by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room
Of course you did. But you may want to take a look at this study because, maybe, it isn’t true after all. It certainly is a well-known myth if it is not true. This appears to be one of those situations where we add up what we know and then come up with a conclusion […]
When it comes to corporate fraud in America, men are almost always to blame
Is it true that older jurors are more likely to convict?
Birthers, deathers, and did you hear about Jimmy Hoffa?
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Ross, M, Grossman, I, & Schryer, E. (2014) Contrary to psychological and popular opinion, there is no compelling evidence that older adults are disproportionately victimized by consumer fraud. . Perspectives on Psychological Science. info:/
It's become a truism that humans are "social animals". And yet, you've probably noticed - people on public transport or in waiting rooms seem to do everything they can not to interact. On the London tube there's an unwritten rule not to even look at one another. This is the paradox explored by Nicholas Epley and Juliana Schroeder in a series of nine new studies involving members of the public on trains, planes, in taxis and a waiting room.The investigation began with rail and bus commuters ........ Read more »
The paper by Golam Khandaker and colleagues  suggesting a higher risk of psychotic episodes (PEs) in early adolescence among those with a diagnosed childhood neurodevelopmental disorder (ND) makes for some interesting reading. Detailing several diagnoses as falling under the banner of neurodevelopmental disorder (autism spectrum, dyslexia, dyspraxia, dysgraphia, dysorthographia, dyscalculia), researchers concluded that: "The risk of PEs was higher in those with, compared with those witho........ Read more »
Khandaker GM, Stochl J, Zammit S, Lewis G, & Jones PB. (2014) A population-based longitudinal study of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, IQ and subsequent risk of psychotic experiences in adolescence. Psychological medicine, 1-10. PMID: 25066026
"Results showed that 36.8 % of the children met the criteria for ID [intellectual disability], with 60.2 % of these in the mild range (IQ 50-69) and 39.8 % in the moderate range (IQ 35-49)".That was the finding reported by Mélina Rivard and colleagues  looking at the co-occurrence of intellectual disability (also called learning disability here in Blighty) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) "in young children". Based on an analysis of over 200 children diagnosed with an ASD, resear........ Read more »
Rivard M, Terroux A, Mercier C, & Parent-Boursier C. (2014) Indicators of Intellectual Disabilities in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. PMID: 25070470
Photo: Lakatos Sandor / ShutterstockWhat are the effects of an owner’s prior dog experience and the dog’s housing on behaviour problems? A survey of people with Argentine Dogos investigates.Some previous research has suggested people who are first-time dog owners are more likely to have a dog with behaviour problems, perhaps because they don’t have enough experience. Also, sometimes people say breed experience is helpful. The aim of this study was to investigate this by looking at only one........ Read more »
Diverio, S., & Tami, G. (2014) Effect of owner experience, living environment, and dog characteristics on owner reports of behavior of Argentine Dogos in Italy . Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 9(4), 151-157. info:/
Here’s an intriguing article on how some nurses cope with stress. If you think, based on the title of this post, they do it by dehumanizing their patients, you would be correct. Somehow we think this is not a good thing to admit on the witness stand, but it is an understandable and human reaction […]
I see diversity, you see divisiveness
The new issue of The Jury Expert is available now!
When you expect a gorilla you often miss other unexpected things
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Trifiletti, E, Di Bernardo, GA, Falvo, R, & Capozza, D. (2014) Patients are not fully human: a nurse’s coping response to stress. . Journal of Applied Social Psychology. . info:/
As we continue to settle into ourselves, you might think that personality would be something that becomes ever more cemented through life. Not so, according to a survey of nearly 4000 New Zealanders aged from 20 to 80 years (including 2409 women). Petar Milojev and Chris Sibley report that the stability of personality increases through youth, peaks in mid-life and then gradually reduces again into old age, presumably in response to the variations in social and biological pressures we exper........ Read more »
Milojev, P., & Sibley, C. (2014) The stability of adult personality varies across age: Evidence from a two-year longitudinal sample of adult New Zealanders. Journal of Research in Personality, 29-37. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrp.2014.04.005
"In term NICU [neonatal intensive care unit] survivors, ASD [autism spectrum disorder] occurs with a greater frequency than in the general population and often develops alongside comorbid conditions". That was the conclusion from the study by Alexander Winkler-Schwartz and colleagues  looking at term at-risk infants who survived NICU."You were only meant to blow the bloody doors off"'Surviving' their earliest days spent in NICU brings a bit of lump to my throat. As a paren........ Read more »
Winkler-Schwartz, A., Garfinkle, J., & Shevell, M. (2014) Autism spectrum disorder in a term birth neonatal intensive care unit population. Pediatric Neurology. DOI: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2014.07.009
Picture this – you’re introduced to the CEO of a French start-up that your company is in the process of acquiring. The CEO grabs your hand and leans in for some repeated lip action on your cheeks. His breath has a hint of garlic and something else you can’t identify. His grip on your hand […]
This article, 3 Ways to Improve Your Cultural Intelligence, first appeared on Global Cognition.
