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  • June 16, 2015
  • 10:23 PM
  • 146 views

Know your brain: Default mode network

by neurosci in Neuroscientifically Challenged

Where is the default mode network?The default mode network (sometimes called simply the default network) refers to an interconnected group of brain structures that are hypothesized to be part of a functional system. The default network is a relatively recent concept, and because of this there is not yet a complete consensus on which brain regions should be included in a definition of it. Regardless, some structures that are generally included are the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate........ Read more »

Buckner RL, Andrews-Hanna JR, & Schacter DL. (2008) The brain's default network: anatomy, function, and relevance to disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1-38. PMID: 18400922  

  • June 16, 2015
  • 04:46 AM
  • 181 views

Gut bacteria and toddler temperament

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

The 'terrible twos'. Y'know, that special time in a child's development when the words 'mine' and 'no' are much more than a daily occurrence and visions of supermarket / restaurant meltdowns complete with scathing looks from strangers still linger in the rose-tinted memories of parenting.There's still quite a bit of debate about the hows and whys of the terrible twos but new research by Lisa Christian and colleagues [1] implicates a hitherto unappreciated system potentially at work: our gut........ Read more »

Christian LM, Galley JD, Hade EM, Schoppe-Sullivan S, Kamp Dush C, & Bailey MT. (2015) Gut microbiome composition is associated with temperament during early childhood. Brain, behavior, and immunity, 118-27. PMID: 25449582  

  • June 16, 2015
  • 04:46 AM
  • 145 views

Gut bacteria and toddler temperament

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

The 'terrible twos'. Y'know, that special time in a child's development when the words 'mine' and 'no' are much more than a daily occurrence and visions of supermarket / restaurant meltdowns complete with scathing looks from strangers still linger in the rose-tinted memories of parenting.There's still quite a bit of debate about the hows and whys of the terrible twos but new research by Lisa Christian and colleagues [1] implicates a hitherto unappreciated system potentially at work: our gut........ Read more »

Christian LM, Galley JD, Hade EM, Schoppe-Sullivan S, Kamp Dush C, & Bailey MT. (2015) Gut microbiome composition is associated with temperament during early childhood. Brain, behavior, and immunity, 118-27. PMID: 25449582  

  • June 16, 2015
  • 04:02 AM
  • 39 views

What your favourite Harry Potter House says about your personality

by BPS Research Digest in BPS Research Digest

Harry Potter fans strongly self-identify with the different Houses within Hogwarts, the story’s magical school. Now new research shows that a fan’s preferred House tells us something about their personality.Laura Crysel and colleagues used an online Harry Potter community to get access to the more committed fans found there, and asked them to complete a personality test. Each fan reported their favoured House, and the results showed that significant average personality differences existed be........ Read more »

  • June 15, 2015
  • 07:24 AM
  • 173 views

When these people look in the mirror they see a monster staring back

by BPS Research Digest in BPS Research Digest

One of the participants in an upsetting series of new interviews says she once stared into the mirror for eleven hours straight. She was looking, searching, trying to find a perspective where she felt good enough about herself to be able to go outside.The woman in question, Louise, has Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD), which is defined by psychiatrists as a disabling and distressing preoccupation with what she sees as her perceived physical flaw or flaws.For their study, Joanna Silver and Jacqui F........ Read more »

  • June 15, 2015
  • 07:02 AM
  • 134 views

Feeling biased? Just go to sleep and wake up bias-free! 

by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room

At least that’s what the headlines say. But the quieter truth of what the research says is enough for me: the intervention reduced implicit bias and the results held when re-measured one week later. Wow. This is pretty amazing stuff that needs to be used for good and not evil. Can you imagine? This means […]

Related posts:
Biased hearts, biased cameras and biased verdicts
Jury Selection: Art? Science? Or just a ‘gut’ feeling?
How ‘myside bias’ is related to your intelligence
........ Read more »

Hu X, Antony JW, Creery JD, Vargas IM, Bodenhausen GV, & Paller KA. (2015) Unlearning implicit social biases during sleep. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6238), 1013-5. PMID: 26023137  

  • June 15, 2015
  • 04:53 AM
  • 179 views

Seeking out autism medical comorbidity clusters

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

I was rather interested in the findings reported by Kimberly Aldinger and colleagues [1] (open-access here) recently and an intriguing attempt to find out whether "there are predictive patterns of medical conditions that co-occur with ASD [autism spectrum disorder], which could inform medical evaluation and treatment in ASD, as well as potentially identify etiologically meaningful subgroups."Comorbidity (if I can still call it that) is of great interest to this blog and the idea that a........ Read more »

