"The results of this systematic review show that low vitamin D levels might contribute to the development of dementia."Whilst slightly off-topic when it comes to the core research material typically included on this blog, I did want to bring to your attention the systematic review and meta-analysis results published by Isolde Sommer and colleagues  (open-access) for your perusal. Although unable to "identify a single study investigating the association between sunlight exposure and demen........ Read more »
Sommer I, Griebler U, Kien C, Auer S, Klerings I, Hammer R, Holzer P, & Gartlehner G. (2017) Vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC geriatrics, 17(1), 16. PMID: 28086755
Researchers at the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel) in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, tested the methods of measuring growth rates of Criollo foals and showed that body height and chest circumference can be assessed by means of nonlinear models simultaneously in males and females. … Read More →... Read more »
Pimentel, A., Rodrigues, W., Martins, C., Montanez, N., Boligon, A., & Souza, J. (2017) Gender on the growth of Criollo foals from birth to three years of age. Ciência Rural, 47(1). DOI: 10.1590/0103-8478cr20150989
An 800-year-old ceremonial complex near the famous cliff dwellings of Mesa Verde was built using the same basic geometry found in ancient monuments from Greece to Egypt, a new study has found.
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Sherry Towers. (2016) Advanced geometrical constructs in a Pueblo ceremonial site, c 1200 CE. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. arXiv: 1605.09494v2
"This paper provides an overview of the benefits and drawbacks of the current clinical pathway that places primacy on a diagnostic assessment for triggering the commencement of therapy. The paper then presents an alternative clinical pathway - the identification and provision of therapy to infants at risk of ASD [autism spectrum disorder] - and provides a critical review of current evidence supporting this model."So said the 'lecture paper' by Andrew Whitehouse  and, as per the titl........ Read more »
Whitehouse AJ. (2017) Elizabeth Usher Memorial Lecture: Rethinking the clinical pathway for autism spectrum disorder and challenging the status quo. International journal of speech-language pathology, 1-10. PMID: 28084105
Abrupt changes in the biological clock or circadian rhythm are noted to contribute to significant cognitive and psychomotor impairments.One practical area for this effect to potentially be important is in the area of sports performance.Alex Song and colleagues recently completed an interesting study of major league baseball (MLB) performance related to team travel patterns.The major leagues are divided into regional divisions (western, central and eastern) to minimize length of travel to and fro........ Read more »
Song A, Severini T, & Allada R. (2017) How jet lag impairs Major League Baseball performance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. PMID: 28115724
Horse ‘licking and chewing’: is it a sign of learning, submission or stress?Guest post by Georgina (Gina) Bishopp (Hartpury College, UK). A little while ago I was having a lesson on my horse when my instructor beamed up at me and exclaimed, “There you go, she is licking and chewing – she’s really listening to you now, keep going!” and with excitement I continued on eagerly with the exercise we were practising. It wasn’t until the exhilaration of the moment had waned did I thin........ Read more »
Goodwin, D. (2010) The importance of ethology in understanding the behaviour of the horse. Equine Veterinary Journal, 31(S28), 15-19. DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.1999.tb05150.x
Warren-Smith AK, & McGreevy PD. (2008) Preliminary investigations into the ethological relevance of round-pen (round-yard) training of horses. Journal of applied animal welfare science : JAAWS, 11(3), 285-98. PMID: 18569224
I've talked about 'fecal microbial transplants' a.k.a the poo(p) transplant before on this blog (see here). That previous entry was about the more typical (and potentially life-saving) use of a poo transplant - where stool from one person is extracted, 'repackaged' and transferred to another person - albeit with caveats in terms of possible long-term side-effects. Now it appears that poo transplants are being investigated with something rather more central to the typical cont........ Read more »
Kang, D., Adams, J., Gregory, A., Borody, T., Chittick, L., Fasano, A., Khoruts, A., Geis, E., Maldonado, J., McDonough-Means, S.... (2017) Microbiota Transfer Therapy alters gut ecosystem and improves gastrointestinal and autism symptoms: an open-label study. Microbiome, 5(1). DOI: 10.1186/s40168-016-0225-7
Epigenetic regulation is thought to be one of the most important mechanisms contributing to the development and clinical course of chronic immunological diseases like allergies and asthma. DNA methylation has been extensively studied in this context, which has not been a case of histone modifications such as histone acetylation or methylation.
