Researchers studying how the brain makes decisions have, for the first time, recorded the moment-by-moment fluctuations in brain signals that occur when a monkey making free choices has a change of mind. The findings result from experiments led by electrical engineering Professor Krishna Shenoy, whose Stanford lab focuses on movement control and neural prostheses – such as artificial arms – controlled by the user’s brain.... Read more »
Kaufman, M., Churchland, M., Ryu, S., & Shenoy, K. (2015) Vacillation, indecision and hesitation in moment-by-moment decoding of monkey motor cortex. eLife. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.04677
A new study has found that the pain reliever TYLENOL® (acetaminophen) not only dampens negative emotions, it blunts positive emotions too. Or does it?Durso and colleagues (2015) reckoned that if acetaminophen can lessen the sting of psychological pain (Dewall et al., 2010; Randles et al., 2013) – which is doubtful in my view – then it might also lessen reactivity to positive stimuli. Evidence in favor of their hypothesis would support differential susceptibility, the notion that the same ........ Read more »
Durso, G., Luttrell, A., & Way, B. (2015) Over-the-Counter Relief From Pains and Pleasures Alike: Acetaminophen Blunts Evaluation Sensitivity to Both Negative and Positive Stimuli. Psychological Science. DOI: 10.1177/0956797615570366
'I' before the 'E' except after 'C'."Is childhood cat ownership a risk factor for schizophrenia later in life?"That was the rather peculiar question posed and partially answered in the paper by Fuller Torrey and colleagues . They concluded that "cat ownership in childhood is significantly more common in families in which the child later becomes seriously mentally ill."For those new to this topic, it might sound rather strange that cat ownership in childhood might elevate the risk of mental il........ Read more »
Fuller Torrey, E., Simmons, W., & Yolken, R. (2015) Is childhood cat ownership a risk factor for schizophrenia later in life?. Schizophrenia Research. DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2015.03.036
"In conclusion, despite early parental concerns, children with ASD [autism spectrum disorder] receive less proactive provider responses to these concerns than children with ID/DD [intellectual disability/developmental delay]. Less proactive/more passive provider responses are associated with delays in diagnosing ASD."So said the paper from Katharine Zuckerman and colleagues  (open-access) who using "nationally representative data from the 2011 Survey of Pathways to Diagnosis an........ Read more »
Katharine Elizabeth Zuckerman, Olivia Jasmine Lindly, & Brianna Kathleen Sinche. (2015) Parental Concerns, Provider Response, and Timeliness of Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis. The Journal of Pediatrics. info:/10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.03.007
Procrastination is the thief of time that derails New Year’s resolutions and delays saving for college or retirement, but researchers have found a way to collar it.
The trick? Think of the future as now. ... Read more »
Lewis, N., & Oyserman, D. (2015) When Does the Future Begin? Time Metrics Matter, Connecting Present and Future Selves. Psychological Science. DOI: 10.1177/0956797615572231
Eat less, workout more, these are the messages we are being sent almost on a daily basis. But how do we quantify “more” and who really should listen to that advice? Well a new study suggests that engaging in low intensity activities such as standing may not be enough to offset the health hazards of sitting for long periods of time. On the bright side, adding two minutes of walking each hour to your routine just might do the trick.... Read more »
Beddhu, S., Wei, G., Marcus, R., Chonchol, M., & Greene, T. (2015) Light-Intensity Physical Activities and Mortality in the United States General Population and CKD Subpopulation. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. DOI: 10.2215/CJN.08410814
Humans have a built-in neural map, and it’s shaped like a honeycomb.
