If you’re familiar with behavioural economics, then the results of this study will be right up your alley. The researchers set out to determine whether there was a “first-toss Heads bias.” Meaning, when flipping a coin and the choices are presented “Heads or … Continue reading →... Read more »
Bar-Hillel M, Peer E, & Acquisti A. (2014) "Heads or tails?"--a reachability bias in binary choice. Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition, 40(6), 1656-63. PMID: 24773285
Women rated men's faces as more attractive when they were shown alongside a good-looking sonIf you're the father to a good-looking boy, you might want to give him your thanks – his handsome looks apparently mean women will tend to find you more attractive. That's according to a new study by Pavol Prokop at Trnava University in Slovakia, who says the result is consistent with the established idea from evolutionary psychology that women instinctively pick up on cues to the quality of a man's gen........ Read more »
Prokop, P. (2015) The Putative Son’s Attractiveness Alters the Perceived Attractiveness of the Putative Father. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44(6), 1713-1721. DOI: 10.1007/s10508-015-0496-2
"Children with sickle cell disease may have increased risk for certain neurodevelopmental diagnoses based on their disease characteristics and associated comorbidities."That was the conclusion reached by Eboni Lance and colleagues  following their retrospective chart review including "59 children with sickle cell disease with a documented neurodevelopmental diagnosis, specifically attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], attention issues, behavioral issues, executive dy........ Read more »
Lance EI, Comi AM, Johnston MV, Casella JF, & Shapiro BK. (2015) Risk Factors for Attention and Behavioral Issues in Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease. Clinical pediatrics. PMID: 26149844
by DaveMSW in Dare To Dream
This is a cross post from © 2015 ChooseHelp.com who welcomes republishing of their content on condition that you credit Choose Help and the author, David Earl Johnson, MSW, LICSW. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons License. Bullying … Continue reading →... Read more »
Arseneault L, Walsh E, Trzesniewski K, Newcombe R, Caspi A, & Moffitt TE. (2006) Bullying victimization uniquely contributes to adjustment problems in young children: a nationally representative cohort study. Pediatrics, 118(1), 130-8. PMID: 16818558
Baldry, A. (2004) The impact of direct and indirect bullying on the mental and physical health of Italian youngsters. Aggressive Behavior, 30(5), 343-355. DOI: 10.1002/ab.20043
Bond L, Carlin JB, Thomas L, Rubin K, & Patton G. (2001) Does bullying cause emotional problems? A prospective study of young teenagers. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 323(7311), 480-4. PMID: 11532838
Lara VP, Caramelli P, Teixeira AL, Barbosa MT, Carmona KC, Carvalho MG, Fernandes AP, & Gomes KB. (2013) High cortisol levels are associated with cognitive impairment no-dementia (CIND) and dementia. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry, 18-22. PMID: 23611893
Metcalfe J, & Mischel W. (1999) A hot/cool-system analysis of delay of gratification: dynamics of willpower. Psychological review, 106(1), 3-19. PMID: 10197361
Schreier, A., Wolke, D., Thomas, K., Horwood, J., Hollis, C., Gunnell, D., Lewis, G., Thompson, A., Zammit, S., Duffy, L.... (2009) Prospective Study of Peer Victimization in Childhood and Psychotic Symptoms in a Nonclinical Population at Age 12 Years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(5), 527. DOI: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.23
Psychologists have identified that all of us have two kinds of thinking styles. There’s the slow, deep thinking style where you ponder things for a while before making a decision. And then there’s gut instinct – where you make a decision based on intuition. Some people tend to prefer one kind of thinking style over [Read More...]... Read more »
Bouvet, R., & Bonnefon, J. (2015) Non-Reflective Thinkers Are Predisposed to Attribute Supernatural Causation to Uncanny Experiences. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41(7), 955-961. DOI: 10.1177/0146167215585728
The problems with the wolf pack metaphor go deeper than you think.One of the metaphors many dog trainers despair of is that of the wolf pack. According to this, you are supposed to be ‘leader of the pack’ to your dog, who is trying all the time to be ‘dominant’. The way you stop this is to be ‘dominant’ yourself which involves awful things like ‘alpha rolls’. It’s surprisingly pervasive. It is not really based on science but on a kind of folk science, of how wolf packs are........ Read more »
Blackwell, E., Twells, C., Seawright, A., & Casey, R. (2008) The relationship between training methods and the occurrence of behavior problems, as reported by owners, in a population of domestic dogs. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 3(5), 207-217. DOI: 10.1016/j.jveb.2007.10.008
Deldalle, S., & Gaunet, F. (2014) Effects of 2 training methods on stress-related behaviors of the dog (Canis familiaris) and on the dog–owner relationship. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 9(2), 58-65. DOI: 10.1016/j.jveb.2013.11.004
Herron, M., Shofer, F., & Reisner, I. (2009) Survey of the use and outcome of confrontational and non-confrontational training methods in client-owned dogs showing undesired behaviors. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 117(1-2), 47-54. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2008.12.011
There's a striking fact about mass murderers – an extremely high percentage (around 30 per cent) of them die in the act, either by suicide or because of deadly police force. Of course, only a saint would likely be moved to feel sympathy by this statistic, but a new paper digs into the reasons behind it, in the hope that doing so could help prevent future killings.The formal definition for a mass murderer, as opposed to a serial killer, is someone who kills four or more people in the same act, ........ Read more »
Lankford, A. (2015) Mass murderers in the United States: predictors of offender deaths. The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry , 1-15. DOI: 10.1080/14789949.2015.1054858
by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room
Donald Trump has been getting a lot of press since he announced his candidacy for President. He is labeled a racist by critics, yet leads the polls of Republican presidential candidates. CNN has an explanation of why they think Trump continues to poll so well (he is attacking fellow Republicans and connecting with angry voters […]
Does desire trump beliefs based on facts when evaluating scientific evidence?
