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  • November 20, 2014
  • 05:30 AM
  • 23 views

Intestinal permeability: an emerging scientific area (also with autism in mind)

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

What is the intestinal barrier? What is intestinal permeability? What factors affect the permeability of the intestinal barrier? How do you measure intestinal permeability? How might [altered] intestinal permeability link to health, well-being and various clinical diagnoses?The new triad @ Bischoff SC et al. 2014These are some of the questions tackled by the excellent open-access review by Stephan Bischoff and colleagues [1] which I would like to draw your attention to i........ Read more »

Bischoff, S., Barbara, G., Buurman, W., Ockhuizen, T., Schulzke, J., Serino, M., Tilg, H., Watson, A., & Wells, J. (2014) Intestinal permeability - a new target for disease prevention and therapy. BMC Gastroenterology, 14(1), 189. DOI: 10.1186/s12876-014-0189-7  

  • November 19, 2014
  • 03:43 PM
  • 61 views

Religious and paranormal believers are high in empathy – but confused about how the world works

by Tom Rees in Epiphenom

There’s a strand of thought that says that belief in the supernatural is founded upon a misunderstanding of how the world works (see: You either believe in it all, or you don’t). On the other hand, there’s another perspective that says the cognitive problem is with the atheists. Belief in gods, according to this school [Read More...]

... Read more »

  • November 19, 2014
  • 03:10 PM
  • 68 views

The real reason why new pop music is so incredibly bad

by Richard Kunert in Brain's Idea

You have probably heard that Pink Floyd recently published their new album Endless River. Will this bring back the wonderful world of good music after the endless awfulness of the popular music scene in the last 20 years or so? Is good music, as we know it from the 60s and 70s, back for good? […]... Read more »

  • November 19, 2014
  • 09:53 AM
  • 37 views

Mongoose Lookouts Carefully Weigh Risks (and Sing While They Do It)

by Elizabeth Preston in Inkfish

If you were assigned to watch a dozen dwarf mongooses on the savannah, would you know how to keep them safe? Or would half of them get snatched by snakes before you finished checking the dictionary to make sure they weren’t really a dozen mongeese? Luckily these animals don’t need us to watch their backs. […]The post Mongoose Lookouts Carefully Weigh Risks (and Sing While They Do It) appeared first on Inkfish.... Read more »

  • November 19, 2014
  • 08:30 AM
  • 61 views

Are Dogs Good for Our Health?

by CAPB in Companion Animal Psychology Blog

We’re used to reading that they are, but it’s more complicated than you think.Photo: legenda / ShutterstockA new study by González Ramírez and Landero Hernández in Mexico compares dog-owners with non-dog-owners to find out whether or not dogs are beneficial to people’s health and well-being. They wanted to improve on the design of many previous studies by comparing two groups of people who were similar except for the fact that some owned dogs and some did not.There are several reasons w........ Read more »

  • November 19, 2014
  • 04:57 AM
  • 39 views

Down Syndrome Disintegrative Disorder

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Down syndrome disintegrative disorder seems an appropriate name for this newly recognized clinical association, which may be due to autoimmunity.""Hi, everyone. I'm Olaf and I like warm hugs!"That was the bottom line of the study published by Gordon Worley and colleagues [1] reviewing a small number of cases (N=11) of children diagnosed with Down's syndrome presenting at clinic "with a history of new-onset... or worsening... autistic characteristics" among other things. Based on some potentiall........ Read more »

  • November 19, 2014
  • 12:05 AM
  • 38 views

Are They Really up to the Task or is it Just Sandbagging?

by Kyle Harris in Sports Medicine Research (SMR): In the Lab & In the Field

Among athletes with an invalid computerized neurocognitive test at baseline, 87% received valid scores upon reassessment, which suggests reassessment can be used to gain a valid baseline score.... Read more »