... Read more »
Bjerknes TL, Moser EI, & Moser MB. (2014) Representation of geometric borders in the developing rat. Neuron, 82(1), 71-8. PMID: 24613417
Langston RF, Ainge JA, Couey JJ, Canto CB, Bjerknes TL, Witter MP, Moser EI, & Moser MB. (2010) Development of the spatial representation system in the rat. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5985), 1576-80. PMID: 20558721
O'Keefe J, & Dostrovsky J. (1971) The hippocampus as a spatial map. Preliminary evidence from unit activity in the freely-moving rat. Brain research, 34(1), 171-5. PMID: 5124915
Solstad T, Boccara CN, Kropff E, Moser MB, & Moser EI. (2008) Representation of geometric borders in the entorhinal cortex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5909), 1865-8. PMID: 19095945
In today's brief post I want to highlight the important findings reported by Christina Nicolaidis and colleagues  who suggested that quite a bit more could be done to improve the success of "healthcare interactions" when it comes to the autism spectrum.Based on the experiences of 39 adults with autism and "16 people who had experience supporting autistic adults in healthcare settings" researchers came up with a few "patient- and provider-level factors" that might impact on said heal........ Read more »
Nicolaidis, C., Raymaker, D., Ashkenazy, E., McDonald, K., Dern, S., Baggs, A., Kapp, S., Weiner, M., & Boisclair, W. (2015) "Respect the way I need to communicate with you": Healthcare experiences of adults on the autism spectrum. Autism. DOI: 10.1177/1362361315576221
I do not recall ever having heard of this sleep disorder before but apparently it is much more common than previously thought. At least by me, since to me it sounded like a”Jackass” stunt. This is an actual sleep disorder in which you are suddenly awakened by a loud sound akin to an explosion but […]
Columbo, Catfish, and Courthouse News: Be careful out there!
Trial Skills: A new issue of The Jury Expert is up!
... Read more »
Sharpless BA. (2015) Exploding head syndrome is common in college students. Journal of Sleep Research. PMID: 25773787
MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jaime L. Tartar PhD Behavioral Neuroscience Major Chair Division of Social and Behavioral Sciences Nova Southeastern University Fort Lauderdale, Florida Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Tartar: We … Continue reading →
The post Poor Sleep Quality Increases Mood Disturbances appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews........ Read more »
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jaime L. Tartar PhD. (2015) Poor Sleep Quality Increases Mood Disturbances. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
"In conclusion, victimisation among people with SMI [severe mental illness] is more prevalent and associated with greater psychosocial morbidity than victimisation among the general population."That was the finding reported by Hind Khalifeh and colleagues  (open-access here) following their analysis of "the prevalence and impact of crime among people with SMI compared with the general population." SMI, by the way, covered various labels including: "people with psychotic disorde........ Read more »
Khalifeh H, Johnson S, Howard LM, Borschmann R, Osborn D, Dean K, Hart C, Hogg J, & Moran P. (2015) Violent and non-violent crime against adults with severe mental illness. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. PMID: 25698767
In anticipation of the return of THE AVENGERS, we take a look at the science that could possibly help someone to turn into a HULK.... Read more »
Falkenberg KJ, & Johnstone RW. (2014) Histone deacetylases and their inhibitors in cancer, neurological diseases and immune disorders. Nature reviews. Drug discovery. PMID: 25131830
Haggarty P, Hoad G, Harris SE, Starr JM, Fox HC, Deary IJ, & Whalley LJ. (2010) Human intelligence and polymorphisms in the DNA methyltransferase genes involved in epigenetic marking. PloS one, 5(6). PMID: 20593030
The title of this post is an excerpt from the paper by Sebastian Lundström and colleagues  (open-access) who set out to "compare the annual prevalence of the autism symptom phenotype and of registered diagnoses for autism spectrum disorder during a 10 year period in children" living in Sweden. Based on two datasets - the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden and the Swedish national patient register (NPR) - researchers analysed the records of well over a million ........ Read more »
Lundstrom, S., Reichenberg, A., Anckarsater, H., Lichtenstein, P., & Gillberg, C. (2015) Autism phenotype versus registered diagnosis in Swedish children: prevalence trends over 10 years in general population samples. BMJ, 350(apr28 2). DOI: 10.1136/bmj.h1961
You don’t need a crazy diet to lose weight. In fact, your typical fad diet won’t help you keep weight off long term and could be harming your health. If you want to know the secrets of healthier eating, think of the kitchen fruit bowl. A fruit bowl makes fruit more convenient, attractive, and normal to eat than if the same fruit were in the bottom of the refrigerator.... Read more »
Wansink B. (2013) Convenient, attractive, and normative: the CAN approach to making children slim by design. Childhood obesity (Print), 9(4), 277-8. PMID: 23865529
