How most of us choose to behave is shaped powerfully by the behaviour of others (or, more specifically, our perception of their behaviour). Psychologists call this the influence of "social norms", and its potency has been investigated extensively in the context of environmentally friendly behaviours like recycling, and health behaviours, such as binge drinking and frequency of exercise.What if this same psychological lever could be exploited, not to encourage people to take up more physical acti........ Read more »
Priebe, C., & Spink, K. (2014) Blood, sweat, and the influence of others: The effect of descriptive norms on muscular endurance and task self-efficacy. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(5), 491-497. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.04.012
"Compared with published general population prevalence, there is a fivefold increase in prevalence of ADHD in youth prison populations (30.1%) and a 10-fold increase in adult prison populations (26.2%)"."Mianly dry" apparently @ Paul WhiteleyThat was the primary conclusion reached in the meta-analysis by Young and colleagues  looking at the collected peer-reviewed literature on "the variable prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in incarcerated populations".There ........ Read more »
Young S, Moss D, Sedgwick O, Fridman M, & Hodgkins P. (2014) A meta-analysis of the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in incarcerated populations. Psychological medicine, 1-12. PMID: 25066071
Some psychological conditions receive a disproportionate amount of attention in popular media relative to how frequently they actually occur in the population. One of those is psychopathy, a personality disorder that is characterized by antisocial behavior, impulsivity, and a lack of empathy. Psychopaths may be charming on the surface but tend towards pathological deception and indifferent manipulation of other people. And they are more likely to have behavioral problems or be involved in crimin........ Read more »
Polaschek, D. (2014) Adult Criminals With Psychopathy: Common Beliefs About Treatability and Change Have Little Empirical Support. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23(4), 296-301. DOI: 10.1177/0963721414535211
You are now entering the Twilight Zone. You may remember the television show, with it’s odd twists and turns, but for people with schizophrenia it means something just a little […]... Read more »
Morris RW, Quail S, Griffiths KR, Green MJ, & Balleine BW. (2014) Corticostriatal Control of Goal-Directed Action Is Impaired in Schizophrenia. Biological psychiatry. PMID: 25062683
Close the blinds, lock the doors, and find a safe place to hide. Are you alone? No, no you aren’t and you may not even be in control of your […]... Read more »
Alcock J, Maley CC, & Aktipis CA. (2014) Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? Evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms. BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology. PMID: 25103109
A very short post for readers to ponder based on the paper by Amanda Baxter and colleagues  who talked about the global epidemiology of the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs)."In 2010 there were an estimated 52 million cases of ASDs, equating to a prevalence of 7.6 per 1000 or one in 132 persons".Aside from emphasising the word 'estimated' (I highlighted that), be prepared to see the Baxter paper and that quote cited quite a bit in the peer-reviewed literature in times to come.----------[1........ Read more »
A. J. Baxter, T. S. Brugha, H. E. Erskine, R. W. Scheurer, T. Vos, & J. G. Scott. (2014) The epidemiology and global burden of autism spectrum disorders. Psychological Medicine. info:/http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S003329171400172X
The below article was recently rejected from the Journal of Neuroscience as a ‘Journal Club’ commentary on Davis et al., 2014, ‘Medial temporal lobe global similarity signals underlie recognition strength’. Hoping that my efforts will not go to waste, I’d like to give the piece an alternate home here. Please read, comment and share, all […]... Read more »
Davis T, Xue G, Love BC, Preston AR, & Poldrack RA. (2014) Global neural pattern similarity as a common basis for categorization and recognition memory. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 34(22), 7472-84. PMID: 24872552
by Shirley in Science of Eating Disorders
Should eating disorder patients be introduced to “junk food” or “hyper-palatable” foods during treatment? A few days ago, I stumbled across a blog post where Dr. Julie O’Toole, Founder and Director of the Kartini Clinic for Disordered Eating, argues against introducing “junk food” during ED treatment. The crux of the argument is that “hyperpalatable foods”—e.g., chips and Cheetos—are not real food and should never be forced or encouraged for anyone, regard........ Read more »