Schatz, P., Kelley, T., Ott, S., Solomon, G., Elbin, R., Higgins, K., & Moser, R. (2014) Utility of Repeated Assessment After Invalid Baseline Neurocognitive Test Performance. Journal of Athletic Training, 49(5), 659-664. DOI: 10.4085/1062-6050-49.3.37  

  • November 18, 2014
  • 12:01 PM
  • 61 views

Social Effectiveness Therapy Beats Social Anxiety, Study Shows

by Simon Moesgaard-Kjeldsen in Reflectd

A new randomized controlled trial shows promising results for the treatment of social anxiety disorder.... Read more »

Beidel, D., Alfano, C., Kofler, M., Rao, P., Scharfstein, L., & Wong Sarver, N. (2014) The impact of social skills training for social anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 28(8), 908-918. DOI: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2014.09.016  

  • November 18, 2014
  • 08:00 AM
  • 47 views

This Is Your TV On Drugs

by Mark E. Lasbury in The 'Scope

There are more than 100 drug commercials on TV every hour of every day. Why? Because they work. Research shows that advertised drugs are prescribed 9x more than comparable drugs that aren’t advertised. And all those side effect notices? The drug companies like them because research says that all you remember is that they were “honest” with you.... Read more »

  • November 18, 2014
  • 07:02 AM
  • 59 views

Feel like I-dosing? [Part 2]

by Henkjan Honing in Music Matters

"Digital drugs," otherwise known as binaural beats, have sparked an outcry in Lebanon, with the Justice Minister Ashraf Rifi calling Thursday for legal measures to be taken against the product...... Read more »

  • November 18, 2014
  • 04:52 AM
  • 35 views

Paediatric congenital heart disease and autism risk?

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Children aged 2-17 with CHD [congenital heart disease] were more likely than those without CHD to have had a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (crude OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.9-11.0) or intellectual disability (Crude OR, 9.1; 95% CI, 5.4-15.4)".The traveller @ Wikipedia That was a key conclusion reported in the study by Hilda Razzaghi and colleagues [1] based on their analysis of data from "the 1997-2011 National Health Interview Survey", a US initiative which aims to pro........ Read more »

  • November 18, 2014
  • 12:05 AM
  • 53 views

Psychological Strategies Effectively Reduce Perceived and Physiological Markers of Stress

by Caitlin Dios & Bryan Pope in Sports Medicine Research (SMR): In the Lab & In the Field

Both cognitive and somatic relaxation strategies reduce perceived stress and physiological markers of stress.... Read more »

  • November 17, 2014
  • 07:08 AM
  • 64 views

How guessing the wrong answer helps you learn the right answer

by BPS Research Digest in BPS Research Digest

Guessing, even wrongly, is thought toactivate webs of knowledge, which leadsto richer encoding of the correct answer. It's well known that taking tests helps us learn. The act of retrieving information from memory helps that information stick. This seems intuitive. More surprising is the recent discovery that guessing aids subsequent learning of the correct answer, even if your initial guess was wrong.Let's consider a simple example in the context of learning capital cities. Imagine you don........ Read more »

  • November 17, 2014
  • 04:41 AM
  • 61 views

Social anxiety in one in four adults with autism

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Twenty-eight percent (14 of 50) of individuals with ASD [autism spectrum disorder] fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for SAD [social anxiety disorder]"."I am Vulcan, sir. We embrace technicality."So said the findings reported by Susanne Bejerot and colleagues [1] (open-access) as part of their investigations looking at SAD occurrence among adults diagnosed with ASD. Once again the sometimes very disabling issue of anxiety resurfaces with autism in mind. Before going on, I'm minde........ Read more »

Bejerot S, Eriksson JM, & Mörtberg E. (2014) Social anxiety in adult autism spectrum disorder. Psychiatry research. PMID: 25200187  

  • November 16, 2014
  • 08:05 PM
  • 57 views

Canine science catch up: 16-30 September 2014

by Cobb & Hecht in Do You Believe In Dog?

