Bjørn Østman

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Pleiotropy
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  • June 29, 2014
  • 12:05 PM
  • 180 views

Vertebrate sexual systems

by Bjørn Østman in Pleiotropy

Awesome figure of the sexual systems used by 2,145 vertebrates species (705 fish, 173 amphibian, 593 non-avian reptilian, 195 avian, 479 mammalian).... Read more »

Ashman, T., Bachtrog, D., Blackmon, H., Goldberg, E., Hahn, M., Kirkpatrick, M., Kitano, J., Mank, J., Mayrose, I., Ming, R.... (2014) Tree of Sex: A database of sexual systems. Scientific Data. DOI: 10.1038/sdata.2014.15  

  • March 4, 2014
  • 05:03 PM
  • 212 views

Evolutionary dynamics in holey fitness landscapes

by Bjørn Østman in Pleiotropy

What do real fitness landscapes look like? Do they look more like the image on the left, a nearly-neutral holey fitness landscape, or the one on the right, a rugged fitness landscape with many distinct peaks? - See more at: http://pleiotropy.fieldofscience.com/2014/03/evolutionary-dynamics-in-holey-fitness.html#sthash.eTuURlc7.dpuf... Read more »

Østman B, & Adami C. (2013) Predicting evolution and visualizing high-dimensional fitness landscapes. Recent Advances in the Theory and Application of Fitness Landscapes" (A. Engelbrecht and H. Richter, eds.). Springer Series in Emergence, Complexity, and Computation. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-41888-4_18  

  • January 27, 2014
  • 04:12 PM
  • 242 views

Sewall Wright's last paper

by Bjørn Østman in Pleiotropy

Sewall Wright lived to be 98. Two months before he died he published a paper in The American Naturalist titled Surfaces of Selective Value Revisited (Wright, 1988).... Read more »

Sewall Wright. (1988) Surfaces of Selective Value Revisited. The American Naturalist. DOI: 10.1086/284777  

Bjørn Østman, Arend Hintze, & Christoph Adami. (2010) Critical properties of complex fitness landscapes. Proc. 12th Intern. Conf. on Artificial Life, H. Fellerman et al., eds. (MIT Press, 2010), pp. 126-132. arXiv: 1006.2908v1

Østman B, Hintze A, & Adami C. (2012) Impact of epistasis and pleiotropy on evolutionary adaptation. Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society, 279(1727), 247-56. PMID: 21697174  

  • November 13, 2013
  • 09:28 AM
  • 304 views

Smooth and rugged fitness landscapes

by Bjørn Østman in Pleiotropy

In evolutionary theory, a fitness landscape is a map where fitness is a function of either the genotype or the phenotype. The genotype is some description of the genetic make-up of an organism. This can be the DNA or a list of the mutations/alleles, and are discrete variables. ... Read more »

Jasper Franke, Alexander Klözer, J. Arjan G. M. de Visser, & Joachim Krug. (2011) Evolutionary accessibility of mutational pathways. PLoS Computational Biology 7 (8) e1002134 (2011). arXiv: 1103.2479v2

Weissman DB, Desai MM, Fisher DS, & Feldman MW. (2009) The rate at which asexual populations cross fitness valleys. Theoretical population biology, 75(4), 286-300. PMID: 19285994  

Østman B, Hintze A, & Adami C. (2012) Impact of epistasis and pleiotropy on evolutionary adaptation. Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society, 279(1727), 247-56. PMID: 21697174  

  • April 13, 2013
  • 04:26 PM
  • 474 views

Can we predict evolution?

by Bjørn Østman in Pleiotropy

Evolution is predictable if we know population size, mutation rate, and the fitness landscape.... Read more »

Szendro IG, Franke J, de Visser JA, & Krug J. (2013) Predictability of evolution depends nonmonotonically on population size. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(2), 571-6. PMID: 23267075  

Ostman B, Hintze A, & Adami C. (2012) Impact of epistasis and pleiotropy on evolutionary adaptation. Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society, 279(1727), 247-56. PMID: 21697174  

