This is an intriguing question with a pretty straightforward answer. But if you are assuming the answer is “women”, you are only partially correct. Researchers from Michigan, New York and North Carolina investigated the relationship of age and empathy in three large samples of American adults who ranged in age from 18 to 90 years. [...]
Does your capital client “look deathworthy”?
Pretrial publicity & bias: Take a look at the age of your jurors!
Should you ask your overweight female client to diet before trial?
... Read more »
O'Brien E, Konrath SH, Grühn D, & Hagen AL. (2013) Empathic concern and perspective taking: linear and quadratic effects of age across the adult life span. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 68(2), 168-75. PMID: 22865821
Continuous processing is a promising approach for solid dosage manufacturing. High-shear wet granulation is performed in continuous mode using twin screw granulators (TSG), characterized by a modular screw profile including a sequence of different screw elements with various shapes, orientation and functions. For process engineers it is a challenge to come up with prediction models to establish the relationship between equipment and material attributes, process data and the end-product testing results. If a reliable model is available which is able to predict the quality of the product, it can be inverted to obtain the design space, corresponding to that set of operating conditions required for achieving the target product quality. Such a modelling framework combined with in-process measurements, can provide a good mechanistic insight into the important parameters of continuous... Read more »
Fonteyne, M., Vercruysse, J., Díaz, D., Gildemyn, D., Vervaet, C., Remon, J., & Beer, T. (2013) Real-time assessment of critical quality attributes of a continuous granulation process. Pharmaceutical Development and Technology, 18(1), 85-97. DOI: 10.3109/10837450.2011.627869
Vercruysse, J., Córdoba Díaz, D., Peeters, E., Fonteyne, M., Delaet, U., Van Assche, I., De Beer, T., Remon, J., & Vervaet, C. (2012) Continuous twin screw granulation: Influence of process variables on granule and tablet quality. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 82(1), 205-211. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2012.05.010
Dhenge, R., Washino, K., Cartwright, J., Hounslow, M., & Salman, A. (2013) Twin screw granulation using conveying screws: Effects of viscosity of granulation liquids and flow of powders. Powder Technology, 77-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.powtec.2012.05.045
Gernaey, K., & Gani, R. (2010) A model-based systems approach to pharmaceutical product-process design and analysis. Chemical Engineering Science, 65(21), 5757-5769. DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2010.05.003
People who worry habitually about separation and abandonment - the "anxiously attached" - tend to be highly skilled at lie detection, an attribute that means they excel at poker. That's according to Tsachi Ein-Dor and Adi Perry whose new findings build on their theory that anxiously attached people are natural sentinels - highly sensitive to threats in the environment, including, this new research suggests, social threats.
Across a pair of initial studies, dozens of men and women answered questions about their attachment style before watching video clips of two women chatting or one person telling a story. In some of the conversational clips, one of the women told a lie, a fact that could be detected through a subtle objective clue in the clip. In the story clips, the events described either happened to the story-teller or were fabricated (there no were objective clues in these clips).
People who scored high in attachment anxiety (for example, they agreed with statements like "I worry about being abandoned" and "My desire to be very close sometimes scares people away") tended to be better at spotting lies and made-up stories. This wasn't just because they were simply more liberal at labelling utterances as lies. Also, the lie detection link with attachment anxiety was specific. General state and trait anxiety did not correlate with lie detection skills. "It appears that anxiety from separation and abandonment, which relates to hyper-activation of an innate psychobiological system (i.e. the attachment system) that promotes survival, is what is driving people's ability to detect deceit," the researchers said, "and not an overall sense of tension."
To see if the lie-detection skills associated with anxious attachment have any benefit in real life, Ein-Dor and Perry recruited 35 semi-professional poker players, assessed their attachment style and then observed their performance in a local poker tournament. Each participant was allocated at random to join in with a group of seven other players at the event. As they predicted, the researchers found that the participants who scored higher in anxious attachment tended to win more money in the tournament (on average, a one-point higher score in anxious attachment was associated with winning an extra 448 chips). Social anxiety did not have this association with tournament success.
Of course, there's no direct evidence here that the anxious players' better performance was due to their superior deception detection skills, but the researchers think it's highly likely, especially given how important the spotting of bluffs and reading of "tells" is to poker (also past research suggests anxiously attached people are poorer at concealing their own emotions so their advantage is more likely to be related to reading other players' minds than camouflaging their own).
