It’s possible to earn great success in your professional career, rise to great heights, but all the while experience the "imposter phenomenon": the sense that your position is undeserved, your unmasking possible at any time. For people like this, who doubt their own abilities, it would seem wise to rely on others who are confident they can get things done. But new research published in Personality and Individual Differences suggests the opposite: the more prone managers are to that imposter fe........ Read more »
Bechtoldt, M. (2015) Wanted: Self-doubting employees—Managers scoring positively on impostorism favor insecure employees in task delegation. Personality and Individual Differences, 482-486. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.07.002
Today's post is a bit of a mash-up insofar as including two papers into (brief) discussions. The first paper is from Pamela Gaye Ambler and colleagues  who bring in a number of important issues associated with quite a bit of autism: anxiety and aggression during adolescence and how this can manifest during school time. The second paper from Will Mandy and colleagues  (open-access available here) provides some interesting discussion on a "manualised intervention" called STEP-ASD design........ Read more »
Ambler, P., Eidels, A., & Gregory, C. (2015) Anxiety and aggression in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders attending mainstream schools. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 97-109. DOI: 10.1016/j.rasd.2015.07.005
Mandy W, Murin M, Baykaner O, Staunton S, Cobb R, Hellriegel J, Anderson S, & Skuse D. (2015) Easing the transition to secondary education for children with autism spectrum disorder: An evaluation of the Systemic Transition in Education Programme for Autism Spectrum Disorder (STEP-ASD). Autism : the international journal of research and practice. PMID: 26304678
There’s an enduring puzzle about religion and government, and it’s about what effect religions have on government welfare policies. That’s down to an intriguing observation: that more religious countries tend to have a weaker welfare state. Quite why this is so is a matter of dispute. After all, given religion’s association with altruism, you might [Read More...]... Read more »
Be'ery G, & Ben-Nun Bloom P. (2015) God and the Welfare State - Substitutes or Complements? An Experimental Test of the Effect of Belief in God's Control. PloS one, 10(6). PMID: 26061050
Back in 2007, right when I was starting this blog, a ground breaking study revealed an extra-ordinary finding. What the researchers had discovered was that just giving people subliminal reminders of religion was enough to make them be more generous in a something called the dictator game. The really extraordinary thing was that the same [Read More...]... Read more »
Gomes, C., & McCullough, M. (2015) The Effects of Implicit Religious Primes on Dictator Game Allocations: A Preregistered Replication Experiment. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. DOI: 10.1037/xge0000027
"In this population-based study, there was no strong evidence of an association between 2D:4D [second-to-fourth digit ratio] and ASD [autism spectrum disorder] diagnosis or traits, although the CIs [confidence intervals] were wide. These results are not consistent with the extreme male brain theory."So said the study results from Anna Louise Guyatt and colleagues  (open-access) who investigated the 2D:4D ratio as part of the ALSPAC (Avon Longitudinal Study of Par........ Read more »
Guyatt, A., Heron, J., Knight, B., Golding, J., & Rai, D. (2015) Digit ratio and autism spectrum disorders in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: a birth cohort study. BMJ Open, 5(8). DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007433
That increasingly common end-of-day feeling: of physically leaving the office, only for it to tag along home. Thanks largely to technology, our availability – to clients, bosses and co-workers – extends into our evenings, weekends and even holidays. Getting a clear account of what this means for us isn’t easy, as jobs that intrude more into leisure time are also distinguished by higher pace and further factors known and unknown, making it hard to pinpoint what harmful effects, if any, are ........ Read more »
Dettmers, J., Vahle-Hinz, T., Bamberg, E., Friedrich, N., & Keller, M. (2015) Extended Work Availability and Its Relation With Start-of-Day Mood and Cortisol. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. DOI: 10.1037/a0039602
A new study tests whether Labrador Retrievers choose the pool.Labrador Retrievers were bred to retrieve from water, and it’s widely known they love to swim. But, how much? And, given their sociability, do they prefer to swim rather than mix with a person or another dog? A study by Sara Tavares, Ana Magalhães and Liliana de Sousa (Universityof Porto) gave Labs a free choice, and says the results are important for good animal welfare.The study involved ten Labrador Retrievers who live on a farm........ Read more »
Mellor, D., & Beausoleil, N. (2015) Extending the 'Five Domains' model for animal welfare assessment to incorporate positive welfare states. Animal Welfare, 24(3), 241-253. DOI: 10.7120/096272126.96.36.199