  • June 14, 2015
  • 11:00 PM
  • 174 views

The Pre-Testing Effect (and Posterizing)

by Joshua Fisher in Text Savvy

In their book Make It Stick, authors Peter Brown, Henry Roediger III, and Mark McDaniel have this to say as an introduction to the study we'll look at in this post (along with a few other studies about the benefits of generating solutions [emphasis mine]):... Read more »

Richland, L., Kornell, N., & Kao, L. (2009) The pretesting effect: Do unsuccessful retrieval attempts enhance learning?. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 15(3), 243-257. DOI: 10.1037/a0016496  

  • June 14, 2015
  • 03:23 PM
  • 127 views

Power of the media’s impact on medicine use revealed

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

More than 60,000 Australians are estimated to have reduced or discontinued their use of prescribed cholesterol-lowering statin medications following the airing of a two-part series critical of statins by ABC TV’s science program, Catalyst, a University of Sydney study reveals. The analysis of the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme medication records of 191,000 people revealed that there was an immediate impact after Catalyst was aired in October 2013, with 14,000 fewer people dispensed statins per........ Read more »

Schaffer, A., Buckley, N., Dobbins, T., Banks, E., & Pearson, S. (2015) The crux of the matter: Did the ABC's Catalyst program change statin use in Australia?. The Medical Journal of Australia, 202(11), 591-594. DOI: 10.5694/mja15.00103  

  • June 13, 2015
  • 06:00 PM
  • 115 views

Study: Higher Income is Related to Less Daily Sadness but Not More Daily Happiness

by Simon Moesgaard-Kjeldsen in Reflectd

A new large-scale study of over 12,000 participants shows that higher income is associated with less daily sadness but not more daily happiness... Read more »

  • June 13, 2015
  • 01:44 PM
  • 132 views

Hormone that differentiates sugar, diet sweeteners could exist in humans

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

We’ve all been there: We eat an entire sleeve of fat-free, low-calorie cookies and we’re stuffing ourselves with more food 15 minutes later. One theory to explain this phenomenon is that artificial sweeteners don’t contain the calories or energy that evolution has trained the brain to expect from sweet-tasting foods, so they don’t fool the brain […]... Read more »

Monica Dus et al. (2015) Nutrient Sensor in the Brain Directs the Action of the Brain-Gut Axis in Drosophila. Neuron. info:/10.1016/j.neuron.2015.05.032

  • June 13, 2015
  • 10:30 AM
  • 140 views

In Praise of (the Right Kind of) Praise

by Winston Sieck in Thinker Academy

Sure, you praise your kids. And they look at you with beaming little faces. Such a warm feeling, if only for a moment. But, is that all there is to praise? What’s simmering in the brain behind those sparkling eyes? It may well depend on the precise nature of the praise you gave. There are […]
Check out In Praise of (the Right Kind of) Praise, an original post on Thinker Academy.
... Read more »

  • June 13, 2015
  • 02:59 AM
  • 174 views

Autism, higher education and employment: what happens long-term?

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

Note: I wish I knew who to attribute this fantastic picture to.I want to draw your attention to the paper by Julie Lounds Taylor and colleagues [1] in today's post and some slightly worrying findings based on their longitudinal investigation of postsecondary (higher) education and employment experiences for a group of 73 adults diagnosed as being on the autism spectrum.To quote: "Although two-thirds of adults with autism spectrum disorder participated in competitive employment/postseco........ Read more »

  • June 12, 2015
  • 04:39 AM
  • 160 views

Infections and cognitive ability

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

Today I'm serving up the study findings reported by Michael Benrós and colleagues [1] (open-access) describing how: "Independent of a wide range of possible confounders, significant associations between infections and cognitive ability were observed" in their study of over 160,000 male conscripts during the years 2006–2012 who were tested for cognitive ability. Some further write-up of the study can also be found here.Using the Danish Conscription Registry (existing a........ Read more »

  • June 11, 2015
  • 05:11 AM
  • 172 views

Higher vitamin D = reduced risk of depression?