These new findings add to past research showing that anxiously attached people are quicker than average at detecting physical threats, such as smoke in a room, and are quicker to alert other people to the danger.
"Studies like the ones reported here offer a new perspective on the strengths of individuals who have long been viewed as deficient and poorly adapted," the researchers concluded.
Ein-Dor T, & Perry A (2013). Full House of Fears: Evidence that People High in Attachment Anxiety are More Accurate in Detecting Deceit. Journal of personality PMID: 23437786
The advantage of having an anxiously attached person on your team
That's not a poker face, this is a poker face
Post written by Christian Jarrett (@psych_writer) for the BPS Research Digest.
... Read more »
Ein-Dor T, & Perry A. (2013) Full House of Fears: Evidence that People High in Attachment Anxiety are More Accurate in Detecting Deceit. Journal of personality. PMID: 23437786
Hurricane Sandy churned across the Caribbean and up the eastern seaboard of the U.S. in late October of 2012, leaving a path of death and destruction in its wake. This article focuses on the decision making among some of those who stayed behind in the storm—and how we might use that information to better prepare for the disasters of the future.... Read more »
Nicole M. Stephens,MarYam G. Hamedani,Hazel Rose Markus,Hilary B. Bergsieker,and Liyam Eloul1. (2009) Why Did They "Choose" to Stay? Perspectives of Hurricane Katrina Observers and Survivors. PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE. info:/
claimtoken-516ec066cd42e As we all know from watching The Hunt for Red October, submarine sonar operators have an almost super-human ability to identify underwater sounds. They can tell the difference between different types of military ships based solely on the sound produced by the engine, and it would be almost impossible to transmit man-made communication signals [...]... Read more »
Liu S, Qiao G, & Ismail A. (2013) Covert underwater acoustic communication using dolphin sounds. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 133(4). PMID: 23556695
We have previously discussed the finicky task of defining intelligence, but surely being able to do math qualifies? Even if the importance of mathematics in science is questioned by people as notable as E.O. Wilson, surely nobody questions it as an intelligent activity? Mathematical reasoning is not necessary for intelligence, but surely it is sufficient? [...]... Read more »
Ganesalingam Mohan. (2013) The Language of Mathematics: A Linguistic and Philosophical Investigation. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-37012-0
It can get depressing to reach Wednesday and the week’s food budget has already run out. It reminds me of college life. You young folk who are going to college, you’ve got it all to look forward to: independence, parties, lectures and beans on toast (not necessarily in that order). Let’s face it, with the … Continue reading »... Read more »
Franco, M., Bilal, U., Ordunez, P., Benet, M., Morejon, A., Caballero, B., Kennelly, J., & Cooper, R. (2013) Population-wide weight loss and regain in relation to diabetes burden and cardiovascular mortality in Cuba 1980-2010: repeated cross sectional surveys and ecological comparison of secular trends. BMJ, 346(apr09 2). DOI: 10.1136/bmj.f1515
The data were a shock even to climate scientists. Four years ago, researchers noticed that Arctic sea ice was melting much faster than expected; it’s so bad now that these same scientists predict that all Arctic sea ice will be gone by 2050. That’s bad news for a warming planet.... Read more »
Overland, J., & Wang, M. (2013) When will the summer arctic be nearly sea ice free?. Geophysical Research Letters. DOI: 10.1002/grl.50316
Climate information for the future is usually presented in the form of scenarios: plausible and consistent descriptions of future climate without probability information. This suffices for many purposes, but for the near term, say up to 2050, scenarios of emissions … Continue reading →... Read more »
I defended my MSc degree on Tuesday and I’m not going to lie: I was pretty symptomatic with bulimia in the days prior to my defence. As I was explaining to my boyfriend, the anxiety-reducing effects of purging are so powerful, and the compulsion to binge and purge (when I’m stressed/anxious/”not okay”) is so strong that it is much easier to do it, get it over with, and continue working (in a much calmer state).
I’ve mentioned before, for me, purging is very anxiety-reducing and in some ways, almost a positive experience. It is so tightly coupled with bingeing that it is hard to separate the two, but the anxiety-reducing effects are strongest when I binge and purge, non-existent when I binge, and weak when I purge a normal meal (which is exceptionally rare/almost never.)