Spring, V.L., & Bulik, C.M. (2014) Implicit and explicit affect toward food and weight stimuli in anorexia nervosa. Eating Behaviors, 15(1), 91-4. PMID: 24411758
Steinglass, J.E., Sysko, R., Glasofer, D., Albano, A.M., Simpson, H.B., & Walsh, B.T. (2011) Rationale for the application of exposure and response prevention to the treatment of anorexia nervosa. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 44(2), 134-41. PMID: 20127936
Maybe I’m dating myself here, but ever see the swamp thing movie, television show, or even the comic? Call me picky, after all we are talking about a human/plant hybrid, but he never needed to talk. I know, some of you are probably rolling your eyes at me given it’s a comic, movie or tv show [depending on your level of geek], but come on, this is science![…]... Read more »
G. Kim,, M. L. LeBlanc,, E. K. Wafula,, C. W. dePamphilis,, & J. H. Westwood. (2014) Genomic-scale exchange of mRNA between a parasitic plant and its hosts. Science. info:/10.1126/science.1253122
An amusing look at 5 of the hottest science news stories this week... Read more »
Rechavi, O., Houri-Ze’evi, L., Anava, S., Goh, W., Kerk, S., Hannon, G., & Hobert, O. (2014) Starvation-Induced Transgenerational Inheritance of Small RNAs in C. elegans. Cell, 158(2), 277-287. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.06.020
Yang B, Treweek JB, Kulkarni RP, Deverman BE, Chen CK, Lubeck E, Shah S, Cai L, & Gradinaru V. (2014) Single-Cell Phenotyping within Transparent Intact Tissue through Whole-Body Clearing. Cell. PMID: 25088144
Hsu, D., Huang, L., Nordgren, L., Rucker, D., & Galinsky, A. (2014) The Music of Power: Perceptual and Behavioral Consequences of Powerful Music. Social Psychological and Personality Science. DOI: 10.1177/1948550614542345
by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room
Of course you did. But you may want to take a look at this study because, maybe, it isn’t true after all. It certainly is a well-known myth if it is not true. This appears to be one of those situations where we add up what we know and then come up with a conclusion […]
When it comes to corporate fraud in America, men are almost always to blame
Is it true that older jurors are more likely to convict?
Birthers, deathers, and did you hear about Jimmy Hoffa?
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Ross, M, Grossman, I, & Schryer, E. (2014) Contrary to psychological and popular opinion, there is no compelling evidence that older adults are disproportionately victimized by consumer fraud. . Perspectives on Psychological Science. info:/
It's become a truism that humans are "social animals". And yet, you've probably noticed - people on public transport or in waiting rooms seem to do everything they can not to interact. On the London tube there's an unwritten rule not to even look at one another. This is the paradox explored by Nicholas Epley and Juliana Schroeder in a series of nine new studies involving members of the public on trains, planes, in taxis and a waiting room.The investigation began with rail and bus commuters ........ Read more »
The paper by Golam Khandaker and colleagues  suggesting a higher risk of psychotic episodes (PEs) in early adolescence among those with a diagnosed childhood neurodevelopmental disorder (ND) makes for some interesting reading. Detailing several diagnoses as falling under the banner of neurodevelopmental disorder (autism spectrum, dyslexia, dyspraxia, dysgraphia, dysorthographia, dyscalculia), researchers concluded that: "The risk of PEs was higher in those with, compared with those witho........ Read more »
Khandaker GM, Stochl J, Zammit S, Lewis G, & Jones PB. (2014) A population-based longitudinal study of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, IQ and subsequent risk of psychotic experiences in adolescence. Psychological medicine, 1-10. PMID: 25066026
"Results showed that 36.8 % of the children met the criteria for ID [intellectual disability], with 60.2 % of these in the mild range (IQ 50-69) and 39.8 % in the moderate range (IQ 35-49)".That was the finding reported by Mélina Rivard and colleagues  looking at the co-occurrence of intellectual disability (also called learning disability here in Blighty) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) "in young children". Based on an analysis of over 200 children diagnosed with an ASD, resear........ Read more »
Rivard M, Terroux A, Mercier C, & Parent-Boursier C. (2014) Indicators of Intellectual Disabilities in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. PMID: 25070470
Here’s an intriguing article on how some nurses cope with stress. If you think, based on the title of this post, they do it by dehumanizing their patients, you would be correct. Somehow we think this is not a good thing to admit on the witness stand, but it is an understandable and human reaction […]
I see diversity, you see divisiveness
The new issue of The Jury Expert is available now!