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It’s no secret for anyone who follows me that I am a Marine veteran. It’s also no secret for anyone who follows me that I’ve had my own ups and downs in life because of my experiences. PTSD is a nightmare, one that you can’t quite shake no matter how hard you try. Then again, not everyone reacts the same way to the trauma that typically causes PTSD, not everyone walks away from war with it. The big question that scientists set out to answer was, why? And now they might just have an answe........ Read more »
Nikolaos P. Daskalakis, Hagit Cohen, Guiqing Caia, Joseph D. Buxbaum, & Rachel Yehuda. (2014) Expression profiling associates blood and brain glucocorticoid receptor signaling with trauma-related individual differences in both sexes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(32). info:/10.1073/pnas.1401660111
Do you remember on Who Wants to Be a Millionaire—apparently this show is still on, but I’ll assume no one else has seen it this decade—how after contestants picked an answer, Regis Philbin sometimes asked, “How sure are you?” They’d pull a number seemingly out of the air: “Oh, eighty-five percent.” This trick of estimating our […]The post Even Kindergarteners Can Rate Their Own Confidence appeared first on Inkfish.... Read more »
Vo, V., Li, R., Kornell, N., Pouget, A., & Cantlon, J. (2014) Young Children Bet on Their Numerical Skills: Metacognition in the Numerical Domain. Psychological Science. DOI: 10.1177/0956797614538458
Lawyer work context: Lawyers procrastinate. Lawyers have heavy workloads. This means that they have a large quantity of tasks to perform. And, lawyers’ workloads require them to regularly engage their brains in highly complex work. Also, this requires that engage themselves in high mental activation in order to complete their work. Lawyers fail to [...]
The post Work Context and [Lawyer] Procrastination: Psychological Processes and Factors Which Influence Self-Regulation Failure appeared........ Read more »
DeArmond, S., Matthews, R., & Bunk, J. (2014) Workload and procrastination: The roles of psychological detachment and fatigue. International Journal of Stress Management, 21(2), 137-161. DOI: 10.1037/a0034893
credit: Gray's Anatomy/WikipediaRemembering and imagining appear to be very different functions, one recovering true information from the past, the other considering the unreal or exploring the future. And yet many patients with damage to the hippocampus (a structure in the temporal lobes) - and resultant memory impairment - struggle in imagining the future. Moreover, neuroimaging data show the hippocampus is involved in both tasks. Taken together, this evidence suggests that memory for the past........ Read more »
Kirwan CB, Ashby SR, & Nash MI. (2014) Remembering and imagining differentially engage the hippocampus: A multivariate fMRI investigation. Cognitive neuroscience, 1-9. PMID: 24967816
The findings from Chang-Ching Wei and colleagues  suggesting an over-representation of the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) following a history of neonatal jaundice provides fodder for today's brief post. Based in Taiwan, one of the most impressive countries when it comes to the use and analysis of 'big data' (see here), researchers were able to identify some 25,000 participants diagnosed with neonatal jaundice and compare them with almost 70,000 non-jaundiced........ Read more »
Wei CC, Chang CH, Lin CL, Chang SN, Li TC, & Kao CH. (2014) Neonatal jaundice and increased risk of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a population-based cohort study. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. PMID: 25056274
by amikulak in Daily Observations
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), characterized by intrusive and persistent thoughts that are often accompanied by repetitive or ritualized acts, is a serious clinical disorder that can significantly impact a person’s ability […]... Read more »
Snyder, H., Kaiser, R., Warren, S., & Heller, W. (2014) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Is Associated With Broad Impairments in Executive Function: A Meta-Analysis. Clinical Psychological Science. DOI: 10.1177/2167702614534210
Dummies (known as pacifiers in the US) can calm a crying baby in seconds, so their appeal is obvious. However, a new study warns there could be a price to pay. Magdalena Rychlowska and her colleagues claim that because dummies obscure babies' faces, they interfere with the way that adults respond to babies' emotions.The researchers used electrodes to record the facial muscles of 29 women (average age 21; two of them were mothers) while they looked at photographs of two young babies expressing ha........ Read more »
Rychlowska, M., Korb, S., Brauer, M., Droit-Volet, S., Augustinova, M., Zinner, L., & Niedenthal, P. (2014) Pacifiers Disrupt Adults’ Responses to Infants’ Emotions. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 36(4), 299-308. DOI: 10.1080/01973533.2014.915217
by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room
We’ve written a number of times about bias against Muslims. But here’s a nice article with an easy to incorporate finding on how to reduce bias against your female client who wears a Muslim head-covering. (In case you have forgotten, we’ve already written about head-coverings for the Muslim man.) The graphic illustrating this post shows […]
Simple Jury Persuasion: Tilt your head. (no kidding)
Simple Jury Persuasion: In the face of ambiguity, we just make stuff up!