It turns out, of course, that I’m not alone.
Negative emotional states and stressors have long been associated with bingeing and purging (b/ping). In particular, they were thought to precede (or occur before) b/ping events. But of course, anecdotal evidence from clinical practice, while important, …
You May Also Like:
Bingeing and Purging Marathons: Repeated Binge/Purge Cycles in Bulimia Nervosa
Impulsivity in Eating Disorders is Associated with Bingeing/Purging
Are There Any Meaningful Differences Between Subthreshold and Full Syndrome Anorexia Nervosa?
... Read more »
Smyth, J., Wonderlich, S., Heron, K., Sliwinski, M., Crosby, R., Mitchell, J., & Engel, S. (2007) Daily and momentary mood and stress are associated with binge eating and vomiting in bulimia nervosa patients in the natural environment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(4), 629-638. DOI: 10.1037/0022-006X.75.4.629
Take Home Message: Delayed-concussion diagnoses are preceded by a higher number of impacts where as concussion diagnosed at the time of injury are associated with higher kinematic measures.
Diagnosis of a concussion is in part decided by whether an athlete reports one or more concussive signs or symptoms; however, it is not uncommon for athletes to report these signs and symptoms day(s) after an injury. The delayed reporting may be attributable to athletes not wanting to stop playing, athletes not recognizing that they were injured, the symptoms developing later, and/or perhaps different types of head impacts (e.g., locations of impact, frequency of impacts, force of impact). Understanding which factors are associated with delayed reporting may help us better understand concussions and recognize athletes who may report delayed symptoms. Therefore, researchers examined whether impacts associated with immediate diagnosis of concussion would have different characteristics (e.g., location, frequency, force) than impacts associated with delayed diagnosis.... Read more »
Beckwith JG, Greenwald RM, Chu JJ, Crisco JJ, Rowson S, Duma SM, Broglio SP, McAllister TW, Guskiewicz KM, Mihalik JP.... (2013) Timing of Concussion Diagnosis Is Related to Head Impact Exposure Prior to Injury. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 45(4), 747-754. PMID: 23135364
Many people are justifiably concerned with the potential impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on coral reefs. But, coral reefs have been declining for at least the last 25 years and probably much longer, overwhelmingly due to threats that are unrelated to climate change. If we do not address these impacts we will continue to lose coral cover and reefs will be more vulnerable to climate change and ocean acidification.A coral outcrop on the Great Barrier Reef (photo Wikipedia)A new paper serves as an illustration of how resilient coral reefs are to climate impacts when they are isolated from other anthropogenic impacts, such as overfishing and agricultural runoff. James Gilmour and other researchers from the Australian Institute of Marine Science and some from the Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies followed the recovery of the Scott Reef system after a catastrophic bleaching event in 1998 that reduced coral cover from 50% to 10%. There was great concern for the reef system because it was isolated from other reefs that could supply coral larvae to fuel recovery.The Scott Reef system. The crescent shaped reef at the bottom is Scott Reef South, the small reef above the left arm of the crescent is Scott Reef and the pear shaped reef is Scott Reef North (photo Wikipedia).It turns out that, on balance, the isolation was a good thing. The supply of coral larvae reaching the reef was less than 6% of what it was prior to the bleaching event for six years. But, the reef was also isolated from chronic anthropogenic pressures, particularly overfishing. The number of herbivorous fish was already high at the time of the bleaching and jumped afterwards. As coral cover increased the numbers of herbivorous fish declined back to what they were prior to the bleaching.The daisy parrotfish, Chlorurus sordidus, is an important herbivore on coral reefs (photo Dennis Polack, EOL).The herbivorous fish kept seaweed and other organisms that compete with coral from taking over. Remnant corals that survived the bleaching were able to grow quickly and the small numbers of coral larvae reaching the reef had unexpectedly high survival. The fast growth of existing coral drove the initial recovery of the reef. Once young corals became established and began reproducing the supply of larvae increased and the recovery of coral cover accelerated.Ten years after the bleaching event the supply of coral larvae had returned to the levels seen before the bleaching. Two years later the amount of coral cover and community structure on the reef had largely been restored. The rate of recovery is made more remarkable by the occurrence of a second more moderate bleaching event, two cyclones and a disease outbreak.The study highlights just how resilient coral reefs can be to the effects of climate change and other disturbances if chronic anthropogenic stress is low. Overfishing, sedimentation and pollution are causing severe declines in coral cover right now. If we can control these threats, coral reefs might be able to survive in a warmer, more acidic ocean. Reference:Gilmour, J., Smith, L., Heyward, A., Baird, A., & Pratchett, M. (2013). Recovery of an Isolated Coral Reef System Following Severe Disturbance Science, 340 (6128), 69-71 DOI: 10.1126/science.1232310... Read more »