Early epigenetic studies from our lab conducted in mouse models demonstrated a role for histone acetylation in mediating bacteria-induced protection ag........ Read more »
Harb H, Alashkar Alhamwe B, Garn H, Renz H, & Potaczek DP. (2016) Recent developments in epigenetics of pediatric asthma. Current opinion in pediatrics, 28(6), 754-763. PMID: 27662207
Harb, H., Amarasekera, M., Ashley, S., Tulic, M., Pfefferle, P., Potaczek, D., Martino, D., Kesper, D., Prescott, S., & Renz, H. (2016) Epigenetic Regulation in Early Childhood: A Miniaturized and Validated Method to Assess Histone Acetylation. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 168(3), 173-181. DOI: 10.1159/000442158
Harb, H., Raedler, D., Ballenberger, N., Böck, A., Kesper, D., Renz, H., & Schaub, B. (2015) Childhood allergic asthma is associated with increased IL-13 and FOXP3 histone acetylation. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 136(1), 200-202. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2015.01.027
Stefanowicz, D., Lee, J., Lee, K., Shaheen, F., Koo, H., Booth, S., Knight, D., & Hackett, T. (2015) Elevated H3K18 acetylation in airway epithelial cells of asthmatic subjects. Respiratory Research, 16(1). DOI: 10.1186/s12931-015-0254-y
by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room
We read so much for this blog (and just out of general curiosity) that we often find these small bits of information which don’t justify an entire blog post but that we want to share with you because they are just too good to ignore. Here’s another one of those combination posts that you simply […]... Read more »
Kaye LK, Malone SA, & Wall HJ. (2016) Emojis: Insights, Affordances, and Possibilities for Psychological Science. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. PMID: 28108281
One in 4 American Football players at the NFL Combine with a history of knee surgery have knee osteoarthritis despite being only 20 to 26 years of age.... Read more »
Smith MV, Nepple JJ, Wright RW, Matava MJ, & Brophy RH. (2016) Knee Osteoarthritis Is Associated With Previous Meniscus and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Surgery Among Elite College American Football Athletes. Sports health. PMID: 27940573
Of the various autism science journals out there in peer-reviewed (La-La!) land, one journal in particular is really starting to grow on me: [The] Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.I like this journal because it is basically systematic review and meta-analysis heaven when it comes to the quite voluminous autism research literature and seems to publish some real gems (see here for example).Another paper from this journal caught my eye recently by Maggie Butchart and colleagues ........ Read more »
Butchart, M., Long, J., Brown, M., McMillan, A., Bain, J., & Karatzias, T. (2017) Autism and Visual Impairment: a Review of the Literature. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. DOI: 10.1007/s40489-016-0101-1
Competition for government research grants to fund scientific research remains fierce in the United States. The budget of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which constitute the major source of funding for US biological and medical research, has been increased only modestly during the past decade but it is not even keeping up with inflation. This problem is compounded by the fact that more scientists are applying for grants now than one or two decades ago, forcing the NIH to enforce strict........ Read more »
After a late dinner, a jungle-dwelling whip spider can't rely on an Uber driver to get her home. She has to find the way herself, in the pitch-black, picking her way over thick undergrowth to reach the tree she lives on. It's a trick she can even manage when plucked from her home tree and tossed into the forest at random, up to 10 meters away. Now scientists think whip spiders don't use her eyes for this homing feat—they use their feet.