When you expect a gorilla you often miss other unexpected things
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Trifiletti, E, Di Bernardo, GA, Falvo, R, & Capozza, D. (2014) Patients are not fully human: a nurse’s coping response to stress. . Journal of Applied Social Psychology. . info:/
As we continue to settle into ourselves, you might think that personality would be something that becomes ever more cemented through life. Not so, according to a survey of nearly 4000 New Zealanders aged from 20 to 80 years (including 2409 women). Petar Milojev and Chris Sibley report that the stability of personality increases through youth, peaks in mid-life and then gradually reduces again into old age, presumably in response to the variations in social and biological pressures we exper........ Read more »
Milojev, P., & Sibley, C. (2014) The stability of adult personality varies across age: Evidence from a two-year longitudinal sample of adult New Zealanders. Journal of Research in Personality, 29-37. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrp.2014.04.005
"In term NICU [neonatal intensive care unit] survivors, ASD [autism spectrum disorder] occurs with a greater frequency than in the general population and often develops alongside comorbid conditions". That was the conclusion from the study by Alexander Winkler-Schwartz and colleagues  looking at term at-risk infants who survived NICU."You were only meant to blow the bloody doors off"'Surviving' their earliest days spent in NICU brings a bit of lump to my throat. As a paren........ Read more »
Winkler-Schwartz, A., Garfinkle, J., & Shevell, M. (2014) Autism spectrum disorder in a term birth neonatal intensive care unit population. Pediatric Neurology. DOI: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2014.07.009
Picture this – you’re introduced to the CEO of a French start-up that your company is in the process of acquiring. The CEO grabs your hand and leans in for some repeated lip action on your cheeks. His breath has a hint of garlic and something else you can’t identify. His grip on your hand […]
This article, 3 Ways to Improve Your Cultural Intelligence, first appeared on Global Cognition.
... Read more »
It’s no secret for anyone who follows me that I am a Marine veteran. It’s also no secret for anyone who follows me that I’ve had my own ups and downs in life because of my experiences. PTSD is a nightmare, one that you can’t quite shake no matter how hard you try. Then again, not everyone reacts the same way to the trauma that typically causes PTSD, not everyone walks away from war with it. The big question that scientists set out to answer was, why? And now they might just have an answe........ Read more »
Nikolaos P. Daskalakis, Hagit Cohen, Guiqing Caia, Joseph D. Buxbaum, & Rachel Yehuda. (2014) Expression profiling associates blood and brain glucocorticoid receptor signaling with trauma-related individual differences in both sexes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(32). info:/10.1073/pnas.1401660111
Do you remember on Who Wants to Be a Millionaire—apparently this show is still on, but I’ll assume no one else has seen it this decade—how after contestants picked an answer, Regis Philbin sometimes asked, “How sure are you?” They’d pull a number seemingly out of the air: “Oh, eighty-five percent.” This trick of estimating our […]The post Even Kindergarteners Can Rate Their Own Confidence appeared first on Inkfish.... Read more »
Vo, V., Li, R., Kornell, N., Pouget, A., & Cantlon, J. (2014) Young Children Bet on Their Numerical Skills: Metacognition in the Numerical Domain. Psychological Science. DOI: 10.1177/0956797614538458
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