  • October 10, 2012
  • 09:52 AM
  • 781 views

Ochman on bacterial evolution

by Bjørn Østman in Pleiotropy

Yesterday I went to the annual Thomas S Whittam Memorial Lecture here at MSU. Howard Ochman talked about "Evolutionary Forces Affecting Bacterial Genomes", though he had changed the title to "Determinants of Genome Size and complexity.... Read more »

Raghavan R, Kelkar YD, & Ochman H. (2012) A selective force favoring increased G C content in bacterial genes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(36), 14504-7. PMID: 22908296  

  • September 28, 2012
  • 08:45 AM
  • 649 views

Genotype-phenotype maps and mathy biology

by Bjørn Østman in Pleiotropy

... Read more »

Peter F. Stadler, & Christopher R. Stephens. (2003) Landscapes and Effective Fitness. Comm. Theor. Biol. DOI: 10.1080/08948550302439  

  • September 5, 2012
  • 05:31 PM
  • 568 views

ENCODE: What defines genomic function?

by Bjørn Østman in Pleiotropy

A new wealth of articles by the ENCODE (the ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements) consortium suggest that far more of the human genome carries out some function or other, and one might conclude that very little DNA is junk.... Read more »

Joseph R. Ecker, Wendy A. Bickmore, Inês Barroso, Jonathan K. Pritchard, Yoav Gilad . (2012) Genomics: ENCODE explained. Nature. DOI: 10.1038/489052a  

  • July 23, 2012
  • 04:41 PM
  • 759 views

Crossing valleys in fitness landscapes

by Bjørn Østman in Pleiotropy

With his "holey adaptive landscapes", Sergey Gavrilets (e.g. 1997) solved the problem of crossing valleys of low fitness in the fitness landscape* by positing that for high-dimensional landscapes (which is realistic - typiwrightcally the genotype consists of thousands of genes and many more DNA nucleotides) there is always a ridge between fitness "peaks" (which are then not really peaks). ... Read more »

Weissman DB, Desai MM, Fisher DS, & Feldman MW. (2009) The rate at which asexual populations cross fitness valleys. Theoretical population biology, 75(4), 286-300. PMID: 19285994  

Bjørn Østman, Arend Hintze, & Christoph Adami. (2010) Critical properties of complex fitness landscapes. Proc. 12th Intern. Conf. on Artificial Life, H. Fellerman et al., eds. (MIT Press, 2010), pp. 126-132. arXiv: 1006.2908v1

Østman B, Hintze A, & Adami C. (2012) Impact of epistasis and pleiotropy on evolutionary adaptation. Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society, 279(1727), 247-56. PMID: 21697174  

  • May 31, 2012
  • 02:42 PM
  • 824 views

The Black Queen Hypothesis

by Bjørn Østman in Pleiotropy

In the game of Hearts, the object is to not get certain cards. The most vile of them all is the dreaded black queen of spades, which is as bad as all the other bad cards put together.... Read more »

