A new study done at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EFPL) could lead to a creation of a solar panel that requires 10 000 less material than the existing ones and is much more efficient.... Read more »
Krogstrup, P., Jørgensen, H., Heiss, M., Demichel, O., Holm, J., Aagesen, M., Nygard, J., & Fontcuberta i Morral, A. (2013) Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit. Nature Photonics, 7(4), 306-310. DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2013.32
by Artem Kaznatcheev in Evolutionary Games Group
Nearly a year ago, the previous post in this series introduced a way for programmers to play around with biology: a model that simulated the dynamics of a whole cell at unprecedented levels of details. But what if you want to play with the real thing? Can you program a living cell? Can you compute [...]... Read more »
NASA’s Kepler space telescope has witnessed the effects of a dead star bending the light of its companion star. The findings are among the first detections of this phenomenon — a result of Einstein’s general theory of relativity — in binary, or double, star systems.... Read more »
Whitney Clavin. (2013) Gravity-Bending Find Leads to Kepler Meeting Einstein. NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech. info:/
Artist depiction of the white dwarf with the red star (Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)
Researchers found that the dead star, also called as the white dwarf, changed the path of the light of the companion red star.
This discovery is among the first findings of this bending of light that was initially predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity in binary star systems. Researchers used Cornell-led ultraviolet measur........ Read more »
Muirhead, P., Vanderburg, A., Shporer, A., Becker, J., Swift, J., Lloyd, J., Fuller, J., Zhao, M., Hinkley, S., Pineda, J.... (2013) CHARACTERIZING THE COOL KOIs. V. KOI-256: A MUTUALLY ECLIPSING POST-COMMON ENVELOPE BINARY. The Astrophysical Journal, 767(2), 111. DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/767/2/111
In March 2012, Joseph Polchinski began to contemplate suicide — at least in mathematical form. A string theorist at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics in Santa Barbara, California, Polchinski was pondering what would happen to an astronaut who dived into a black hole. Obviously, he would die. But how?... Read more »
This first batch of AMS results, published April 3 in Physical Review Letters, encompasses about 25 billion particles detected over the course of a year and a half, including 6.8 million measurements of the electrons and positrons that could come from dark matter. AMS improved the precision of earlier data, detected particles at higher energies than previous instruments and found that the particles arrive in equal amounts from all directions.... Read more »
Andrew Grant. (2013) Cosmic ray detector confirms hints of dark matter. ScienceNews. info:/
The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is one of the Milky Way’s closest galactic neighbors. Even though it is a small, or so-called dwarf galaxy, the SMC is so bright that it is visible to the unaided eye from the Southern Hemisphere and near the equator. Many navigators, including Ferdinand Magellan who lends his name to the SMC, used it to help find their way across the oceans.
Modern astronomers are also interested in studying the SMC (and its cousin, the Large Magellanic Cloud), but for ........ Read more »
J.D. Harrington, Janet Anderson, & Megan Watzke. (2013) Stars in NGC 602a. NASA News. info:/
Researchers at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory have successfully demonstrated pulse tailoring, producing a time varying focal spot size known as ‘focal zooming’ on the world’s largest operating krypton fluoride (KrF) gas laser.... Read more »
Kehne, D., Karasik, M., Aglitsky, Y., Smyth, Z., Terrell, S., Weaver, J., Chan, Y., Lehmberg, R., & Obenschain, S. (2013) Implementation of focal zooming on the Nike KrF laser. Review of Scientific Instruments, 84(1), 13509. DOI: 10.1063/1.4789313
Researchers from the Colorado School of Mines have figured out a new way to increase efficiency of photovoltaic cells. It is well known that electricity carriers in solar cells, when excited by sunlight, can quickly lose some of their energy to heat. This energy loss can be prevented by collecting electricity carriers before they convert to heat through tiny “dots” of material.... Read more »
Kiriluk, K., Fields, J., Simonds, B., Pai, Y., Miller, P., Su, T., Yan, B., Yang, J., Guha, S., Madan, A.... (2013) Highly efficient charge transfer in nanocrystalline Si:H solar cells. Applied Physics Letters, 102(13), 133101. DOI: 10.1063/1.4795940
Astronomers have taken the highest resolution radio images of the expanding supernova 1987A remnant at millimeter wavelengths with the help of Australia Telescope Compact Array, CSIRO radio telescope in northern New South Wales.
