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  • March 13, 2012
  • 04:23 PM

The Age of ADHD

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic

Diagnosed rates of ADHD in American children have skyrocketed in the past 20 years, and use of medication such as Ritalin and Adderall has increased by an even greater amount.So says a report just out in Clinical Pediatrics, using data from the major US National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS). The rate of office based visits (i.e. visits when a doctor saw or treated a patient, outside of a hospital) was the main outcome measure. The authors looked at the number of visits reporting a diag........ Read more »

  • March 10, 2012
  • 08:22 AM

The Case of the Phantom Phantom Finger

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic

A "phantom limb" is the sensation that an amputated limb (or other body part) is still present.They can be distressing, especially when they're accompanied by pain in the "limb" which is not uncommon. The leading theory of why they happen is that the brain areas that used to receive sensations from the lost appendage respond to input "spilling over" from nearby brain regions.Anyway, a phantom limb is bad enough, but a paper just out reports on the case of a phantom finger that was never there in........ Read more »

  • March 7, 2012
  • 03:09 PM

Ketamine - Magic Antidepressant, or Expensive Illusion?

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic

Not one but two new papers have appeared from the Carlos Zarate group at NIMH reporting that a single injection of the drug ketamine has rapid, powerful antidepressant effects.One placebo-controlled study found a benefit in depressed bipolar patients who were already on mood stabilizers. The other found benefits in treatment-resistant major depression, though ketamine wasn't compared to placebo that time. Here's the bipolar trial: There have now been several studies finding dramatic antidepressa........ Read more »

  • March 6, 2012
  • 03:03 AM

Free Will: A Dangerous Idea?

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic

The British Journal of Social Psychology has published a fiery rebuke to psychologists who argue that belief in free will makes people more ethical.Recent much-publicized studies have claimed that scepticism about free will makes people behave less morally. "Disbelief in Free Will Increases Aggression and Reduces Helpfulness" as the title of one of hese papers puts it.In his article (free pdf), British 'independent researcher' James B. Miles says that these experiments are flawed, because they d........ Read more »

  • March 3, 2012
  • 07:41 AM

The World Mental Health Missionaries?

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic

Is research on the global distribution of mental health problems a kind of modern-day missionary work?Maybe, says Australia's Dr Stephen Rosenman in a provocative paper: Cause for caution: culture,sensitivity and the World Mental Health Survey Initiative.The World Mental Health Survey (WMHS) is a huge World Health Organization project that aims to measure the rates of various psychiatric disorders in countries around the world. The WMHS has produced a great deal of data, but Rosenman points out ........ Read more »

  • February 29, 2012
  • 02:35 AM

Bringing the Real World into Brain Scanning

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic

Canadian Neuroscientists Jacqueline Snow et al propose a new method of making brain scanning studies a bit more realistic.Typically, in an fMRI or other neuroimaging study, any visual stimuli shown to the volunteer are just pictures on a screen. Sometimes videos will be used, but in almost all cases they're just 2D images. Is that adaquate? People have hoped so.Snow et al's data suggest that it might not be.They created a contraption for presenting subjects with real objects during a scan. See a........ Read more »

  • February 23, 2012
  • 02:32 AM

Beware Reverse Publication Bias

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic

In all the fuss over the pressure for scientists to publish positive results, we may have been missing an equally dangerous kind of publication bias operating in the opposite direction.So say Luijendijk and Koolman in the Journal of Clinical Epidemiology: The incentive to publish negative studies: how beta-blockers and depression got stuck in the publication cycle.The background here is the possible link between beta blockers and depression. Beta blockers are drugs widely used to treat high bloo........ Read more »

  • February 21, 2012
  • 02:11 AM

The Stigma(s) of Mental Illness

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic

Fighting "the stigma of mental illness" is big business at the moment. But does "the stigma" really exist?As I said back in 2010 :There is a stigma of schizophrenia, and there's a stigma of depression, etc. but they're not the same stigma. We're told it's a myth that "the mentally ill are violent" - [but] no-one thinks depressed or anorexic people are violent. They think (roughly) that people with psychosis are. They have other equally silly opinions about each diagnosis, but there's no monolith........ Read more »

  • February 19, 2012
  • 09:54 AM

A Correction

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic

In my previous post, on the paper A Facial Attractiveness Account of Gender Asymmetries in Interracial Marriage by Michael B. Lewis, I wrongly stated that it was unclear from the paper whether the research assistant who selected the Facebook images was blind to the hypothesis of the study.In fact, the paper did state that they were "a naive research assistant", something I missed. Apologies for this avoidable mistake. I've corrected the post.I'd also like to take this opportunity to remind every........ Read more »

  • February 18, 2012
  • 04:22 AM

The Evolutionary Psychology of Race, Beauty and Marriage

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic

There are some papers that you can tell are going to be hot potatoes just from the titles. This is one of them: A Facial Attractiveness Account of Gender Asymmetries in Interracial Marriage.Coming so soon after The Unconquered World, you'd be forgiven for thinking I am taking this blog in a more linkbaiting direction because I'm planning to introduce ads. I'm really not, it's just a coincidence.The paper claims that white women are on average more attractive than black, while East Asians are pre........ Read more »

