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Take Home Message: Preseason neck pain and headache may be predictors for in season concussion among male youth hockey players.
Over the last few years, concussion has become one of the most common injuries among youth hockey players. Athletes have reported preseason neck pain, headache, and dizziness in recent concussion research, but it remains unclear if these symptoms predict who may be at risk for concussion. Consequently, in this prospective cohort study, Schneider et al. sought to determine the risk of concussion among youth male hockey players with and without preseason complaints of neck pain, headaches, or dizziness.... Read more »
Schneider KJ, Meeuwisse WH, Kang J, Schneider GM, & Emery CA. (2013) Preseason Reports of Neck Pain, Dizziness, and Headache as Risk Factors for Concussion in Male Youth Ice Hockey Players. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. PMID: 23391986
Take Home Message: High-level football players often have femoroacetabular impingement. Furthermore, cam-type deformities may be related to hip symptoms.
Femoracetabular impingement (FAI) is a common radiographic abnormality, particularly among high-level athletes (50 to 95% of athletes) but it remains unclear if FAI is related to symptoms or patient characteristics. Therefore the purpose of this study was to assess hip radiographic abnormalities (including FAI) among National Football League prospects and correlate these findings with symptoms, position, and body mass index.... Read more »
Larson CM, Sikka RS, Sardelli MC, Byrd JW, Kelly BT, Jain RK, & Giveans MR. (2013) Increasing Alpha Angle is Predictive of Athletic-Related "Hip" and "Groin" Pain in Collegiate National Football League Prospects. Arthroscopy. PMID: 23357573
Following a head injury there are numerous inflammatory consequences that persist over time and could contribute to prolonged recovery. Unfortunately, the pathologic changes after a concussion are still poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to characterize the inflammatory markers as well as brain tissue’s integrity and function 3-6 hours and 18 days after an injury.... Read more »
Perez-Polo JR Ph D, Rea HC, Unabia GC, Xu G, Parsley MO, Infante SK, Dewitt D, Grill RJ Jr, & Hulsebosch C. (2013) Inflammatoroy consequences mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma. PMID: 23360201
Diagnosing sports-related concussions can be challenging and various diagnostic tools have been developed to identify sports-related concussions, including the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) tool. To date, the online version of the ImPACT test has only undergone studies to determine the test-retest reliability and rates of invalid baseline tests. Therefore, Schatz and Sandel tested the sensitivity and specificity of the online version of ImPACT using carefully matched samples of concussed and nonconcussed athletes.... Read more »
Schatz P, & Sandel N. (2013) Sensitivity and specificity of the online version of ImPACT in high school and collegiate athletes. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 41(2), 321-6. PMID: 23144368
Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) continues to be a common musculoskeletal disorder that is associated with substantial costs, health care use, and frustration among patients competing in sports or activities that involve the upper extremities Recent research has focused on platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections for epicondylitis, but very few studies have compared PRP and glucocorticoid injections to a placebo injection. Therefore, the purpose of this double-blind, randomized clinical trial was to compare the effectiveness of PRP, glucocorticoid, or isotonic saline injections for reducing elbow symptoms among patients with lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow).... Read more »
Krogh TP, Fredberg U, Stengaard-Pedersen K, Christensen R, Jensen P, & Ellingsen T. (2013) Treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis With Platelet-Rich Plasma, Glucocorticoid, or Saline: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. PMID: 23328738
Internal impingement, a common problem among athletes performing overhead throws, is best described as the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendon getting pinched between the posterior-superior glenoid and the greater tuberosity of the humerus. It has been suggested that glenohumeral internal rotation deficits (GIRD) can alter the arthrokinematics of the glenohumeral joint to cause internal impingement. However, this has yet to be experimentally demonstrated. Therefore, the purpose of this cadaveric study was to determine if inducing GIRD by tightening the posterior-inferior shoulder capsule altered glenohumeral contact pressure, surface contact area of the rotator cuff, and humeral head position.... Read more »
Mihata T, Gates J, McGarry MH, Neo M, & Lee TQ. (2013) Effect of posterior shoulder tightness on internal impingement in a cadaveric model of throwing. Knee Surgery, Aports Traumatology, Arthroscopy. PMID: 23322267
Rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a relatively long, arduous, physical, as well as mental process. During ACL rehabilitation, psychological interventions such as imagery, goal-setting, and modeling are effective for improving recovery (e.g., decrease pain, improve function). A novel psychological intervention not yet tested among patients undergoing ACL rehabilitation is Videoinsight, which includes a video of contemporary art selected with the intent of inspiring “insight” and stimulating psychological changes (e.g., emotions, sensations, learning). Therefore, the purpose of this randomized controlled pilot trial was to compare the effects of Videoinsight to an art video; which did not invoke insight that is favorable to psychological recovery.... Read more »
