Today’s paper is a continuation of our discussion on screening compounds for drug discovery: Kokel et al, 2010 Rapid behavior-based identification of neuroactive small molecules in the zebrafish, Nature Chemical Biology [PMC]. Having just returned from the IASP meeting in … Continue reading →... Read more »
Kokel, D., Bryan, J., Laggner, C., White, R., Cheung, C., Mateus, R., Healey, D., Kim, S., Werdich, A., Haggarty, S.... (2010) Rapid behavior-based identification of neuroactive small molecules in the zebrafish. Nature Chemical Biology, 6(3), 231-237. DOI: 10.1038/nchembio.307
Somewhat like cooperation between members of the same species, mutually beneficial interactions between different species should be prone to fall apart when one species evolves a way to cheat the other. Biologists who study mutualism (myself included) have long believed that the solution to cheating is to punish cheaters—but a new model suggests that the benefits gained from playing nice might be enough to deter cheating [PDF].
I knew I had to write about this one when I saw that the authors ........ Read more »
Marr, D., & Pellmyr, O. (2003) Effect of pollinator-inflicted ovule damage on floral abscission in the yucca-yucca moth mutualism: the role of mechanical and chemical factors. Oecologia, 136(2), 236-43. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-003-1279-3
Pellmyr, O., & Huth, C. (1994) Evolutionary stability of mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths. Nature, 372(6503), 257-60. DOI: 10.1038/372257a0
Weyl, E., Frederickson, M., Yu, D., & Pierce, N. (2010) Economic contract theory tests models of mutualism. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 107(36), 15712-6. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1005294107
by Peter Janiszewski, Ph.D. in Obesity Panacea
Yesterday, we introduced the fascinating and seemingly paradoxical concept of metabolically-healthy obesity. Today is part 2 of our 5-part series, in which we discuss evidence regarding the prospective risk of disease among the so-called metabolically-healthy obese.
The cross-sectional research certainly supports the existence of a sub-population of metabolically-health obese individuals; approximately 1 in 3 obese individuals has a healthy metabolic profile. But what about the chances of devel........ Read more »
Meigs, J. (2006) Body Mass Index, Metabolic Syndrome, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes or Cardiovascular Disease. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology , 91(8), 2906-2912. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2006-0594
St-Pierre, A. (2005) Insulin resistance syndrome, body mass index and the risk of ischemic heart disease. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 172(10), 1301-1305. DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.1040834
Azara's owl monkeys move to the rhythm of the moon. On nights when a full moon floods the evening sky with light, Azara's owl monkeys cannot sit still. They are so active that by dawn the next morning, they are worn out. But when the lunar cycle wanes and the moonlight fades, Azara's owl monkeys grow less active at night. On mornings after moonless nights, they are more active during the dawn hours.
The owl monkey genus is unique among anthropoids (monkeys, apes and humans) because it is the onl........ Read more »
Fernández-Duque, E., de la Iglesia, H., & Erkert, H. (2010) Moonstruck Primates: Owl Monkeys (Aotus) Need Moonlight for Nocturnal Activity in Their Natural Environment. PLoS ONE, 5(9). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012572
The perception of excess weight, both as an aesthetic and a health problem, variesy considerably amongst racial/ethnic groups.
But how does this variation in weight perception affect actual weight management behaviours?
This question was addressed by R Dorsey and colleagues from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD, USA, in a paper just published in [...]... Read more »
Dorsey RR, Eberhardt MS, & Ogden CL. (2010) Racial and ethnic differences in weight management behavior by weight perception status. Ethnicity , 20(3), 244-50. PMID: 20828097
Technology is transforming the way we many of us communicate. From those queuing up to join the “privacy aware” social network Diaspora and the half a billion Facebook users to Africans bartering call-time on mobile phones through cellular banking and the countless Brazilian users of Google Orkut. We are all becoming connected. The Internet began [...]Post from: David Bradley's Sciencetext Tech Talk7 rules for social networking
... Read more »
Tanuja Singh, & Joe Cullinane. (2010) Social networks and marketing: potential and pitfalls. Int. J. Electronic Marketing and Retailing, 3(3), 202-220. info:/
The Alpine fault has not ruptured since European settlement in the 1840s. Paleoseismology tells us that this is the longest it has gone in a millenium without generating a magnitude 8+ earthquake. Continue reading →... Read more »
Wells, A., & Goff, J. (2007) Coastal dunes in Westland, New Zealand, provide a record of paleoseismic activity on the Alpine fault. Geology, 35(8), 731. DOI: 10.1130/G23554A.1