Gilmour, J., Smith, L., Heyward, A., Baird, A., & Pratchett, M. (2013) Recovery of an Isolated Coral Reef System Following Severe Disturbance. Science, 340(6128), 69-71. DOI: 10.1126/science.1232310
It probably doesn’t strike you as strange to see advertisements for prescription drugs. By now, everybody know that you should “talk to your doctor about Levitra” while “doing more with Lipitor” and getting “Claritin clear.” But if you think about it, it’s strange for an actor being paid by a pharmaceutical company to tell you [...]... Read more »
Lewin, B. (2013) Patient satisfaction with physician responses during interactions prompted by pharmaceutical advertisements. The Social Science Journal. DOI: 10.1016/j.soscij.2013.03.002
An atomic-scale engineering method for transforming low-efficiency photocatalytic “white” nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO2) into high-efficiency “black” nanoparticles could be the key to clean energy technologies based on hydrogen.... Read more »
Chen, X., Liu, L., Yu, P., & Mao, S. (2011) Increasing Solar Absorption for Photocatalysis with Black Hydrogenated Titanium Dioxide Nanocrystals. Science, 331(6018), 746-750. DOI: 10.1126/science.1200448
In the very complicated world of medical research and science, the days of one chemical, one metabolite, or one gene driving and sustaining ill-health and particular diseases or conditions seem to be all but long past. Sure, there are conditions which on the surface seem to be driven by only one factor, but more often than not is the realisation that we humans are very complicated creatures indeed.Leptin @ Wikipedia I was therefore interested to read the paper by Elizabeth Stringer and colleagues* (open-access) describing the results from a small cohort of women diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) looking at potential biological correlates which might accompany day-to-day changes in the severity of fatigue experienced by participants.Yes, I'm back with CFS to add to my ramblings about gut bacteria, mitochondrial disorder, amino acids. Bear with me...The paper is open-access but a few pointers might be useful:It was an interesting methodology the authors adopted which saw 10 women diagnosed with CFS and 10 asymptomatic age- and BMI-matched controls asked to monitor their fatigue-related behaviours over the course of 25 days.This self-report was accompanied by a professionally taken daily blood draw (yes, 25 days of giving a blood sample!) which were subsequently analysed for various cytokines - 51 in all.The self-report data and pattern of cytokine levels were analysed, correlated and networked (using a machine learning algorithm).Results: "Six participants with CFS and one healthy control demonstrated significant positive correlations between fatigue and leptin". Leptin by the way is a hormone normally implicated in the in-and-out process of energy expenditure, so potentially relevant to a condition like CFS which is characterised by fatigue.Buoyed by their leptin results, the authors also report that with the help of that Weka’s LibLINEAR algorithm, they were able to use the suite of cytokine results to distinguish 'high' and 'low' fatigue days for the CFS group with 78.3% accuracy compared with just above chance level in the asymptomatic control group. "The CFS model correctly identified 77.8% of the low fatigue days and 78.9% of high fatigue days".Ergo cytokines and inflammation seem to be not only tied into CFS pathology but might actually be overlap with the ebb and flow of clinical symptoms on a day-to-day basis.You can perhaps see how this study might be an important one for CFS. Given the connection between leptin (energy) and CFS, you might be saying to yourself that this sounds all very logical so why did no-one look at the possible connection before? Well, they did, or rather Cleare and colleagues** did and concluded: "we found no evidence of alterations in leptin levels in CFS" despite some potential effects from low dose hydrocortisone therapy on leptin levels under placebo-controlled conditions.This is not by any means the first time that immune function has cropped up on the CFS research radar (see this post) and probably won't be the last either. I don't however want to speculate too much more on these results without them being subject to appropriate replication with a larger patient set and that all-important diagnostic criteria being standardised. The XMRV story (see here) still lingers in the mind, as do other controversies on the CFS landscape such as Ampligen and Rituximab.To close, a song about a dirty old town.