Gosh, it's been a busy ride since posting the excellent guest post by research, Cat Reeve, about her interesting detector dog research.  So now it's time to play catch up, starting with the canine science related things that we noticed in the second half of September, captured with the help of Storify - did you miss any of these?[View the story "Do You Believe in Dog? [16 - 30 September 2014]" on Storify]Further reading (some of the abstracts from Canine Science Forum 2014 now available):We........ Read more »

Westgarth Carri, & Hayley E. Christian. (2014) How can we motivate owners to walk their dogs more?. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 9(6). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jveb.2014.09.023  

Horowitz Alexandra, & Hecht Julie . (2014) Categories and consequences of dog-human play: A citizen science approach. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 9(6). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jveb.2014.09.052  

Browne Clare M., T. Mary Foster, & James S. McEwan. (2014) Dog training: Reinforcement timing and owner body language. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 9(6). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jveb.2014.09.059  

  • November 16, 2014
  • 01:47 PM
  • 62 views

Soldiers and Suicide: A familiar tale

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

As a Marine, there is a special place in my heart for all things military. While most protesters are busy arguing about the people who are dying overseas, there is an even more disheartening statistic — the suicide statistics of service members here at home. Suicide is an ugly word, so it’s no surprise that there is not a large movement fighting for better care and a new study done on soldiers doesn’t help.... Read more »

  • November 15, 2014
  • 07:28 AM
  • 134 views

How Your Facebook Updates Reveal Your Personality

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover

The words you use in your Facebook profile reveal much about your personality, according to psychologists Gregory Park and colleagues in a new study just published. Based on a study of 71,000 Facebook users who reported their personality using an app, Park et al. found some quite unexpected words to be associated with given personality […]The post How Your Facebook Updates Reveal Your Personality appeared first on Neuroskeptic.... Read more »

Park G, Schwartz HA, Eichstaedt JC, Kern ML, Kosinski M, Stillwell DJ, Ungar LH, & Seligman ME. (2014) Automatic Personality Assessment Through Social Media Language. Journal of personality and social psychology. PMID: 25365036  

  • November 14, 2014
  • 07:20 PM
  • 90 views

Evolutionary Sins: The Gender Gap In Spatial Cognition And Navigation

by Alexis Delanoir in How to Paint Your Panda

Recent research based on the Twe and Tjimba people of northwestern Namibia is suggested to lend evidence that gender gaps in spatial cognition are a result of evolutionary pressures, as men with higher spatial cognition are more successful in these tribes at mating and producing offspring. This post examines the literature and comes to a different conclusion, warning against hasty evolutionary explanations for behavioural traits.... Read more »

  • November 14, 2014
  • 06:41 AM
  • 41 views

Reformers say psychologists should change how they report their results, but does anyone understand the alternative?

by BPS Research Digest in BPS Research Digest

The rectangular bars indicate samplemeans and the red lines represent theconfidence intervals surrounding them.Image: Audriusa/WikipediaPsychological science is undergoing a process of soul-searching and self-improvement. The reasons vary but include failed replications of high-profile findings, evidence of bias in what gets published, and surveys suggestive of questionable research practices.Among the proposed solutions is that psychologists should change the way they report their fin........ Read more »

Hoekstra, R., Morey, R., Rouder, J., & Wagenmakers, E. (2014) Robust misinterpretation of confidence intervals. Psychonomic Bulletin , 21(5), 1157-1164. DOI: 10.3758/s13423-013-0572-3  

  • November 14, 2014
  • 04:40 AM
  • 84 views

One fifth of schizophrenia cases linked to Toxoplasma gondii?

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"The PAF [population attributable fraction] for schizophrenia in those exposed to T. gondii is tentatively 21.4%". That was the headline conclusion made by Prof. Gary Smith [1] in his modelling analysis estimating what percentage of cases of schizophrenia might involve the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. Some of the accompanying media about this potentially very important finding can be found here and here.You don't need to study scaring, you just do it.Although no expert on the PAF - defined as [2........ Read more »

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