Let’s face it: breast milk is pretty amazing. It contains antibodies that help wee ones establish strong immune systems, and some studies suggest the act of breastfeeding even lowers mom’s breast cancer risk. Now researchers at the Universities of Chicago, Maryland, and Illinois have another potential bonus to add to the mix: according to a study they conducted in pigs, breast milk shapes the expression of bacterial genes in the infant gut, potentially boosting antioxidant activity ........ Read more »
De Silva M, Senarath U, Gunatilake M, & Lokuhetty D. (2010) Prolonged breastfeeding reduces risk of breast cancer in Sri Lankan women: a case-control study. Cancer epidemiology, 34(3), 267-73. PMID: 20338838
Poroyko V, White JR, Wang M, Donovan S, Alverdy J, Liu DC, & Morowitz MJ. (2010) Gut microbial gene expression in mother-fed and formula-fed piglets. PloS one, 5(8). PMID: 20805981
Turnbaugh, P., Ridaura, V., Faith, J., Rey, F., Knight, R., & Gordon, J. (2009) The Effect of Diet on the Human Gut Microbiome: A Metagenomic Analysis in Humanized Gnotobiotic Mice. Science Translational Medicine, 1(6), 6-6. DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3000322
Penders, J. (2006) Factors Influencing the Composition of the Intestinal Microbiota in Early Infancy. PEDIATRICS, 118(2), 511-521. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2005-2824
AYCICEK, A., EREL, O., KOCYIGIT, A., SELEK, S., & DEMIRKOL, M. (2006) Breast milk provides better antioxidant power than does formula. Nutrition, 22(6), 616-619. DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2005.12.011
SHAH, V. (2004) Nitric oxide in gastrointestinal health and disease. Gastroenterology, 126(3), 903-913. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2003.11.046
Shah P, & Shah V. (2007) Arginine supplementation for prevention of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm infants. Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online). PMID: 17636753
LUCAS, A. (1990) Breast milk and neonatal necrotising enterocolitis. The Lancet, 336(8730-8731), 1519-1523. DOI: 10.1016/0140-6736(90)93304-8
With all the justified concern about “missing heritability”, the age of human genomics hasn’t been a total bust. As I have observed before in 2005’s excellent book Mutants the evolutionary geneticist Armand M. Leroi asserted that we really didn’t have a good understanding of normal variation of human pigmentation. At the time I think it [...]... Read more »
Bigham A, Bauchet M, Pinto D, Mao X, & Akey JM. (2010) Identifying Signatures of Natural Selection in Tibetan and Andean Populations Using Dense Genome Scan Data. PLoS Genetics. info:/
Internet surveys are an increasingly popular method for collecting data in psychology, for obvious reasons, but they have some serious shortcomings. How do you know if a participant read the instructions properly? What if they clicked through randomly, completed it drunk or maybe their cat walked across the keyboard? Now a possible solution has arrived in the form of a tool, called the UserActionTracer (UAT), developed by Stefan Stieger and Ulf-Dietrich Reips.
The UAT is a piece of code that te........ Read more »
Stieger, S., & Reips, U. (2010) What are participants doing while filling in an online questionnaire: A paradata collection tool and an empirical study. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(6), 1488-1495. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2010.05.013
Or should that be octopodes? Anyway, this is so much more interesting than so-called psychic octopuses: an octopus whose mimicry can make it more conspicuous, not less.The 'mimic' octopus (Thaumoctopus mimicus - now, there's a name that Terry Pratchett would appreciate)...... Read more »
CL Huffard, N Saarman, H Hamilton . (2010) The evolution of conspicuous facultative mimicry in octopuses: an example of secondary adaptation?. Biological Journal of the Linnaean Society, 68-77. info:/
With all the various ways in which the decision-making process could go wrong, it's a surprise that anyone ever makes any good decisions. But what exactly could go wrong? Does anyone have a list?... Read more »
Gati, I., Krausz, M., & Osipow, S. (1996) A taxonomy of difficulties in career decision making. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43(4), 510-526. DOI: 10.1037/0022-0188.8.131.520
The politics of ethical foreign policy: A responsibility to protect whom? From European Journal of International Relations With the 9/11 anniversary just a few days ago, plus the recent publication of Tony Blair’s autobiography, once again there is much public debate regarding the justification and achievements of the foreign policy implemented over the last decade [...]... Read more »
Bulley, D. (2010) The politics of ethical foreign policy: A responsibility to protect whom?. European Journal of International Relations, 16(3), 441-461. DOI: 10.1177/1354066109350051
In the White House, can a white conservative do more to restrain anti-Islamic bigotry than an African-American progressive? Writing on the anniversary of 9/11, a couple of writers Saturday argued that this is so. Studies on the psychology of prejudice suggest they're right.