  • March 27, 2012
  • 12:17 PM
  • 1,015 views

Carnivores have bad taste

by Bjørn Østman in Pleiotropy

Pseudogenes are genes that used to have a function, but no longer do. If a gene contributes to an important function for the organism, offspring with deleterious mutations that ruin the gene will have lower fitness, and as a result won't have as many offspring, if any at all. That mutated gene will likely not go to fixation (become prominent in the population). On the other hand, if the gene used to have a function, but no longer don't, then mutations affecting the gene won't be deleterious. Mutations that turn off its expression (so the protein the gene codes for is no longer produced), and mutations that mess up the amino-acid sequence of the protein (so the protein can't carry out the previous function), won't be detrimental to the individual that has those mutations if the individual no longer needs that function. As a result, those mutations can go to fixation either by genetic drift (i.e., at random), or can even be selected for (e.g., when there is a cost to producing the proteins).However, examples where pseudogenization is coupled to function is rare. A new study published in PNAS links genes that code for taste receptors to specific dietary changes in carnivorous mammals. Basically, animals that do not eat sweets don't have receptors for sweetness (e.g., cats), and animals that swallows their food whole have no receptors for umami (e.g., sea lions, dolphins).Mutations causing loss of the sweet-taste receptor gene are in red. The exons (DNA coding for a protein) are intact for dog, which can taste sweet just fine, compared to the exons for various other carnivores which cannot taste sweet, the poor souls.Examples of what the mutations actually do. Looks like they typically cause frameshifts, which makes the rest of the gene nonsense, and introduces stop codons, which causes transcription to stop prematurely. The first one, with Sea and Fur Seals, shows a mutation that messes up the promoter region of the gene, thereby ruining gene expression.Phylogenetic tree showing loss (diamonds) of Tas1R2, one of the genes coding for a protein that enables animals to taste sweet.In this way, several species have lost taste-receptors, and they have done so independently. The Fossa of Madagascar™ have lost the gene for the sweet-taste, but their most close relative examined, the Yellow Mongoose, have not. The red diamonds in the this phylogenetic tree indicates in which the gene for sweet taste has become a pesudogene. The results strongly suggest that loss of the gene has occurred multiple times, rather than once in a common ancestor.Measuring the strength of selection along these branches, the authors found that the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions, dN/dS (aka ω) is considerably lower for the species that can still taste sweet, compared to those that can't. An ω lower than one means that mutations that change the amino acid sequence aren't tolerated, while those that don't (the synonymous mutations) are.So this lower ratio means is that there is strong purifying selection on the gene when the gene is still in use, whereas when ω is higher, selection doesn't care much about the gene. However, the best model fit was one where the branches leading to species with intact taste-receptors had ω=0.13656, while the others had ω=0.41974. That is, while the latter is found to have been under relaxed selection compared to the former, the fact that ω isn't (close to) 1 suggest that it selection isn't wholly indifferent to the state of the protein. The authors themselves are at a loss as to the nature of this mechanism:Recently, sweet, umami, and bitter taste receptors have been implicated in several extraoral functions (36). Pseudogenization of Tas1r receptor genes in dolphins and sea lions and Tas2r receptor genes in dolphin indicates that these receptors cannot be involved in extraoral (e.g., gut, pancreas) chemosensation (36) in these species. Thus, to the extent that these extraoral taste receptors are functionally significant in rodents and humans, these functions must have been assumed by other mechanisms in the species we have identified here with pseudogenized receptors. What these other mechanisms are remains to be determined, and further assessment of the relationships among taste receptor structure, dietary choice, and the associated metabolic pathways will lead to a better understanding of the evolution of diet and food choice as well as their mechanisms.One of the species in the order Carnivora is the Banded Linsang, which lives in tropical forests of Thailand, Malaysia, Borneo, and Java. I include a picture of it here just because I have never seen this creature before, and because it is super adorable. It is a close relative of cats, and cannot taste sweet.Reference:Jiang P, Josue J, Li X, Glaser D, Li W, Brand JG, Margolskee RF, Reed DR, & Beauchamp GK (2012). Major taste loss in carnivorous mammals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America PMID: 22411809
... Read more »

Jiang P, Josue J, Li X, Glaser D, Li W, Brand JG, Margolskee RF, Reed DR, & Beauchamp GK. (2012) Major taste loss in carnivorous mammals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. PMID: 22411809  

  • January 26, 2012
  • 02:38 PM
  • 882 views

Link between political views and physiology

by Bjørn Østman in Pleiotropy

It is becoming more and more clear that political views are in fact not completely decided by rational considerations, as common sense would have us believe. Rather, previous studies have shown a link between emotional (i.e., largely uncontrollable) responses and position on the left/right spectrum: "those on the right are ‘distrustful of differences … fear change, dread disorder, are intolerant of nonconformity, and derogate reason’."*... Read more »

Dodd MD, Balzer A, Jacobs CM, Gruszczynski MW, Smith KB, & Hibbing JR. (2012) The political left rolls with the good and the political right confronts the bad: connecting physiology and cognition to preferences. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 367(1589), 640-9. PMID: 22271780  

  • January 11, 2012
  • 07:08 PM
  • 1,067 views

What determines rates of ecological speciation?

by Bjørn Østman in Pleiotropy

Speciation models are the most beautiful thing in evolutionary biology. This is widely known, and those who disagree are the crazies. Other models have their place, and empirical evidence for speciation, and insights from there into how speciation takes place are crucial for progress. But real understanding of this question of questions in evolutionary biology only comes once a model is constructed and validated. It is the ultimate goal of scientific work to condense knowledge in terms we can share and peruse, and this we do in models - which you may call theory, but I tend to regard this distinction with distrust.
... Read more »