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"These results support the hypothesis that higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations protect against depression even after adjustment for a large number of sociodemographic, lifestyle and metabolic factors."That was the conclusion reached by Tuija Jääskeläinen and colleagues [1] who analysed data from several thousands of people (men and women aged between 30 -79 years old) included as part of the Finnish Health 2000 survey. Alongside assaying for serum levels of 25(OH)D - 25-hydroxy vitamin D........ Read more »

Jääskeläinen T, Knekt P, Suvisaari J, Männistö S, Partonen T, Sääksjärvi K, Kaartinen NE, Kanerva N, & Lindfors O. (2015) Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are related to a reduced risk of depression. The British journal of nutrition, 113(9), 1418-26. PMID: 25989997  

  • June 10, 2015
  • 04:56 PM
  • 82 views

Social Support From Friends and Family Linked To Lower Mortality

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Katie Becofsky Ph.D. Weight Control and Diabetes Research Center The Miriam Hospital Providence, RI Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Becofsky: Previous research has provided clear evidence of … Continue reading →
The post Social Support From Friends and Family Linked To Lower Mortality appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Resear........ Read more »

Katie Becofsky Ph.D., Weight Control and Diabetes Research Center, The Miriam Hospital, & Providence, RI. (2015) Social Support From Friends and Family Linked To Lower Mortality. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • June 10, 2015
  • 02:54 PM
  • 16 views

How Did Humans Learn to Count? Baboons May Offer Clues

by amikulak in Daily Observations

Learning to count comes early in life for humans. Most kids know how to count before they enter formal schooling and the ability to understand basic quantities is fundamental to […]... Read more »

Cantlon, J., Piantadosi, S., Ferrigno, S., Hughes, K., & Barnard, A. (2015) The Origins of Counting Algorithms. Psychological Science, 26(6), 853-865. DOI: 10.1177/0956797615572907  

  • June 10, 2015
  • 08:00 AM
  • 197 views

Everybody Is Just A Little Twisted

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

You may have your head on straight, but your brain is still twisted. Everyone’s is. The symmetry of the brain is not absolute and the two halves are shaped differently, this results in your brain torquing (not twerking) inside your skull. The reasons are many, but one is gender: boy brains and girl brains really are different!... Read more »

Maller, J., Anderson, R., Thomson, R., Rosenfeld, J., Daskalakis, Z., & Fitzgerald, P. (2015) Occipital bending (Yakovlevian torque) in bipolar depression. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 231(1), 8-14. DOI: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.11.008  

Maller, J., Thomson, R., Rosenfeld, J., Anderson, R., Daskalakis, Z., & Fitzgerald, P. (2014) Occipital bending in depression. Brain, 137(6), 1830-1837. DOI: 10.1093/brain/awu072  

Mock, J., Zadina, J., Corey, D., Cohen, J., Lemen, L., & Foundas, A. (2012) Atypical Brain Torque in Boys With Developmental Stuttering. Developmental Neuropsychology, 37(5), 434-452. DOI: 10.1080/87565641.2012.661816  

Witelson, S., Kigar, D., & Harvey, T. (1999) The exceptional brain of Albert Einstein. The Lancet, 353(9170), 2149-2153. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(98)10327-6  

  • June 10, 2015
  • 07:02 AM
  • 145 views

Moving that body, predictable parents, ear worms and more… 

by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room

Every once in a while we find tidbits that we don’t wish to devote an entire post to but that we think worth sharing. Think of these as party trivia or sound bytes to help you seem intriguing and perhaps more well-read. The importance of moving: You’ve seen that infographic on how sitting is killing […]

Related posts:
When your parents help researchers make you believe  a lie 
Male body shame and aggression against women (“rape proclivity”)
“Unpleasant body odor” a........ Read more »

Beaman, C., Powell, K., & Rapley, E. (2015) Want to block earworms from conscious awareness? B(u)y gum!. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68(6), 1049-1057. DOI: 10.1080/17470218.2015.1034142  

  • June 10, 2015
  • 05:42 AM
  • 126 views

Toddlers learn better when you make them giggle

by BPS Research Digest in BPS Research Digest

There is probably nothing more fun than making a baby or toddler laugh. And now there's news that it could even help with learning – the toddler's not the adult's.In the first study to look at the effects of humour on learning at such a young age, Rana Esseily and her colleagues began by showing 53 18-month-olds how to reach a toy duck with a cardboard rake (other toddlers who'd spontaneously used the rake as a reaching tool were excluded). Crucially, half the participating toddlers were given........ Read more »

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