Chicken crusaders—Americans who have nothing to fear from Muslims, yet feel free to attack and insult them—are becoming a global problem, as their hatred provokes mirror-image rhetoric in the Muslim worl........ Read more »
THOMSEN, L., GREEN, E., & SIDANIUS, J. (2008) We will hunt them down: How social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism fuel ethnic persecution of immigrants in fundamentally different ways☆. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44(6), 1455-1464. DOI: 10.1016/j.jesp.2008.06.011
Sidanius, J., Feshbach, S., Levin, S., & Pratto, F. (1997) The Interface Between Ethnic and National Attachment: Ethnic Pluralism or Ethnic Dominance?. Public Opinion Quarterly, 61(1, Special Issue on Race), 102. DOI: 10.1086/297789
Sidanius, J., Pratto, F., & Bobo, L. (1996) Racism, conservatism, Affirmative Action, and intellectual sophistication: A matter of principled conservatism or group dominance?. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(3), 476-490. DOI: 10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2066
Although the tropical regions produce 75% of the worlds cocoa production only 4% of the cocoa is consumed by these regions. These regions also suffer the most from malaria. Malaria is one of the top three killers among infectious diseases. There are numerous anecdotal reports and personal subjective observations of reduced episodic malaria in [...]
Related posts:How does Chocolate protect the Heart?
Short-term Chocolate Effects on Health
Chocolate and Cardiovascular Health
... Read more »
Addai, F. (2010) Natural cocoa as diet-mediated antimalarial prophylaxis☆. Medical Hypotheses, 74(5), 825-830. DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2009.12.003
Three new “ahead of print” articles in Environmental Health Perspectives look at potential health effects from swimming in pools with chlorinated water. One study (by Richardson et al.) identified the disinfection by-products present in chlorinated and brominated swimming pool water, and related them to mutagenicity. A pair of related studies looked at biomarkers of genotoxicity/carcinogenicity [...]... Read more »
Kogevinas, M., Villanueva, C., Font-Ribera, L., Liviac, D., Bustamante, M., Espinoza, F., Nieuwenhuijsen, M., Espinosa, A., Fernandez, P., DeMarini, D.... (2010) Genotoxic Effects in Swimmers Exposed to Disinfection By-products in Indoor Swimming Pools. Environmental Health Perspectives. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1001959
There has certainly been a good amount of recent controversy over the science of sex differences and the brain. Pop-science books such as The Male Brain and The Female Brain that emphasize (and probably exaggerate) sex differences have drawn major criticism. A couple of new books expose flaws in the stereotypical 'men think about sex every 5 seconds because they are programmed to' theory and related ideologies.The above figure summarizes the well-accepted theory of male versus female brain funct........ Read more »
Weissman-Fogel I, Moayedi M, Taylor KS, Pope G, & Davis KD. (2010) Cognitive and default-mode resting state networks: Do male and female brains "rest" differently?. Human brain mapping. PMID: 20725910
In her classic book, Autism: Explaining the Enigma, Uta Frith coined the term 'weak central coherence' to describe the tendency of people with autism to focus on details at the expense of pulling together different sources of information and seeing the big picture. Frith described this as the "red thread" running through many of the symptoms of autism, including both the difficulties with social interaction and the strengths in attention to detail.
Frith argued that the ability to pull togeth........ Read more »
Jon Brock, Courtenay Frazier Norbury, Shiri Einav, & Kate Nation. (2008) Do individuals with autism process words in context? Evidence from language-mediated eye-movements. Cognition. DOI: 10.1016/j.cognition.2008.06.007
With news of new extrasolar planets being released nearly weekly, there is a general feeling that we are in the midst of a singular moment in cosmic discovery. And the news a few weeks ago of a planet that is about the same size as Earth has provided the sense that the discovery of a [...]... Read more »
Samuel Arbesman, & Gregory Laughlin. (2010) A Scientometric Prediction of the Discovery of the First Potentially Habitable Planet with a Mass Similar to Earth. PLoS ONE (in press). arXiv: 1009.2212v1
Flexible electronics has been promising a lot for a long time. Organics-based electronics on our clothes and other wonderful gadgets. However, the real potential of the truly bendy stuff hasn’t been compellingly demonstrated for a long time. Sure, you can make wires on a plastic substrate and hope for the best. Which often wasn’t very [...]... Read more »
Mannsfeld, S., Tee, B., Stoltenberg, R., Chen, C., Barman, S., Muir, B., Sokolov, A., Reese, C., & Bao, Z. (2010) Highly sensitive flexible pressure sensors with microstructured rubber dielectric layers. Nature Materials. DOI: 10.1038/NMAT2834
Takei, K., Takahashi, T., Ho, J., Ko, H., Gillies, A., Leu, P., Fearing, R., & Javey, A. (2010) Nanowire active-matrix circuitry for low-voltage macroscale artificial skin. Nature Materials. DOI: 10.1038/NMAT2835
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