Predicting case outcomes? Lawyers are pretty dismal at it!
“70%........ Read more »
Benson, R., & Wood, T. (2015) Who Says What or Nothing at All? Speakers, Frames, and Frameless Quotes in Unauthorized Immigration News in the United States, Norway, and France. American Behavioral Scientist, 59(7), 802-821. DOI: 10.1177/0002764215573257
Hvidberg et al (2015) PLoS One. e0132421Two papers are served up for your reading today. Both provide stark peer-reviewed evidence that when it comes to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) / myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), measures of quality of life (QoL) rank this/these condition(s) as potentially causing great suffering compared with population norms and various other states.The first paper is by Michael Falk Hvidberg and colleagues  (open-access available here) and details respo........ Read more »
Falk Hvidberg M, Brinth LS, Olesen AV, Petersen KD, & Ehlers L. (2015) The Health-Related Quality of Life for Patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS). PloS one, 10(7). PMID: 26147503
Winger A, Kvarstein G, Wyller VB, Ekstedt M, Sulheim D, Fagermoen E, Småstuen MC, & Helseth S. (2015) Health related quality of life in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome: a cross-sectional study. Health and quality of life outcomes, 13(1), 96. PMID: 26138694
Can our beliefs, motivations and emotions influence our visual perception? Are cognition and perception ultimately inseparable?
A lot of recent psychological research says "yes" to the question. For instance, it has been claimed that carrying a heavy backpack makes a hill look - not just feel - steeper. Other researchers say that feeling sad makes things seem darker - not just metaphorically, but literally.
However, according to a new paper by Yale psychologists Chaz Firestone & Br... Read more »
Firestone C, & Scholl BJ. (2015) Cognition does not affect perception: Evaluating the evidence for 'top-down' effects. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1-77. PMID: 26189677
by amikulak in Daily Observations
When conducting psychology studies online or in the lab, researchers might not think about participants’ past experiences as a research subject. But research published in Psychological Science suggests that these […]... Read more »
Chandler, J., Paolacci, G., Peer, E., Mueller, P., & Ratliff, K. (2015) Using Nonnaive Participants Can Reduce Effect Sizes. Psychological Science, 26(7), 1131-1139. DOI: 10.1177/0956797615585115
It's often assumed that personality is largely fixed, like your height or shoe size. But a better analogy might be between personality and body weight. After all, like an expanding waist span, there's evidence that personality changes as we get older. And just as we can strive to lose weight, there's evidence we can intentionally change our personalities.Now Marcus Mund and Franz Neyer at the Institute of Psychology at Friedrich Schiller University, Jena in Germany have explored two fa........ Read more »
Mund, M., & Neyer, F. (2015) The Winding Paths of the Lonesome Cowboy: Evidence for Mutual Influences between Personality, Subjective Health, and Loneliness. Journal of Personality. DOI: 10.1111/jopy.12188
"Children exposed to maternal hypothyroxinemia in early pregnancy had more ADHD [attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder] symptoms, independent of confounders. This finding suggests that intrauterine exposure to insufficient thyroid hormone levels influences neurodevelopment in offspring."That was the bottom line reported by Thiago Modesto and colleagues  looking at how "mild thyroid hormone insufficiency" in early pregnancy might link into offspring behavioural outcomes a few........ Read more »
Modesto T, Tiemeier H, Peeters RP, Jaddoe VW, Hofman A, Verhulst FC, & Ghassabian A. (2015) Maternal Mild Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency in Early Pregnancy and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children. JAMA pediatrics. PMID: 26146876
Science magazine had an interesting series of review articles on Machine Learning last week. Two of them were different perspectives of the exact same question: how does traditional economic rationality fit into artificial intelligence? At the core of much AI work … Continue reading →... Read more »
Gershman, S., Horvitz, E., & Tenenbaum, J. (2015) Computational rationality: A converging paradigm for intelligence in brains, minds, and machines. Science, 349(6245), 273-278. DOI: 10.1126/science.aac6076
