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  • August 26, 2016
  • 06:49 AM
  • 42 views

From :-D to =8-0 - Effects of Emoticons on the Brain

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover

An unusual study reports the effects of emoticons on human brain activity: Neural correlates of text-based emoticons



South Korean neuroscientists Ko Woon Kim et al. used fMRI to record brain activation in 18 volunteers who were shown various expressive text symbols, in both the Asian 'vertical' and Western 'horizontal' styles:

However, it turned out that the brain doesn't really respond to emoticons at all: there was no significant difference in the brain response to the real emoticons... Read more »

  • August 23, 2016
  • 03:58 PM
  • 67 views

Making Music From Brainwaves: A History

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover

A new paper in Brain tells the story of attempts to turn brain waves into music. The authors are Bart Lutters and Peter J. Koehler: Brainwaves in concert: the 20th century sonification of the electroencephalogram


Electroencephalography (EEG), a technique for measuring brain electrical activity, was invented by German psychiatrist Hans Berger in 1929. Berger's EEG displayed the recorded activity in the form of graphs, using a mobile pen and a rotating drum of graph paper, but within 5 years,... Read more »

  • August 21, 2016
  • 05:49 AM
  • 107 views

What To Do About Software Errors in fMRI?

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover

Last month we learned that a problem in commonly used fMRI analysis tools was giving rise to elevated rates of false positives. Now, another issue has been discovered in an fMRI tool. The affected software is called GingerALE and the 'implementation errors' are revealed in a new paper by Simon B. Eickhoff et al., the developers of the package.





GingerALE is a meta-analysis tool, that offers the ability to combine the results of multiple fMRI studies to assess the overall level of evide... Read more »

  • August 19, 2016
  • 02:42 PM
  • 108 views

The Brain That Goes Through Phases: Temporal Metastates in fMRI

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover

Do you ever feel like your brain is stuck in a rut? A new study from neuroscientists James M. Shine and colleagues reveals the existence of 'temporal metastates' in human brain activity. These metastates are modes or patterns of activity that can persist over days, weeks or even months at a time, and they seem to be related to fluctuations in energy levels and attention.

The authors made use of a unique fMRI dataset, namely the results of repeated scanning of neuroscientist Russ Poldrack's br... Read more »

  • August 16, 2016
  • 01:57 PM
  • 95 views

Science Without Open Data Isn't Science

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover

A new position paper published in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) has generated a lot of controversy among some scientists: Toward Fairness in Data Sharing.

It's not hard to see why: the piece criticizes the concept of data sharing in the context of clinical trials. Data sharing is the much-discussed idea that researchers should make their raw data available to anyone who wants to access it. While the NEJM piece is specifically framed as a rebuttal to this recent pro-data sharing N... Read more »

International Consortium of Investigators for Fairness in Trial Data Sharing. (2016) Toward Fairness in Data Sharing. The New England journal of medicine, 375(5), 405-7. PMID: 27518658  

  • August 1, 2016
  • 03:53 PM
  • 208 views

Some Surprising Authors of Psychology Papers

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover

In a fascinating new paper, Scott O. Lilienfeld and Steven Jay Lynn discuss 78 Surprising Authors of Psychological Publications. The paper is a list of celebrities and other notable figures who, at one time or another, have published an academic paper in psychology.


Did you know that Lisa Kudrow, aka Phoebe from Friends, was co-author on a 1994 paper about 'Handedness and Headache' published in the journal Cephalalgia? Well, thanks to Lilienfeld and Lynn, now you do. Other actors who have a... Read more »

Lilienfeld SO, & Lynn SJ. (2016) You'll Never Guess Who Wrote That: 78 Surprising Authors of Psychological Publications. Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, 11(4), 419-41. PMID: 27474131  

  • July 31, 2016
  • 06:39 AM
  • 224 views

The End of Ego-Depletion Theory?

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover

It's not been a good month for the theory of ego-depletion - the idea that self-control is a limited resource that can be depleted by overuse. Two weeks ago, researchers reported evidence of bias in the published literature examinig the question of whether glucose can reverse ego-depletion.