S........ Read more »
Everett, J., Schellhaas, F., Earp, B., Ando, V., Memarzia, J., Parise, C., Fell, B., & Hewstone, M. (2014) Covered in stigma? The impact of differing levels of Islamic head-covering on explicit and implicit biases toward Muslim women. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. DOI: 10.1111/jasp.12278
"This is the first study to identify an increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders in patients with hypospadias, as well as an increased risk for ASD [autism spectrum disorders] in their brothers, suggesting a common familial (genetic and/or environmental) liability".Rainy days and Mondays... @ Wikipedia That was the conclusion reached in the study by Agnieszka Butwicka and colleagues  looking at various neurodevelopmental outcomes associated with a diagnosis of ........ Read more »
Butwicka A, Lichtenstein P, Landén M, Nordenvall AS, Nordenström A, Nordenskjöld A, & Frisén L. (2014) Hypospadias and increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. PMID: 25048198
Aw - it's Us @ CSF2014! Thanks Tamás Faragó :)Dear Julie,while you've been off enjoying the fjords of Norway and I've been recovering from six legs of long haul flying with a three year old as hand luggage, I thought I'd put up a quick post to recap the wonderful week in Lincoln, UK that was the (Feline and) Canine Science Forum 2014.Such a fun, stimulating, inspiring week comprising the Feline Science day (Monday), public lecture by James Serpell (rhymes with purple) on Monday ........ Read more »
Hecht Julie. (2014) Tribute to Tinbergen: Public Engagement in Ethology. Ethology, 120(3), 207-214. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eth.12199
You can’t get away from it, the big marijuana debate here in the US. Is it good? Is it bad? What are other countries doing? There are also a lot of claims made about marijuana, most of which aren’t true, namely the big medical claims. Then there is the other side of that fence, what about some of the health issues that are claimed, where does science sit on that?[…]... Read more »
Giedd JN, Blumenthal J, Jeffries NO, Rajapakse JC, Vaituzis AC, Liu H, Berry YC, Tobin M, Nelson J, & Castellanos FX. (1999) Development of the human corpus callosum during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal MRI study. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology , 23(4), 571-88. PMID: 10390717
Giedd, J. N. (2004) Structural magnetic resonance imaging of the adolescent brain. Adolescent Brain Development: Vulnerabilities and Opportunities. info:/
Friese B, & Grube JW. (2013) Legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use among youths. Drugs (Abingdon, England), 20(1), 33-39. PMID: 23641127
Chadwick B, Miller ML, & Hurd YL. (2013) Cannabis Use during Adolescent Development: Susceptibility to Psychiatric Illness. Frontiers in psychiatry, 129. PMID: 24133461
Lisdahl, K., Wright, N., Medina-Kirchner, C., Maple, K., & Shollenbarger, S. (2014) Considering Cannabis: The Effects of Regular Cannabis Use on Neurocognition in Adolescents and Young Adults. Current Addiction Reports, 1(2), 144-156. DOI: 10.1007/s40429-014-0019-6
Choo EK, Benz M, Zaller N, Warren O, Rising KL, & McConnell KJ. (2014) The impact of state medical marijuana legislation on adolescent marijuana use. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 55(2), 160-6. PMID: 24742758
Joffe A, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Substance Abuse, & American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Adolescence. (2004) Legalization of marijuana: potential impact on youth. Pediatrics, 113(6), 1825-6. PMID: 15173518
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