Oh the “humblebrag”. It’s really not that long since career counselors were suggesting interview questions asking about weaknesses could be turned to the candidate’s advantage by responding about an alleged weakness that was really a strength. (“Weakness? I think I tend to be perfectionistic. I just can’t send in a report without double-checking it for […]
I bought a house that is simply too big and now I have to hire a cleaning service…
The Sensitivity t........ Read more »
Sezer, O., Gino, F., & Norton, M. (2015) Humblebragging: A Distinct And Ineffective Self-Presentation Strategy. SSRN Electronic Journal. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.2597626
There’s a stereotype that older people are more friendly and trusting, possibly leaving them vulnerable to con-artists. A new study using an economic trading game provides clear evidence that older people really are more trusting, at least in the sense that they are more likely to give the benefit of the doubt to people with a dodgy track record.Phoebe Bailey’s research paradigm invited 72 Australian participants to complete a series of 30 trading game trials alone via a computer, in the kno........ Read more »
Bailey, P., Szczap, P., McLennan, S., Slessor, G., Ruffman, T., & Rendell, P. (2015) Age-related similarities and differences in first impressions of trustworthiness. Cognition and Emotion, 1-10. DOI: 10.1080/02699931.2015.1039493
It's been a while since I've discussed the issue of homocysteine - that's homocysteine not homocystine - with autism in mind, so consider this short blog entry a bit of an update to previous discussions (see here and see here).In case you need to know it, homocysteine is an important component of the trans-sulfuration pathway intersecting with both the methione cycle and the folate cycle. Collectively, these biological processes have important functions for various aspects of biology includ........ Read more »
Puig-Alcaraz C, Fuentes-Albero M, Calderón J, Garrote D, & Cauli O. (2015) Increased homocysteine levels correlate with the communication deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder. Psychiatry research. PMID: 26070768
Han, Y., Xi, Q., Dai, W., Yang, S., Gao, L., Su, Y., & Zhang, X. (2015) Abnormal transsulfuration metabolism and reduced antioxidant capacity in Chinese children with autism spectrum disorders. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2015.06.006
Although it might seem like a bit of a distraction, I read with interest the paper by Lorcan Kenny and colleagues  (open-access) discussing the ways and means that we talk about autism here in Blighty. Some related media on the paper can be found here and here.I mentioned the word 'distraction' because I'm sure that some people (many people?) might be wondering why we are discussing the various ways and means that autism is described when there is so much more for research to do in tryin........ Read more »
Kenny L, Hattersley C, Molins B, Buckley C, Povey C, & Pellicano E. (2015) Which terms should be used to describe autism? Perspectives from the UK autism community. Autism : the international journal of research and practice. PMID: 26134030
Sexist behaviour is a way some men use to signal they are "one of the lads", mistakenly assuming that the lads are more sexist than they really are. Encouraging men to take a visible stand against sexism might help break this cycle, and a new study road-tests an intervention that uses this approach to change sexist attitudes in male undergrad students. The data show the intervention met some goals – specifically a decrease in overall sexist attitudes – but fell short of others, illustrating ........ Read more »
Kilmartin, C., Semelsberger, R., Dye, S., Boggs, E., & Kolar, D. (2014) A Behavior Intervention to Reduce Sexism in College Men. Gender Issues, 32(2), 97-110. DOI: 10.1007/s12147-014-9130-1
by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room
We’ve worked on several qui tam cases where mock jurors have been suspicious of the motivations for the whistleblower given the huge amounts of money they stand to make. So what if the whistleblower is the [current or former] lawyer? There’s a really interesting article in SSRN on the ethical issues surrounding lawyers blowing whistles. […]
Predicting case outcomes? Lawyers are pretty dismal at it!
False Confessions: “No one really does that unless they’re just stu........ Read more »
Clark, K., & Moore, N. (2015) Buying Voice: Financial Rewards for Whistleblowing Lawyers. SSRN Electronic Journal. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.2562610
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