----------* Stringer EA. et al. Daily cytokine fluctuations, driven by leptin, are associated with fatigue severityin chronic fatigue syndrome: evidence of inflammatory pathology. Journal of Translational Medicine. 2013; 11: 93.** Cleare AJ. et al. Plasma leptin in chronic fatigue syndrome and a placebo-controlled study of the effects of low-dose hydrocortisone on leptin secretion. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2001; 55: 113-119.----------Stringer, E., Baker, K., Carroll, I., Montoya, J., Chu, L., Maecker, H., & Younger, J. (2013). Daily cytokine fluctuations, driven by leptin, are associated with fatigue severity in chronic fatigue syndrome: evidence of inflammatory pathology Journal of Translational Medicine, 11 (1) DOI: 10.1186/1479-5876-11-93... Read more »
Stringer, E., Baker, K., Carroll, I., Montoya, J., Chu, L., Maecker, H., & Younger, J. (2013) Daily cytokine fluctuations, driven by leptin, are associated with fatigue severity in chronic fatigue syndrome: evidence of inflammatory pathology. Journal of Translational Medicine, 11(1), 93. DOI: 10.1186/1479-5876-11-93
“GB” is a 28 year old man with a curious condition: his optic nerves are in the wrong place. Most people have an optic chiasm, a crossroads where half of the signals from each eye cross over the midline, in such a way that each half of the brain gets information from one side of [...]... Read more »
Davies-Thompson, J., Scheel, M., Jane Lanyon, L., & Sinclair Barton, J. (2013) Functional organisation of visual pathways in a patient with no optic chiasm. Neuropsychologia. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2013.03.014
Ethnocentrism (or contingent altruism) can be viewed as one of many mechanisms for enabling cooperation. The agents are augmented with a hereditary tag and the strategy space is extended from just cooperation/defection to behaviour that can be contingent on if the diad share or differ in their tag. The tags and strategy are not inherently [...]... Read more »
Kaznatcheev, Artem. (2010) The cognitive cost of ethnocentrism. Proceedings of the 32nd annual conference of the cognitive science society. info:/
The year 2012 saw conversation on the pricing structure and affordability of oncology drugs taking a center stage with commentaries, such as, "The Truly Staggering Cost Of Inventing New Drugs," by Mathew Herper in Forbes pegging the cost of inventing and developing these drugs at $1-$4 Billion, to news about Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center saying "NO" to Zaltrap (Sanofi's drug for colon cancer, then priced at $11,000 per month) for providing a marginal 1.4 month survival benefit. (Sanofi has since cut the price by 50%.)
What will rein in these Aston Martin-like price tags. At least Herceptin will lose its patent protection soon. Right? And biosimilars will force the price down. Wrong! Those banking on biosimilars to bring the cost down to earth are in for a rude shock.
Read more »... Read more »
De Souza JA. (2012) The cost of cancer care: there is more than one elephant in the room. Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.), 26(10), 926-8. PMID: 23176002
Mice with the human equivalent of gender identity disorder (XX males and XY females) reveal unique aspects of circadian rhythms that are under the influences of genetic vs. hormonal sex.... Read more »
Kuljis, D., Loh, D., Truong, D., Vosko, A., Ong, M., McClusky, R., Arnold, A., & Colwell, C. (2013) Gonadal- and Sex-Chromosome-Dependent Sex Differences in the Circadian System. Endocrinology, 154(4), 1501-1512. DOI: 10.1210/en.2012-1921
Evolution is predictable if we know population size, mutation rate, and the fitness landscape.... Read more »
Szendro IG, Franke J, de Visser JA, & Krug J. (2013) Predictability of evolution depends nonmonotonically on population size. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(2), 571-6. PMID: 23267075
Ostman B, Hintze A, & Adami C. (2012) Impact of epistasis and pleiotropy on evolutionary adaptation. Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society, 279(1727), 247-56. PMID: 21697174
Do you write about peer-reviewed research in your blog? Use ResearchBlogging.org to make it easy for your readers — and others from around the world — to find your serious posts about academic research.
If you don't have a blog, you can still use our site to learn about fascinating developments in cutting-edge research from around the world.
Research Blogging is powered by SMG Technology.
To learn more, visit seedmediagroup.com.