Whip spiders hunt by night and hunker down at dawn ........ Read more »
Bingman VP, Graving JM, Hebets EA, & Wiegmann DD. (2016) Importance of the antenniform legs, but not vision, for homing by the neotropical whip spider, Paraphrynus laevifrons. The Journal of experimental biology. PMID: 28011820
Is there a correlation between article processing charge (APC) and the journals' Impact Factor? What are the funding sources for payment and how do they influence the choice of journals for publication? These and other questions were investigated by authors from Nanjing University, China and the results explain the peculiarity of open access in different countries. … Read More →... Read more »
MADHAN, M., KIMIDI, S. S., GUNASEKARAN S., & ARUNACHALAM S. (2016) Should Indian researchers pay to get their work published?. ePrints@IISc. info:/
WANG, L. L., LIU, X. Z., & FANG, H. (2015) Investigation of the degree to which papers supported by research grants are published in open access health and life sciences journals. Scientometrics, 104(2), 511-528. info:/10.1007/s11192-015-1624-4
"Because of the limited number of included studies and small sample sizes, no firm conclusions can be drawn. However, the limited data currently available suggest that ω-3 FA [fatty acid] supplementation does not enhance the performance of children with ASD [autism spectrum disorder]."Those were the conclusions reached in the systematic review and meta-analysis paper published by Andrea Horvath and colleagues  looking at the collected peer-reviewed literature on the topic up t........ Read more »
Horvath A, Łukasik J, & Szajewska H. (2017) ω-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Does Not Affect Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. The Journal of nutrition. PMID: 28077731
We all want our expert witnesses to be influential with jurors. But when you have an expert testifying about forensic science (like fingerprint or DNA identification) what part of the testimony is going to influence jurors the most? Will it be the science? The technology used by the witness to interpret and understand the data? […]... Read more »
Koehler, J., Schweitzer, N., Saks, M., & McQuiston, D. (2016) Science, technology, or the expert witness: What influences jurors’ judgments about forensic science testimony?. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 22(4), 401-413. DOI: 10.1037/law0000103
Processing speed declines significantly with age and contributes to impairment and disability in old age.There is little known about whether age-related processing speed decline can be slowed with interventionA recent clinical trial by a Japanese group targeted processing speed training in a group of 72 elderly.This study found significant effects for a daily 15 minute processing speed training game over 4 weeks.In contrast to a control group, the intervention group found specific improvement in........ Read more »
Nouchi R, Saito T, Nouchi H, & Kawashima R. (2016) Small Acute Benefits of 4 Weeks Processing Speed Training Games on Processing Speed and Inhibition Performance and Depressive Mood in the Healthy Elderly People: Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial. Frontiers in aging neuroscience, 302. PMID: 28066229
"From 2006 to 2012, the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder diagnoses in 0- to 24-year-olds increased from 0.22% to 0.38%."That was one of the details included in the rather interesting paper by Christian Bachmann and colleagues  who provided some introductory information on the the trends in autism diagnoses in Germany. I say 'introductory information' because it appears that autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has not exactly received the research attention in Germany that it p........ Read more »
Christian J Bachmann, Bettina Gerste, & Falk Hoffmann. (2016) Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders in Germany: Time trends in administrative prevalence and diagnostic stability. Autism: International Journal of Research . info:/10.1177/1362361316673977
Are They Pathological Liars? Narcissists? Psychopaths? “Masterful Manipulators”?
Trump Spokesman’s Lecture on Media Accuracy Is Peppered With Lies
Nearly all American politicians lie, but few as blatantly as those affiliated with the present administration. How do they do it? Are they lacking a conscience? Do they believe their own lies? Do they start with small falsehoods, stretch the
... Read more »
Among monogamous animals, some individuals are more faithful than others. Could these differences in fidelity be, in part, because of differences in our brains? And if so, why does this diversity in brain and behavior exist?A snuggly prairie vole family. Photo from theNerdPatrol at Wikimedia Commons.Prairie voles are small North American rodents that form monogamous pair bonds, share parental duties, and defend their homes. Although prairie voles form monogamous pairs, that does not mean they ar........ Read more »
Okhovat, M., Berrio, A., Wallace, G., Ophir, A., & Phelps, S. (2015) Sexual fidelity trade-offs promote regulatory variation in the prairie vole brain. Science, 350(6266), 1371-1374. DOI: 10.1126/science.aac5791
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