"Imaging distant astronomical objects like this at wavelengths less than 1 centimetre demands the most stable atmospheric conditions. For this telescope these are usually only possible during c........ Read more »
Giovanna Zanardo, L. Staveley-Smith, C. -Y. Ng, B. M. Gaensler, T. M. Potter, R. N. Manchester, & A. K. Tzioumis. (2013) High-resolution radio observations of SNR 1987A at high frequencies. Astrophysical Journal. arXiv: 1301.6527v1
Sixty years ago this month Nature published the famous paper by Watson and Crick solving the structure of DNA. At the time many researchers pursued this goal, made difficult by the complexity of the DNA itself. A key contribution to the solution of the puzzle was the x-ray diffraction data provided by Rosalind Franklin. Indeed, without [...]... Read more »
WATSON, J., & CRICK, F. (1953) Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid. Nature, 171(4356), 737-738. DOI: 10.1038/171737a0
Inokuma, Y., Yoshioka, S., Ariyoshi, J., Arai, T., Hitora, Y., Takada, K., Matsunaga, S., Rissanen, K., & Fujita, M. (2013) X-ray analysis on the nanogram to microgram scale using porous complexes. Nature, 495(7442), 461-466. DOI: 10.1038/nature11990
A new highly sensitive method of measurement allowed physicists form Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin for Materials and Energy to directly detect defects in solar cells with atomic resolution. This findings can be used to optimize solar cells’ efficiency and decrease production costs.
HZB physicists have managed to localize defects in amorphous/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. Now, for the first time ever, using computer simulations at Paderborn University, the scientists were ........ Read more »
George, B., Behrends, J., Schnegg, A., Schulze, T., Fehr, M., Korte, L., Rech, B., Lips, K., Rohrmüller, M., Rauls, E.... (2013) Atomic Structure of Interface States in Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells. Physical Review Letters, 110(13). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.136803
What will soon be the most powerful neutrino detector in the United States has recorded its first three-dimensional images of particles.
Using the first completed section of the NOvA neutrino detector, scientists have begun collecting data from cosmic rays—particles produced by a constant rain of atomic nuclei falling on the Earth’s atmosphere from space .... Read more »
Fermilab Office of Communication. (2013) NOvA neutrino detector records first 3-D particle tracks. Fermilab Press Room. info:/
While potentially much more efficient, than conventional photovoltaic systems, quantum dot solar cells are still at a pre-commercialization stage. In a new paper, to be published in the journal Advanced Materials, researchers propose to improve quantum dot solar cell design with nanowires.... Read more »
Jean, J., Chang, S., Brown, P., Cheng, J., Rekemeyer, P., Bawendi, M., Gradečak, S., & Bulović, V. (2013) ZnO Nanowire Arrays for Enhanced Photocurrent in PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells. Advanced Materials. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204192
Order tends towards disorder. This is also true for quantum states. Measurements at the Vienna University of Technology show that in quantum mechanics this transition can be quite different from what we experience in our daily lives.... Read more »
Florian Aigner. (2013) Atoms with Quantum-Memory. Vienna University of Technology. info:/
A technology developed by the HiFlex research project promises flexible, lightweight, on-the-go charging for mobile electronics and remote applications. New organic photovoltaic module (OPV) is relatively cheap and can effectively function under various light conditions.... Read more »
Gevorgyan, S., Medford, A., Bundgaard, E., Sapkota, S., Schleiermacher, H., Zimmermann, B., Würfel, U., Chafiq, A., Lira-Cantu, M., Swonke, T.... (2011) An inter-laboratory stability study of roll-to-roll coated flexible polymer solar modules. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 95(5), 1398-1416. DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2011.01.010
Tritium, which is used in fusion reactors, is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, and as such is shares the same chemical properties. Like hydrogen, it can easily permeate a large number of materials. In a colloquium delivered at JET (Joint European Torus) last week, Assistant Professor Takumi Chikada from the University of Tokyo outlined progress in research of ceramic coating that could contain tritium and protect tritium-carrying pipework.... Read more »
Chikada, T., Suzuki, A., Kobayashi, T., Maier, H., Terai, T., & Muroga, T. (2011) Microstructure change and deuterium permeation behavior of erbium oxide coating. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 417(1-3), 1241-1244. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnucmat.2010.12.283
HP a mis au point un écran 3D pour les appareils mobiles qui ne nécessite pas de lunettes et vient d'être révélé dans la revue scientifique Nature. Cet écran utilise les nanotechnologies pour émettre la lumière de manière homogène selon différents angles de projection. L'effet 3D est visible même si l'on regarde la surface à 45 degrés.... Read more »
Fattal, D., Peng, Z., Tran, T., Vo, S., Fiorentino, M., Brug, J., & Beausoleil, R. (2013) A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display. Nature, 495(7441), 348-351. DOI: 10.1038/nature11972
This morning, scientists on the Planck space mission released the most detailed map yet of the afterglow of the big bang. It reveals that our universe is about 100 million years older, is expanding slower and contains less dark energy and more matter—both normal and dark—than previously thought.... Read more »
Kelen Tuttle. (2013) Planck reveals new insight into universe. Symmetry Magazine. info:/
University of Delaware materials science professors Darrin Pochan and Kristi Kiick are taking this approach to build materials (that can potentially increase the efficiency of solar cells and some other electronic devices) from peptides and proteins.... Read more »
Zhang, S., Zou, J., Zhang, F., Elsabahy, M., Felder, S., Zhu, J., Pochan, D., & Wooley, K. (2012) Rapid and Versatile Construction of Diverse and Functional Nanostructures Derived from a Polyphosphoester-Based Biomimetic Block Copolymer System. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 134(44), 18467-18474. DOI: 10.1021/ja309037m
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