Now, the very existence of the ego-depletion phenomenon has been questioned by an international collaboration of psychologists who conducted a preregistered replication attempt (RRR). The results have just... Read more »

Hagger, M., & Chatzisarantis, N. (2016) A Multilab Preregistered Replication of the Ego-Depletion Effect. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11(4), 546-573. DOI: 10.1177/1745691616652873  

  • July 27, 2016
  • 09:49 AM
  • 263 views

The Myth of Human Adult Neurogenesis?

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover

In a new paper that could prove explosive, Australian neuropathologists C. V. Dennis and colleagues report that they found very little evidence for adult neurogenesis in humans.

In recent years, the idea that neurogenesis - the production of new neurons - occurs in specific regions of the adult brain has become widely accepted, and much discussed. Disruptions to neurogenesis have been proposed to play a role in stress, depression, and other disorders.



However, Dennis et al. say that ne... Read more »

Dennis CV, Suh LS, Rodriguez ML, Kril JJ, & Sutherland GT. (2016) Human adult neurogenesis across the ages: An immunohistochemical study. Neuropathology and applied neurobiology. PMID: 27424496  

  • July 23, 2016
  • 09:41 AM
  • 246 views

A New Map of the Brain: What Does It Mean?

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover

A new Nature paper has earned a lot of media attention, unusually given that it's a fairly technical and 'basic' piece of neuroscience. In the paper, researchers Matthew F. Glasser and colleagues present a new parcellation (or map) of the human cerebral cortex, breaking the cortex down into 180 areas per hemisphere - many more than conventional maps.



But is this, as Nature dubbed it, "the ultimate brain map"?

To generate their map, Glasser et al. first downloaded 210 people's data from... Read more »

Glasser MF, Coalson TS, Robinson EC, Hacker CD, Harwell J, Yacoub E, Ugurbil K, Andersson J, Beckmann CF, Jenkinson M.... (2016) A multi-modal parcellation of human cerebral cortex. Nature. PMID: 27437579  

  • July 19, 2016
  • 03:17 PM
  • 153 views

Can Ultrasound Diagnose Autism?

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover

A paper makes the remarkable claim that autism could be detected through the use of ultrasound to peer beneath the skull. This paper is from 2014, but it just came to my attention.



The authors of the piece, James Jeffrey Bradstreet, Stefania Pacini and Marco Ruggiero, studied 23 children with autism and 15 control children, who were unaffected siblings of the autistic group. Using ultrasound, the authors looked under the skull overlaying the brain's temporal cortex. The ultrasound reveale... Read more »

  • July 16, 2016
  • 04:06 PM
  • 146 views

Blogs, Papers, Plagiarism and Bitcoin

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover

Retraction Watch reports on a strange case of alleged plagiarism.

In February 2016, F1000Research published a paper called How blockchain-timestamped protocols could improve the trustworthiness of medical science. The authors, Greg Irving and John Holden, demonstrated the use of the bitcoin blockchain as a way of publicly verifying the existence of a certain document at a certain point in time. This approach, they say, could be used to make preregistered research protocols more secure. A prob... Read more »

  • July 14, 2016
  • 11:15 AM
  • 259 views

Does Sugar Really Fuel Willpower?

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover

Another prominent psychology theory has come under scrutiny by researchers who say the published results look unrealistic.



In a new paper, Miguel A. Vadillo et al. take aim at the idea that the body's reserves of willpower rely on glucose.

The background here is the 'ego depletion' model, a psychological theory which holds that self-control is effortful and draws on a limited resource, which can eventually be depleted if it's overused. Many researchers have proposed that glucose is thi... Read more »

  • July 10, 2016
  • 09:25 AM
  • 158 views

Can Psychologists Learn More by Studying Fewer People?

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover

In a brief new Frontiers in Psychology paper, Matthew P. Normand argues that Less Is More: Psychologists Can Learn More by Studying Fewer People.





Normand writes that the conventional wisdom - that a bigger sample size is better - is wrong. Repeated measurements of a few subjects, or even just one individual, can be more informative than casting the net widely, he says
Psychologists tend to view the population of interest to be people, with the number of individuals studied taking pre... Read more »

  • July 7, 2016
  • 11:37 AM
  • 338 views

False-Positive fMRI Hits The Mainstream

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover



A new paper in PNAS has made waves. The article, called Cluster failure: Why fMRI inferences for spatial extent have inflated false-positive rates, comes from neuroscientists Swedish neuroscientists Anders Eklund, Tom Nichols, and Hans Knutsson.