  • February 14, 2012
  • 02:37 AM

Tired Brains Are More Excitable

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic

An important new study shows how being awake causes progressive changes to the brain. This could shed light on the function of sleep - but it also raises warnings for neuroscientists.Italian researchers Huber et al report that Human Cortical Excitability Increases with Time Awake. The experiment was conceptually simple - they measured cortical excitability when people were well rested and then looked to see how it changed as they were kept awake for over 24 hours.The participants woke up at 7 am........ Read more »

Huber, R., Maki, H., Rosanova, M., Casarotto, S., Canali, P., Casali, A., Tononi, G., & Massimini, M. (2012) Human Cortical Excitability Increases with Time Awake. Cerebral Cortex. DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhs014  

  • February 10, 2012
  • 03:40 AM

Good Science, Bad History, in the British Journal of Psychiatry

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic

The latest February 2012 issue of the British Journal of Psychiatry features a paper about the association between child abuse and later mental health problems. I haven't read it yet, but it looks pretty good.However, it also includes an editorial from John Read and Richard Bentall which argues that: Just 20 years ago, however, it would have been difficult to get the paper published. Mental health professions have been slow, even resistant, to recognise the role of childhood adversities in psych........ Read more »

  • February 8, 2012
  • 03:33 AM

Visualizing The Connected Brain

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic

So it seems as though the "connectome" is the latest big thing in neuroscience. This is the brain's wiring diagram, in terms of the connections between neurons and on a larger scale, between brain regions.We certainly won't understand the brain without getting to grips with the connections but equally, it's not the whole story. I previously emphasised that the brain is not made of soup; it's not made of spaghetti, either.Connectomics does however unquestionably provide some of the prettiest imag........ Read more »

  • February 5, 2012
  • 04:32 AM

Psychiatry's True Blood? Pt 1.

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic

Imagine that there was a blood test that could detect depression. Wouldn't that be useful?It depends.Ridge Diagnostics are a US company who offer such a test. They've just published some results of the technology in Molecular Psychiatry. In two samples of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), they report differences in the"MDDScore", between the patients and healthy controls.The MDDScore is an aggregate value, calculated from the levels of 9 metabolites in blood serum. They're all well-........ Read more »

  • February 2, 2012
  • 02:22 AM

Science Majors are from Mars...

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic

According to a new study, students with a family history of autism tend to major in math and science, while substance abuse and depression are more common in the ancestors of humanities fans.In an online survey, over 1,000 new Princeton undergrads were asked about their intended major and whether anyone in their family had been diagnosed with one of 16 neurological and psychiatric disorders. More details here.Of the 16 maladies, 5 were so rare that there wasn't enough data to analyze. Of the rem........ Read more »

  • January 31, 2012
  • 03:29 AM

Voodoo Neuroscience Revisited

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic

Two years ago, neuroscientists were shaken by the appearance of a draft paper showing that half of the published work in a particular field had fallen prey to a major statistical error.Originally called "Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience", it ended up with the less snappy name of Puzzlingly high correlations in fMRI studies of emotion, personality, and social cognition. I prefer the old title.The error in question is now known variously as the "circular analysis problem", "non-independe........ Read more »

  • January 26, 2012
  • 03:02 AM

Take Your Placebos, Or Die

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic

People who take their medication as directed are less likely to die - even when that "medication" is just a sugar pill.This is the surprising finding of a paper just published, Adherence to placebo and mortality in the Beta Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial (BEST).BEST was a clinical trial of beta blockers, drugs used in certain kinds of heart disease. The patients were aged about 60 and they all suffered from heart failure. Everyone was randomly assigned to get a beta blocker or placebo, the........ Read more »

  • January 25, 2012
  • 03:59 AM

The Hidden Face Within

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic

One of these two images contains a hidden picture of a face. Which one?This was the question faced by participants in a remarkable psychology experiment just published, Measuring Internal Representations from Behavioral and Brain Data. Five healthy volunteers were presented with a series of random black and white grid patterns. Each grid square was either black or white, and this was randomly determined on each trial.There was no pattern to the images, they were completely random. But the subjec........ Read more »

  • January 21, 2012
  • 12:23 PM

The Trojan Horses of Medicine

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic

Dodgy science is being smuggled into medical journals thanks to a loophole in the regulations, say Italian psychiatrists Barbui and Cipriani in an important article.They focus on agomelatine, a recently-approved antidepressant. But their point applies to all of medicine, not just psychiatry.Here's the problem. Nowadays, major medical journals have rules governing systematic reviews and meta-analyses of clinical trial data. If you want to review the evidence about how well a certain drug works, o........ Read more »

  • January 20, 2012
  • 01:31 PM

The Age (Cohort) of Autism

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic

New data shed light on the recent mysterious rise in the number of kids being diagnosed with autism.The new research doesn't explain the increase, but it tells us more about it. It shows that the rise in Californian autism diagnoses (reported to the state DDS) over the period 1996 to 2005 was a cohort effect, meaning that the rates of diagnosis have got higher, the later a child was born.A child who's 10 today (born 2002) has double of the chance of having a recorded diagnosis compared to a 14-y........ Read more »

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