by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room
In a word, yes. But perhaps not in the way you might think. Researchers were interested in seeing if the race of parties involved in battered spouse syndrome case defenses would make a difference in how jurors made decisions about verdicts. The researchers say their study is a contribution to the “scarce literature on the […]
Playing the race card: When it works and why it doesn’t
Is it possible that jurors will be misled by emotional testimony and gruesome photos? ........ Read more »
Mossiere, A., Maeder, E., & Pica, E. (2016) Racial Composition of Couples in Battered Spouse Syndrome Cases: A Look at Juror Perceptions and Decisions. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. DOI: 10.1177/0886260516632355
According to UltraRunning Magazine, an ultra run is anything longer than a standard marathon of 26 miles, but it’s not unusual for people to participate in gruelling runs that take place in punishing environments over days or even weeks. For people who struggle to run to catch a bus, the idea of deliberately putting yourself through this kind of physical punishment, for fun, seems little short of crazy. Yet this is a sport that’s on the increase – the number of official events has doubled ........ Read more »
Johnson, U., Kenttä, G., Ivarsson, A., Alvmyren, I., & Karlsson, M. (2015) An ultra-runner's experience of physical and emotional challenges during a 10-week continental run. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 14(1), 72-84. DOI: 10.1080/1612197X.2015.1035736
"People with autism 'die younger', warns charity" went the very stark BBC headline recently.Today I'd like to bring your attention to the recent report published by Autistica titled: 'Personal tragedies, public crisis' making the headlines, highlighting how people with autism face a considerably enhanced risk of early mortality compared with the general population  (see here for my take).Although making quite sober reading and rightly using some very emotive language, I think m........ Read more »
A new study is the first to report that the relationship between nightmares and suicidal behaviors is partially mediated by a multi-step pathway via defeat, entrapment, and hopelessness. Results show that suicidal thoughts, plans or attempts were present in 62 percent of participants who experienced nightmares and only 20 percent of those without nightmares.
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Littlewood, D., Gooding, P., Panagioti, M., & Kyle, S. (2016) Nightmares and Suicide in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: The Mediating Role of Defeat, Entrapment, and Hopelessness. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 12(03), 393-399. DOI: 10.5664/jcsm.5592
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, is a substantial head injury that results in damage to the brain. This damage can cause a wide spectrum of possible health outcomes. Factors that are likely to influence neuropsychiatric outcome in TBI can be classified as pre-injury, injury and post-injury factors. Injury-related factors include a) the type of physical injury
The post Neuropsychiatric Outcomes Of Traumatic Brain Injury appeared first on UBRF: UberBrain R........ Read more »
Arciniegas DB, Anderson CA, Topkoff J, & McAllister TW. (2005) Mild traumatic brain injury: a neuropsychiatric approach to diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment, 1(4), 311-27. PMID: 18568112
Bigler ED. (2001) Distinguished Neuropsychologist Award Lecture 1999. The lesion(s) in traumatic brain injury: implications for clinical neuropsychology. Archives of clinical neuropsychology : the official journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists, 16(2), 95-131. PMID: 14590180
Bigler ED. (2007) Anterior and middle cranial fossa in traumatic brain injury: relevant neuroanatomy and neuropathology in the study of neuropsychological outcome. Neuropsychology, 21(5), 515-31. PMID: 17784800
Our bodily sense of self contributes to our personal feelings of awareness as a conscious being. How we see our bodies and move through space and feel touched by loved ones are integral parts of our identity. What happens when this sense of self breaks down? One form of dissolution is Depersonalization Disorder (DPD).1 Individuals with DPD feel estranged or disconnected from themselves, as if their bodies belong to someone else, and “they” are merely a detached observer. Or the self feel........ Read more »
Adler, J., Schabinger, N., Michal, M., Beutel, M., & Gillmeister, H. (2016) Is that me in the mirror? Depersonalisation modulates tactile mirroring mechanisms. Neuropsychologia. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.03.009
Lenggenhager, B., Pazzaglia, M., Scivoletto, G., Molinari, M., & Aglioti, S. (2012) The Sense of the Body in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury. PLoS ONE, 7(11). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050757
THE AMYGDALA SHOWN ALONG WITH OTHER LIMBIC SYSTEM STRUCTURES.