A study of three breeds finds differences in the sensitive period, and shows socialization should begin before you even take your puppy home.Puppies have a sensitive period between 3 and 12-14 weeks old in which they must be socialized. This means positive introductions to new people, dogs, places, etc. If not, they will be fearful as adult dogs. A fascinating new study by Mary Morrow (Ohio State University) et al investigates whether this period is the same for three breeds of dog: Cavalier Kin........ Read more »
Morrow, M., Ottobre, J., Ottobre, A., Neville, P., St-Pierre, N., Dreschel, N., & Pate, J. (2015) Breed-dependent differences in the onset of fear-related avoidance behavior in puppies. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research. DOI: 10.1016/j.jveb.2015.03.002
"It is our attitude at the beginning of a difficult task which, more than anything else, will affect its successful outcome." The sentiment articulated here by psychology pioneer William James is currently in vogue, if its preponderance in self-help books, motivational posters, and memes is anything to go by. But are we pinning too much on positive thinking?A research team led by Elizabeth Tenney asked participants to guess how much a given task is affected by optimism, then compared this to how........ Read more »
Tenney, E., Logg, J., & Moore, D. (2015) (Too) optimistic about optimism: The belief that optimism improves performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108(3), 377-399. DOI: 10.1037/pspa0000018
"The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is a framework for describing and organising information on functioning and disability. It provides a standard language and a conceptual basis for the definition and measurement of health and disability."That is the US CDC - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - definition of the ICF (from WHO) and how, among other things, the ICF offers a "scientific basis for understanding and studying health an........ Read more »
de Schipper E, Lundequist A, Coghill D, de Vries PJ, Granlund M, Holtmann M, Jonsson U, Karande S, Robison JE, Shulman C.... (2015) Ability and Disability in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Literature Review Employing the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version. Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism Research. PMID: 25820780
Repeated alcohol exposure during adolescence results in long-lasting changes in the region of the brain that controls learning and memory, according to a research team at Duke Medicine that used a rodent model as a surrogate for humans. The study provides new insights at the cellular level for how alcohol exposure during adolescence, before the brain is fully developed, can result in cellular and synaptic abnormalities that have enduring, detrimental effects on behavior.... Read more »
Risher, M., Fleming, R., Risher, W., Miller, K., Klein, R., Wills, T., Acheson, S., Moore, S., Wilson, W., Eroglu, C.... (2015) Adolescent Intermittent Alcohol Exposure: Persistence of Structural and Functional Hippocampal Abnormalities into Adulthood. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. DOI: 10.1111/acer.12725
There is surprisingly little data on how and when scientists reject hypotheses, but John Fugelsang and Kevin Dunbar at Dartmouth conducted a rather unique study "Theory and data interactions of the scientific mind: Evidence from the molecular and the cognitive laboratory" in 2004 in which they researched researchers. They sat in at scientific laboratory meetings of three renowned molecular biology laboratories at carefully recorded how scientists presented their laboratory data and how........ Read more »
Fugelsang, J., Stein, C., Green, A., & Dunbar, K. (2004) Theory and Data Interactions of the Scientific Mind: Evidence From the Molecular and the Cognitive Laboratory. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie expérimentale, 58(2), 86-95. DOI: 10.1037/h0085799
Loneliness is bad for you. Some experts have even likened it to a kind of disease. What's unclear is how being being lonely leads to these adverse effects on our health. A new study looks at one possibility – that loneliness makes people feel hungrier than normal, thus increasing their food intake and putting them at risk of obesity with all its associated health problems.Lisa Jaremka and her colleagues asked 42 women (average age 53) to fast for 12 hours before visiting the psych lab. On arri........ Read more »
Jaremka, L., Fagundes, C., Peng, J., Belury, M., Andridge, R., Malarkey, W., & Kiecolt-Glaser, J. (2015) Loneliness predicts postprandial ghrelin and hunger in women. Hormones and Behavior, 57-63. DOI: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2015.01.011
Do you write about peer-reviewed research in your blog? Use ResearchBlogging.org to make it easy for your readers — and others from around the world — to find your serious posts about academic research.
If you don't have a blog, you can still use our site to learn about fascinating developments in cutting-edge research from around the world.
Research Blogging is powered by SMG Technology.
To learn more, visit seedmediagroup.com.