Birand A, Vose A, & Gavrilets S. (2012) Patterns of species ranges, speciation, and extinction. The American naturalist, 179(1), 1-21. PMID: 22173457  

  • November 22, 2011
  • 10:45 AM
  • 1,267 views

Reproductive species vs. ecological species

by Bjørn Østman in Pleiotropy

Why are two breeds of dogs who can't mate without human assistance the same species, while two fish species, which can and do have fertile offspring, but which are intermediate in size and therefore not as good at obtaining resources as the parents, are different species?... Read more »

  • November 14, 2011
  • 12:07 AM
  • 400 views

Speciation in the virtual social world: Facebook vs. G

by Bjørn Østman in Pleiotropy

It may just be me and the people I follow, but isn't Google+ used more for serious stuff that people want others to see, while Facebook is for whatever friends do to each other. That would make sense, I suppose, given that you can't control who follows you on G+. But does it mean that G+ and Facebook are not really competing for the same niche? Even if there are overlapping functions, as there clearly are, are the two so diverged from each other in function that they will continue to coexist side by side in this virtual sympatric habitat of the internet?In other words, from whence they both came, are they now effectively different species?Biological species - and by that I do not exclusively mean reproductively isolated species - may compete for many of the same resources, and yet still remain isolated from each other. This can mean that there is no gene flow between them (or rather, not enough to break down the species barrier), better known as no sex despite all the interspecies love. In the case of asexual species, it can mean that one species doesn't outcompete the other because their ecological niches are different enough that negative frequency-dependent selection saves the species that becomes scarce. I believe Facebook and G+ are asexuals, even though code may transfer horizontally between them, just as with unicellular microbes in the world of biological life. Therefore, as long as Facebook is the best at something not insignificant, and G+ is better than anyone else at some function that people really like, then it is unlikely that one will trash the other.Niche dimensionality have an effect on speciation. Both theoretically and empirically there is mounting evidence that the more ecological niche dimensions (i.e., traits, such as ability to use a certain resource, or the service of video uploading) between diverging species, the higher the chance that the species barrier will persist (Nosil & Sandoval, 2008; Garant et al., 2007; Gerhart & Brooks, 2009). Think of the chance that two species are going to be different from each other in some essential way: the more things they can do - the higher the niche dimensionality - the more likely that they will not completely overlap in function. And the more distinct they are from each other, the higher the probability that they will not drive each other to extinction.Negative frequency-dependent selection occurs when it is advantageous to be rare. For example, if two species overlap in the use of some resources, but also both use some resource that the other one doesn't, then when one species becomes scarce, the resource it is specialized on becomes abundant (since that species is the main consumer of it). This in turn makes that scarce species have higher fitness, because there is so much resource available to so few, and it again grows in number. On the other hand, if a new species totally covers the function of another species, then it can drive the weaker species to extinction. I wonder if this is what is happening to MySpace (which I have never used, so I am not sure what the trait overlap is between that and Facebook)? Is MySpace all but dead already?Same question for Twitter and G+. Is there anything you can't do in G+ that Twitter can do? Couldn't G+ just has well fuel revolutions, or is there a special benefit to a 140 character limit? For mobile devices, perhaps? I do actually use Twitter (@CarnyEvolution), but am guilty of only posting - I can't see why I would go there to get updated on anything ever (but then again, I have not been involved in any revolutions lately, nor do I own a mobile device with the capability).Mutations, changes in code that alters traits, may eventually make either G+ or Facebook better than the other at everything, and then the other should meet its end. Yesterday I was reading about the history of multi-user dungeons (MUDs), which I played for a while in the early nineties. No one plays those anymore, because they have been superseded by massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) like EverQuest, which do all the same things, but adds graphics, which makes them fitter. In biology, there is plenty of empirical evidence that mutations confer higher fitness to a species (more precisely, to a population) in its current environment (i.e., adaptation), both empirically (Barrick et al., 2009) and theoretically (Østman et al., 2011).Environmental change may eventually change this situation of hostile coexistence, if mutations don't do it first. The hardware may change again, such that some of the services offered on Facebook and G+ become obsolete. Or user preferences may change, for example by many people being really annoyed with Facebook's privacy policy, leading to massive exodus, and bankruptcy.So, what's your prediction about the future of virtual online social media? Will G+ drive Facebook out of business by being better at everything? Note that Google does many other things that G+, so it is not likely (at all) that G+ will disappear now that it has some traction, because Google gains lots of fitness from al those other traits (search engine, RSS, maps, YouTube, email, etc.). Google really is like the rats or the cockroaches of this world: hellishly adaptable and not so easy to get rid of. Facebook, on the other hand, aka LinkedIn for teenagers, only does one thing, which is dangerous. But as long as it does this thing better than anyone else, perhaps it will be safe?References:Nosil P, & Sandoval CP (2008). Ecological niche dimensionality and the evolutionary diversification of stick insects. PloS one, 3 (4) PMID: 18382680Garant D, Kruuk LE, McCleery RH, & Sheldon BC (2007). The effects of environmental heterogeneity on multivariate selection on reproductive traits in female great tits. Evolution; international journal of organic evolution, 61 (7), 1546-59 PMID: 17598739Gerhardt HC, & Brooks R (2009). Experimental analysis of multivariate female choice in gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor): evidence for directional and stabilizing selection. Evolution; international journal of organic evolution, 63 (10), 2504-12 PMID: 19500145... Read more »