Zaffagnini S, Russo RL, Marcheggiani Muccioli GM, & Marcacci M. (2013) The Videoinsight(®) method: improving rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction-a preliminary study. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy. PMID: 23361651
Many of us have been taught that repetitive overuse may lead to changes in tendon structure and composition (tendon degeneration). But, we have also seen articles on SMR that suggest Achilles tendinopathy may be related to genetic variations (polymorphisms), which may contribute to different tendon structure or composition. If we can confidently identify which variations increase the risk of tendinopathy then this may allow us identify high-risk patients that would benefit from overuse-injury prevention programs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to expand on prior research and determine if 4 genetic variations were related to chronic Achilles tendinopathy.... Read more »
Abrahams Y, Laguette MJ, Prince S, & Collins M. (2013) Polymorphisms within the COL5A1 3'-UTR That Alters mRNA Structure and the MIR608 Gene are Associated with Achilles Tendinopathy. Annals of Human Genetics. PMID: 23347277
The current gold-standard of screening high school athletes for sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the use of preparticipation physical evaluations (PPE). While the use of PPE’s is the gold-standard, it is not required before athletic participation is allowed. Further, it is unknown to what degree providers are in compliance with national consensus guidelines, in particular those put forth by the American Heart Association (AHA). Therefore, Madsen and colleagues evaluated in Washington state the state-wide awareness and compliance with the 2007 American Heart Association consensus guidelines on cardiovascular screening among athletes.... Read more »
Madsen NL, Drezner JA, & Salerno JC. (2013) Sudden cardiac death screening in adolescent athletes: an evaluation of compliance with national guidelines. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 47(3), 172-7. PMID: 23118118
Rotator cuff tears are common injuries in overhead athletes causing a significant increase in pain and decrease in function. Cuff tears commonly require surgical repair; however, the results after surgery are mixed with both repair failures and successful repairs not having significant pain relief. These poor outcomes may be related to anatomic adaptations at the shoulder following rotator cuff repair but it is unclear what these adaptations may be and whether they are related to pain. Therefore, Tham et al. evaluated whether there are changes in rotator cuff tendon thickness, subacromial bursa thickness, tendon attachments, tendon vascularity, and posterior glenohumeral capsule thickness after a rotator cuff repair and if tendon thickness was related to pain.... Read more »
Tham ER, Briggs L, & Murrell GA. (2013) Ultrasound changes after rotator cuff repair: is supraspinatus tendon thickness related to pain?. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery. PMID: 23352550
Sudden cardiac death has recently received considerable attention; however, experts and governing bodies are unable to agree on a unanimous screening protocol. At the center of the debate is whether we should incorporate electrocardiography (EKG) into preparticipation physicals (PPEs). While this debate lingers in remains unclear how sports medicine programs in NCAA Division 1 athletic programs are incorporating non-invasive cardiovascular screening (NICS) into PPEs. Therefore, Coris and colleagues sent out a survey to head athletic trainers of all NCAA Division 1 football programs and evaluated their use of routine NICS in NCAA PPEs.... Read more »
Coris EE, Sahebzamani F, Curtis A, Jennings J, Walz SM, Nugent D, Reese E, Zwygart KK, Konin JG, Pescasio M.... (2013) Preparticipation cardiovascular screening among National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Institutions. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 47(3), 182-4. PMID: 22976912
Some studies have shown that unilateral exercise can also affect the contralateral limb. For example, strength training one limb also improves the opposite, untrained limb. Additionally, many afflictions, like painful Achilles tendinopathy, present bilaterally, but the mechanism behind this is unknown. This study sought to examine whether unilateral muscle overuse will produce bilateral muscle damage and how the tissue in both the exercised and contralateral limbs compares to control.... Read more »
Song Y, Forsgren S, Yu J, Lorentzon R, & Stål PS. (2012) Effects on contralateral muscles after unilateral electrical muscle stimulation and exercise. PloS one, 7(12). PMID: 23284946
Forming a clinical decision about whether an athlete should be removed from play or when they can return to play following a sports-related concussion is accomplished following a comprehensive set of single-task tests (e.g., neurocognitive exam, sign and symptom checklist, balance tests). However, there is concern that single-task tests may not be able to detect subtle cognitive and physical impairments. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review was to determine the practicality of the dual-task paradigm in the evaluation of a sports-related concussion.... Read more »
Lee H, Sullivan SJ, & Schneiders AG. (2013) The use of the dual-task paradigm in detecting gait performance deficits following a sports-related concussion: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 16(1), 2-7. PMID: 22609052