The amygdala---or, more appropriately, amygdalae, as there is one in each cerebral hemisphere---was not recognized as a distinct brain region until the 1800s, and it wasn't until the middle of the twentieth century that it began to be considered an especially significant area in mediating emotional responses. Specifics about the role of the amygdala in emotion remained somewhat unclear, however, ........ Read more »
LeDoux, Joseph. (2007) The Amygdala. Current Biology. info:/
They say that once you’ve learned to ride a bicycle, you never forget how to do it. Unfortunately for students who hope this applies to studying, they might not like new research suggesting that while learning, the brain is actively trying to forget. While this may at first blush seem like a bad thing, it actually may be useful for those suffering from PTSD.
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Madroñal, N., Delgado-García, J., Fernández-Guizán, A., Chatterjee, J., Köhn, M., Mattucci, C., Jain, A., Tsetsenis, T., Illarionova, A., Grinevich, V.... (2016) Rapid erasure of hippocampal memory following inhibition of dentate gyrus granule cells. Nature Communications, 10923. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms10923
Colin Camerer and colleagues recently published a Science article on the replicability of behavioural economics. ‘It appears that there is some difference in replication success’ between psychology and economics, they write, given their reproducibility rate of 61% and psychology’s of 36%. I took a closer look at the data to find out whether there really […]... Read more »
Camerer, C., Dreber, A., Forsell, E., Ho, T., Huber, J., Johannesson, M., Kirchler, M., Almenberg, J., Altmejd, A., Chan, T.... (2016) Evaluating replicability of laboratory experiments in economics. Science. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf0918
Open Science Collaboration. (2015) Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science. Science, 349(6251). DOI: 10.1126/science.aac4716
The findings reported by Yu-Wen Lin and colleagues  (open-access available here) examining the "characteristics and suicide methods of patients with suicide-related behaviors" and "influential factors for repeated suicide-related behaviors and death by suicide" might not make for 'great dinner-party conversation' but are nevertheless important.Drawing on data from one of the world's premier 'big data' research sources - the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) - ........ Read more »
Lin YW, Huang HC, Lin MF, Shyu ML, Tsai PL, & Chang HJ. (2016) Influential Factors for and Outcomes of Hospitalized Patients with Suicide-Related Behaviors: A National Record Study in Taiwan from 1997-2010. PloS one, 11(2). PMID: 26900930
Hong Kong and Japanese teachers appear to be more attentive to the processing demands of relational comparisons than are U.S teachers. Their teaching reflects the use of strategies to reduce processing demands on their students. Such differences in adherence to sound cognitive principles may have a real impact on the likelihood that students benefit from analogies as instructional tools.... Read more »
Richland, L., Zur, O., & Holyoak, K. (2007) MATHEMATICS: Cognitive Supports for Analogies in the Mathematics Classroom. Science, 316(5828), 1128-1129. DOI: 10.1126/science.1142103
Participants were recruited via online asexuality communitiesSex, or talk of it, is everywhere, whether filling our TV screens or the conversations at the bar after work. Imagine then that you're one of the estimated one per cent of the population who actually don't have any sexual desire – an increasingly recognised status usually referred to as being "asexual". What is it like for such people to "come out" and tell the world that this is the way they are?For a new study published in the Arch........ Read more »
Robbins, N., Low, K., & Query, A. (2015) A Qualitative Exploration of the “Coming Out” Process for Asexual Individuals. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(3), 751-760. DOI: 10.1007/s10508-015-0561-x
We often pick up terrific metaphors that fit well with specific cases during pretrial research. Sometimes they are very funny and sometimes they are simply evocative. But they are almost always useful and we listen carefully to see how they resonate with other mock jurors when they arise. Today’s research describes a scale to help […]
The GASP scale: A new measure of guilt and shame proneness
The Dirty Dozen Scale
The Generic Conspiracist Beliefs Scale
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Fetterman, AK, Bair, JL, Werth, M, Landkammer, F, & Robinson, MD. (2015) The scope and consequences of metaphoric thinking: Using individual differences in metaphor usage to understand how metaphors function. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. info:/