Barrick, J., Yu, D., Yoon, S., Jeong, H., Oh, T., Schneider, D., Lenski, R., & Kim, J. (2009) Genome evolution and adaptation in a long-term experiment with Escherichia coli. Nature, 461(7268), 1243-1247. DOI: 10.1038/nature08480  

Østman, B., Hintze, A., & Adami, C. (2011) Impact of epistasis and pleiotropy on evolutionary adaptation. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2011.0870  

  • November 13, 2011
  • 11:50 PM
  • 712 views

Speciation in the virtual social world: Facebook vs. G+

by Bjørn Østman in Pleiotropy

It may just be me and the people I follow, but isn't Google used more for serious stuff that people want others to see, while Facebook is for whatever friends do to each other. That would make sense, I suppose, given that you can't control who follows you on G . But does it mean that G and Facebook are not really competing for the same niche? Even if there are overlapping functions, as there clearly are, are the two so diverged from each other in function that they will continue to coexist side by side in this virtual sympatric habitat of the internet?... Read more »

Barrick, J., Yu, D., Yoon, S., Jeong, H., Oh, T., Schneider, D., Lenski, R., & Kim, J. (2009) Genome evolution and adaptation in a long-term experiment with Escherichia coli. Nature, 461(7268), 1243-1247. DOI: 10.1038/nature08480  

Østman, B., Hintze, A., & Adami, C. (2011) Impact of epistasis and pleiotropy on evolutionary adaptation. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2011.0870  

  • August 13, 2011
  • 09:46 PM
  • 1,370 views

Scandinavians have bigger brains for better vision

by Bjørn Østman in Pleiotropy

No matter that this study proposes that people of the north have bigger brains than those at the equator merely to cope with lower levels of sunlight - it would still cause an uproar if the rather large group of people (including scientists) who regularly commit the moralistic fallacy should ever hear about it.We demonstrate a significant positive relationship between absolute latitude and human orbital volume, an index of eyeball size. Owing to tight scaling between visual system components, this will translate into enlarged visual cortices at higher latitudes. Bigger brains, and by usual (though not in this case) inference, higher intelligence ranks at least as high on the list of taboos as race does. Telling someone they are less intelligent is one of the worst things one can say about another. As a consequence, research into intelligence is under more scrutiny than most other disciplines, and freely voicing hypotheticals can get researchers fired.

In the world of bats, saying someone has substandard echolocation is not politically correct. Among snails, calling someone fast is frowned upon. Elephants are known to ostracize those claiming to have longer trunks that others. Because if a bat or snail or elephant is substandard in the prime measure of worth, then the fear is that they will be treated badly by those with better echolocation, speed, and trunks.

But luckily (eh?), the study does not suggest any difference in intelligence after all. Just that we Scandinavians have bigger brains because we need to be more sensitive to light, because there is less of it. Phew! Perhaps now we can even use this data to cancel out any differences in intelligence? After all, that there should be any systematic variation in intelligence among human populations is, unlike many other traits, just unthinkable!!!