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears occur frequently in athletics, and carry with it the potential risk of osteoarthritis (OA). ACL injury is often treated with surgical reconstruction in an effort to reduce the risk of secondary injuries and progression to OA. Some people insist that an ACL reconstruction is needed as quickly as possible; however, the timing of surgery or the lack of surgery on longer-term outcomes has yet to be determined. The purpose of this extended follow-up of a randomizedclinical trial (link to original article) was to compare the outcomes of patients that had immediate ACL surgery versus those that had optional delayed ACL surgery.... Read more »
Frobell RB, Roos HP, Roos EM, Roemer FW, Ranstam J, & Lohmander LS. (2013) Treatment for acute anterior cruciate ligament tear: five year outcome of randomised trial. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). PMID: 23349407
Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur across many different sports and have been shown to be linked to long-term degenerative joint changes. If we had a gold standard for clinically screening ACL injury risk then we could identify patients at high risk for an ACL injury and determine if prevention programs are having a desired effect on their biomechanics. Screening tests however focus on 2-legged and controlled jumps rather than sidestep cutting and single-legged landing which many ACL injuries occur during. Therefore, Kristianslund and Krosshaug performed a study to describe knee biomechanics in drop jumps and sidestep-faking maneuvers among elite female handball players.... Read more »
Kristianslund E, & Krosshaug T. (2013) Comparison of Drop Jumps and Sport-Specific Sidestep Cutting: Implications for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Screening. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. PMID: 23287439
Sports-related concussion results in slowed reaction time, which can be tested by many computer-based neurocognitive testing programs. Reaction time is related to symptom severity and reliably acts as a sensitive measure of neurocognitive improvement during concussion recovery. However, clinicians don’t always have access to computer-based neurocognitive testing programs, thus in previous research Eckner, et al. created a simple clinical assessment tool for reaction time. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of concussion on clinical reaction time in a sample of athletes from one high school and two colleges.... Read more »
Eckner JT, Kutcher JS, Broglio SP, & Richardson JK. (2013) Effect of sport-related concussion on clinically measured simple reaction time. British Journal of Sports Medicine. PMID: 23314889
It has been estimated that over 9000 high school athletes are treated annually for exertional heat illness (EHI). There is limited epidemiological data on the frequency of EHI within the high school setting, which hinders the development and distribution of aggressive prevention campaigns. Therefore, the purpose of this current study was to examine epidemiological data of EHI during 2005/2006 – 2010/2011.... Read more »
Kerr ZY, Casa DJ, Marshall SW, & Comstock RD. (2013) Epidemiology of exertional heat illness among u.s. High school athletes. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 44(1), 8-14. PMID: 23253644
Collegiate athletics can be very physically demanding, requiring a delicate balance between dietary intake and energy expenditure. The number of female collegiate athlete participants is increasing over time, and in general, females may be more susceptible to nutrition-related issues. Unfortunately, their dietary habits remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare dietary intake and eating habits in female athletes to the recommended sports nutrition minimums.... Read more »
Shriver LH, Betts NM, & Wollenberg G. (2013) Dietary intakes and eating habits of college athletes: are female college athletes following the current sports nutrition standards?. Journal of American College Health, 61(1), 10-6. PMID: 23305540
The impact that a concussion has on an immature adolescent brain is largely unknown. Magnetic resonance imaging advancements such as diffusion tensor imaging may help us understand these changes because it provides quantitative measure of the subtle changes within the white matter tissue in the brain following a concussion. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use diffusion tensor imaging to investigate the short-term structural differences between 12 adolescents that had sustained a recent concussion (within 2 months) and 10 adolescent athletes with no concussion history.... Read more »
Virji-Babul N, Borich MR, Makan N, Moore T, Frew K, Emery CA, & Boyd LA. (2013) Diffusion tensor imaging of sports-related concussion in adolescents. Pediatric Neurology, 48(1), 24-9. PMID: 23290016
The current Bethesda and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines are used to determine the cardiac risk of athletes’ participation with long QT-syndrome (LQTS). While the Bethesda guidelines stratify athletes with LQTS into different classes the ESC strictly prohibits athletes with LQTS from sport participation. Johnson and Ackerman looked at these rather strict guidelines by examining outcomes among patients that chose to continue sport participation after being diagnosed with LQTS.... Read more »
Johnson JN, & Ackerman MJ. (2013) Return to play? Athletes with congenital long QT syndrome. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 47(1), 28-33. PMID: 23193325
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