I wanted to draw your attention to the paper by Greenlee and colleagues  today, talking about how: (a) "Co-occurring depression is a particularly common problem in higher-functioning older children" with autism, and (b) "children with ASD [autism spectrum disorder] and a history of a depression diagnosis are more likely to also have co-occurring medical problems" at least in their cohort.Published as part of a supplement about autism in the journal Pediatrics (see here), the Greenle........ Read more »
Greenlee JL, Mosley AS, Shui AM, Veenstra-VanderWeele J, & Gotham KO. (2016) Medical and Behavioral Correlates of Depression History in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Pediatrics. PMID: 26908466
Evidence is building up that, because religion helps people to deal with uncertainties of life, it’s particularly attractive to the kind of people who have a hard time dealing with uncertainty. But what about atheists? Some atheists seem rather fixed and absolutist in their beliefs. Perhaps they use atheism as a prop in much the [Read More...]... Read more »
Kossowska, M., Czernatowicz-Kukuczka, A., & Sekerdej, M. (2016) Many faces of dogmatism: Prejudice as a way of protecting certainty against value violators among dogmatic believers and atheists. British Journal of Psychology. DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12186
Step aside batman and superman, there's a new hero in townBy guest blogger Mary BatesSearch and rescue dogs are commonly used to find people trapped in the debris of collapsed buildings, but are search and rescue rats next? A new study suggests the rodents can be trained to find people and then return to their release point after hearing a signal.The study was conducted by researchers at Western Michigan University and APOPO, a Belgian nongovernmental organization that has previously trained gia........ Read more »
"This study supports the observation that children with autism who have symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders have objective findings similar to children without autism. Neither non-invasive testing nor endoscopic findings identify gastrointestinal pathology specific to autism, but may be of benefit in identifying children with autism who have atypical symptoms."So concluded Rafail Kushak and colleagues  (them of "Lactase deficiency not associated with intestinal inflammation or injury is co........ Read more »
Kushak RI, Buie TM, Murray KF, Newburg DS, Chen C, Nestoridi E, & Winter HS. (2016) Evaluation of Intestinal Function in Children with Autism and Gastrointestinal Symptoms. Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition. PMID: 26913756
For children who live in a situation of domestic violence, also witnessing animal cruelty may negatively impact resilience.New research by Shelby McDonald (Virginia Commonwealth University) et al (2016) looks at the effects of seeing animal abuse on children’s psychological health in a context where they already witness intimate partner violence. Last week I reported on a study by McDonald et al (2015)that found a quarter of children whose mothers experience domestic violence also see the........ Read more »
McDonald, S., Graham-Bermann, S., Maternick, A., Ascione, F., & Williams, J. (2016) Patterns of Adjustment among Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: a Person-Centered Approach. Journal of Child . DOI: 10.1007/s40653-016-0079-y
They say that if you want to get something done, you should ask a busy person. A new paper that's analysed data from a popular productivity app appears to back up this folk wisdom in a specific way – busier people are better at dealing with missed deadlines.Keith Wilcox at Columbia University and his colleagues analysed task deadline and completion data from over 28,000 users of the productivity app (they don't state the name of the app, but it sounds a bit like i done this). In total, the dat........ Read more »
Wilcox K, Laran J, Stephen AT, & Zubcsek PP. (2016) How being busy can increase motivation and reduce task completion time. Journal of personality and social psychology, 110(3), 371-84. PMID: 26963764
by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room
A while back we wrote about meat-eaters denigrating vegetarians. Apparently it is more common than one might think to make fun of “do-gooders” if you are not a “do-gooder” yourself. Today we are examining research on making fun of those who shop ethically. According to the researchers (from Ohio State University’s marketing department and UT […]
Does the Millennial know that tattoo might be a business faux pas?
“I am so tired of people mistaking me for a mode........ Read more »
Zane, D., Irwin, J., & Reczek, R. (2015) Do less ethical consumers denigrate more ethical consumers? The effect of willful ignorance on judgments of others. Journal of Consumer Psychology. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcps.2015.10.002
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