According to many of the headlines that greeted "Cluster failure", the paper is a devastating bombshell that could demolish the whole field of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI):
Bug in fMRI software calls 15 years of research into ques... Read more »

Eklund A, Nichols TE, & Knutsson H. (2016) Cluster failure: Why fMRI inferences for spatial extent have inflated false-positive rates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. PMID: 27357684  

  • June 21, 2016
  • 05:42 AM
  • 240 views

Anonymity Doesn't Always Promote Online Aggression

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover

It's widely said that anonymity on the internet helps to promote aggressive, low quality or trolling comments. On this view, the anonymous commenter, knowing they cannot be held accountable, is free to do things that they would be ashamed to do under their real name.





But now German researchers Katja Rost and colleagues challenge this view, in a new study published in PLOS ONE. Rost et al. say that real names can actually be associated with more aggression than anonymous posts, based o... Read more »

  • June 16, 2016
  • 11:01 AM
  • 205 views

Reflections On Voodoo Neuroscience

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover

Seven years ago, neuroscientists Ed Vul and colleagues made waves with their paper on 'voodoo correlations' in social neuroscience. Now, in a new paper, historian of medicine Cornelius Borck looks back on the voodoo correlations debate and asks whether neuroscience might be likened to voodoo in another sense.



Borck argues that neuroscience has something in common with animism, the religious belief that spirits inhabit various objects. In particular, he says, fMRI studies can be likened to... Read more »

Borck, C. (2016) Animating Brains. Medical History, 60(03), 308-324. DOI: 10.1017/mdh.2016.25  

  • June 11, 2016
  • 05:29 AM
  • 355 views

The Four-Dimensional Brain?

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover

"The brain is a three dimensional object." It would seem that this is one of the least controversial facts about the brain, something we can all agree on. But now, in a curious new paper, researchers Arturo Tozzi and James F. Peters suggest that the brain might have an extra dimension: Towards a fourth spatial dimension of brain activity


From topology, a strong concept comes into play in understanding brain functions, namely, the 4D space of a ‘‘hypersphere’s torus’’, undetectable by........ Read more »

Tozzi A, & Peters JF. (2016) Towards a fourth spatial dimension of brain activity. Cognitive neurodynamics, 10(3), 189-99. PMID: 27275375  

  • June 10, 2016
  • 08:31 AM
  • 306 views

Decoding Faces from the Brain

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover

In a fascinating new paper, researchers Hongmi Lee and Brice A. Kuhl report that they can decode faces from neural activity. Armed with a brain scanner, they can reconstruct which face a participant has in mind. It's a cool technique that really seems to fit the description of 'mind reading' - although the method's accuracy is only modest.


Here's how they did it. Lee and Kuhl started out with a set of over 1000 color photos of different faces. During an fMRI scan, these images were shown to... Read more »

Lee H, & Kuhl BA. (2016) Reconstructing Perceived and Retrieved Faces from Activity Patterns in Lateral Parietal Cortex. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 36(22), 6069-82. PMID: 27251627  

  • June 3, 2016
  • 01:42 PM
  • 220 views

The Myth of the Optimism Bias?

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover

Are humans natural, irrational optimists? According to many psychologists, humans show a fundamental optimism bias, a tendency to underestimate our chances of suffering negative events. It's said that when thinking about harmful events, such as contracting cancer, most people believe that their risk is lower than that of 'the average person'. So, on average, people rate themselves as safer than the average. Moreover, people are also said to show biased belief updating. Faced with evidence that t........ Read more »

Punit Shah, Adam J. L. Harris, Geoffrey Bird, Caroline Catmur, & Ulrike Hahn. (2016) A Pessimistic View of Optimistic Belief Updating. Cognitive Psychology. info:/

  • May 30, 2016
  • 06:30 AM
  • 249 views

Foreign language syndrome: the Italian who became "French"

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover



A curious case report from Italian neuropsychologists Nicoletta Beschin and colleagues: Compulsive foreign language syndrome: a clinical observation not a mystery

The authors describe a 50 year old Italian man, JC, who turned into a 'caricature' of a Frenchman after a brain injury caused by a vascular anomaly. JC insisted in speaking French at all times, even though his knowledge of the language was rather poor (he had learned it at school, but not practiced it for decades.) What's more, ... Read more »

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