β in primary human chondrocytes. The Journal of biological chemistry. PMID: 24469454
Itching of the eyes and nose, nasal congestion, sneezing, and runny nose are some symptoms of Allergic Rhinitis, better known as hay fever or seasonal allergies, which affects ~30% of people worldwide. In a recent PLOS Genetics publication, scientists from Sweden and the US investigated genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression changes in CD4+ T-cells ...The post New Year, New Hay Fever Season, and New Role for Epigenetics in Allergies appeared first on EpiBeat.... Read more »
Nestor CE, Barrenäs F, Wang H, Lentini A, Zhang H, Bruhn S, Jörnsten R, Langston MA, Rogers G, Gustafsson M.... (2014) DNA Methylation Changes Separate Allergic Patients from Healthy Controls and May Reflect Altered CD4( ) T-Cell Population Structure. PLoS genetics, 10(1). PMID: 24391521
Doctors have long known that a pregnant woman needs adequate levels of folate (also known as vitamin B9) to help prevent serious birth defects. New research in mice now suggests that a father’s level of folate prior to conception also plays a critical role in the baby’s health, through a process termed epigenetic inheritance. Unlike ...The post Dad’s Deficient Diet Harms His Offspring: Epigenetics To Blame? appeared first on EpiBeat.... Read more »
Lambrot R, Xu C, Saint-Phar S, Chountalos G, Cohen T, Paquet M, Suderman M, Hallett M, & Kimmins S. (2013) Low paternal dietary folate alters the mouse sperm epigenome and is associated with negative pregnancy outcomes. Nature communications, 2889. PMID: 24326934
As an organism ages, cells and tissues differentiate and change. These changes can include accumulation of DNA mutations, alterations to telomeres, decay of cellular and tissue structures, and changes in gene expression. Both differentiation of tissues and age effects are at least partially caused by epigenetic modifications of the genome, including DNA methylation, which is ...The post Wanna Be Forever 21? It May Be Possible By Resetting Your DNA Methylation Age Clock appeared first on EpiBeat......... Read more »
Horvath S. (2013) DNA methylation age of human tissues and cell types. Genome biology, 14(10). PMID: 24138928
It has been well known for many years that DNA methylation plays many roles in gene regulation and can direct different cell pathways such as apoptosis, differentiation, cancer, and aging. Although DNA methylation can be extremely stable – able to persist through multiple generations – it can also be quite dynamic and able to change ...The post DNA Hydroxymethylation and Neuron Development appeared first on EpiBeat.... Read more »
Hahn MA, Qiu R, Wu X, Li AX, Zhang H, Wang J, Jui J, Jin SG, Jiang Y, Pfeifer GP.... (2013) Dynamics of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and chromatin marks in Mammalian neurogenesis. Cell reports, 3(2), 291-300. PMID: 23403289
While most of us will be hopping on the scale and hoping for a relatively low weight this holiday season, poultry farmers will be weighing their birds hoping for just the opposite. Chickens are the most commonly eaten poultry in the world and those bred for consumption are categorized as fryers, broilers, or roasters. They ...The post Chicken Little Can Blame It On Her Epigenetics! appeared first on EpiBeat.... Read more »
Hu Y, Xu H, Li Z, Zheng X, Jia X, Nie Q, & Zhang X. (2013) Comparison of the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles between fast-growing and slow-growing broilers. PloS one, 8(2). PMID: 23441189
DNA methylation is one of the most common, and most studied, epigenetic modifications. DNA methylation plays a central role in the development and differentiation of mammalian cells, and when DNA methylation is misregulated, it can lead to many different types of human diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders. DNA methylation, also known as 5-methylcytosine (5-mC), ...The post The Same, Only Different: DNA Methylation Dynamics in the Human Genome appeared first on EpiBeat.... Read more »
Ziller MJ, Gu H, Müller F, Donaghey J, Tsai LT, Kohlbacher O, De Jager PL, Rosen ED, Bennett DA, Bernstein BE.... (2013) Charting a dynamic DNA methylation landscape of the human genome. Nature, 500(7463), 477-81. PMID: 23925113
Through twin studies and the use of laboratory mice, it is becoming increasingly clear that epigenetic patterns are heavily influenced by the environment. These influences can be either harmful or beneficial to our health. For example, long-term smokers often exhibit characteristic changes in the DNA methylation patterns of key genes thought to play a role ...The post Exercise: No Pain, No Gain (in DNA Methylation) appeared first on EpiBeat.... Read more »
Rönn T, Volkov P, Davegårdh C, Dayeh T, Hall E, Olsson AH, Nilsson E, Tornberg A, Dekker Nitert M, Eriksson KF.... (2013) A six months exercise intervention influences the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in human adipose tissue. PLoS genetics, 9(6). PMID: 23825961
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