</sarcasm></exasperation>

Reference:
Pearce, E., & Dunbar, R. (2011). Latitudinal variation in light levels drives human visual system size Biology Letters DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2011.0570

... Read more »

  • June 30, 2011
  • 03:29 PM
  • 1,460 views

Using deleterious mutations to cross fitness valleys - as misunderstood by ID creationists

by Bjørn Østman in Pleiotropy

It is fitting that an article I just got published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B [1] has been blogged about on the ID lover's Uncommon Descent: Are Fitness Valleys Too Deep?
... Read more »

  • June 15, 2011
  • 04:37 PM
  • 1,650 views

Homophobes are turned on by homosexuality

by Bjørn Østman in Pleiotropy

Unfortunately I can't access the full length article of this one: Is homophobia associated with homosexual arousal?But it is obviously too good to miss. The abstract reads:The authors investigated the role of homosexual arousal in exclusively heterosexual men who admitted negative affect toward homosexual individuals. Participants consisted of a group of homophobic men (n = 35 ) and a group of nonhomophobic men (n = 29); they were assigned to groups on the basis of their scores on the Index of Homophobia (W. W. Hudson & W. A. Ricketts, 1980). The men were exposed to sexually explicit erotic stimuli consisting of heterosexual, male homosexual, and lesbian videotapes, and changes in penile circumference were monitored. They also completed an Aggression Questionnaire (A. H. Buss & M. Perry, 1992). Both groups exhibited increases in penile circumference to the heterosexual and female homosexual videos. Only the homophobic men showed an increase in penile erection to male homosexual stimuli. The groups did not differ in aggression. Homophobia is apparently associated with homosexual arousal that the homophobic individual is either unaware of or denies.So, homophobic men are aroused by homosexual porn, and either they don't know it (hmmm), or they deny it (looking at you, Fred Phelps).Reference:Adams, H., Wright, L., & Lohr, B. (1996). Is homophobia associated with homosexual arousal? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105 (3), 440-445 DOI: 10.1037/0021-843X.105.3.440... Read more »

Adams, H., Wright, L., & Lohr, B. (1996) Is homophobia associated with homosexual arousal?. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105(3), 440-445. DOI: 10.1037/0021-843X.105.3.440  

  • May 13, 2011
  • 01:14 PM
  • 1,566 views

Keller shows robots evolving altruism - Nowak dismisses simulations

by Bjørn Østman in Pleiotropy

As also reported on Panda's Thumb, Laurent Keller's group have evolved robot behavior in a computer (report in Science). The robots were given the ability to share food with each other, and more related groups quickly evolved altruism, sharing food with other robots they were related to. Classical and unsurprising, at least given our theoretical understanding of the evolution of altruism.However, Martin Nowak, champion of the anti-kin-selection view, in a stunning feat of denial, dismisses the result because they are mere robots.But Harvard University theortician Martin Nowak is more cautious about drawing conclusions based on computer simulations. Virtual robots are not a stand in for real life, he says. "[The work] tells us nothing about whether Hamilton's rule makes a correct prediction for actual biological systems," he says.If you don't think that's ironic, then you don't know much about Nowak's work. Nowak mainly uses mathematics to make inference and draw conclusions about "actual biological systems". In my book, robots that actual do stuff seems much closer to biology than equations.That being said, as I've previously noted, I am personally agnostic about the role of kin-selection in group selection.altruism quickly evolved in the simulation, with greater food-sharing in groups where robots were more related, the researchers report online today in PLoS Biology.Yes, but the fact that individuals groups that are more altruistic are related begs the question of causality. Did altruism evolve because they were related, or did groups of related individuals evolve because they were altruistic? In a situation like the one by Keller's group, these two scenarios may be inseparable. Is there another way to test what comes first, altruism or relatedness? Or rather, can we get altruism in groups of no relatedness?Check out some other cool robots.Waibel, M., Floreano, D., & Keller, L. (2011). A Quantitative Test of Hamilton's Rule for the Evolution of Altruism PLoS Biology, 9 (5) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000615... Read more »

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