Tavares, S., Magalhães, A., & de Sousa, L. (2015) Labrador retrievers are more attracted to water than to social stimuli: a pilot study. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research. DOI: 10.1016/j.jveb.2015.07.041
If you're about to dive into a piece of work that requires intense mental focus, you might find it helps to sit next to someone else who is concentrating hard. According to an ingenious new study published in Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, mental exertion is contagious: if a person near you is straining their synapses in mental effort, their mindset will automatically intensify your own concentration levels.Psychologists have known since at least the 1960s that the presence of other people aff........ Read more »
"While screening tests may provide useful information, their accuracy is moderate. Screening information in isolation should not be used to make referral decisions regarding specialized ASD [autism spectrum disorder] assessment."That was the findings of the study published by Tony Charman and colleagues  who sought to "test the accuracy of two screening instruments in UK Community health services: Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) and Social Communication Questionna........ Read more »
Charman T, Baird G, Simonoff E, Chandler S, Davison-Jenkins A, Sharma A, O'Sullivan T, & Pickles A. (2015) Testing two screening instruments for autism spectrum disorder in UK community child health services. Developmental medicine and child neurology. PMID: 26303216
Watching toddlers pinch, hit and bite each other doesn't fill you with confidence about human nature. But there's no need to be down about it – the little devils don't yet have the self-control to manage their anger and frustration, that's all. Right?Not according to a new study published in Developmental Science, which is the first to systematically investigate the use of force in infants from age 11 months and up. Audun Dahl at the University of California, Santa Cruz, finds that in fac........ Read more »
The title of this (hopefully) brief post mirrors the conclusion reached by Åsa Blomström and colleagues  who analysed data pertinent to all children "born in Sweden 1978-1997" to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) of nonaffective psychosis "in relation to maternal infection during pregnancy." Also detailing RERI - relative excess risk due to interaction - bringing in factors such as maternal history of psychiatric disorder as part and parcel of any effect, and authors reported that: "Among ........ Read more »
Blomström Å, Karlsson H, Gardner R, Jörgensen L, Magnusson C, & Dalman C. (2015) Associations Between Maternal Infection During Pregnancy, Childhood Infections and the Risk of Subsequent Psychotic Disorder-A Swedish Cohort Study of Nearly 2 Million Individuals. Schizophrenia bulletin. PMID: 26303935
Last week, the Open Science Collaboration reported that only 36% of a sample of 100 claims from published psychology studies were succesfully replicated: Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science.
A reproducibility rate of 36% seems bad. But what would be a good value? Is it realistic to expect all studies to replicate? If not, where should we set the bar?
In this post I'll argue that it should be 100%.
First off however, I'll note that no single replication attemp... Read more »
Open Science Collaboration. (2015) Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6251). PMID: 26315443
By guest blogger Tom StaffordWe all know that fashion models have unrealistic bodies. Even if they aren’t photoshopped, most of us could never be that thin, at least not without making ourselves ill. Previous research has suggested that viewing pictures of unrealistically thin female models makes young women feel bad – leaving them dissatisfied with their own bodies, more sad, angry and insecure.A crucial question is whether the effect of these thin-ideal images is automatic. Does the compar........ Read more »
Want, S., Botres, A., Vahedi, Z., & Middleton, J. (2015) On the Cognitive (In)Efficiency of Social Comparisons with Media Images. Sex Roles. DOI: 10.1007/s11199-015-0538-1
"Although these findings must be interpreted with caution because of the small sample size, the study does not provide evidence to support general use of the GFCF [gluten-free/casein-free] diet."So said the results of the study finally published by Susan Hyman and colleagues  detailing the effects (or not) of a small (n=14) "double-blind, placebo-controlled challenge study" of the use of a diet devoid of gluten and casein for young children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD........ Read more »
Hyman, S., Stewart, P., Foley, J., Cain, U., Peck, R., Morris, D., Wang, H., & Smith, T. (2015) The Gluten-Free/Casein-Free Diet: A Double-Blind Challenge Trial in Children with Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. DOI: 10.1007/s10803-015-2564-9
Just like attempts at influencing hairstyles or clothing can backfire, adults who try to guilt middle-schoolers into exercising won’t get them to be any more active. The study found students who don’t feel in control of their exercise choices or who feel pressured by adults to be more active typically aren’t.... Read more »
DISHMAN, R., MCIVER, K., DOWDA, M., SAUNDERS, R., & PATE, R. (2015) Motivation and Behavioral Regulation of Physical Activity in Middle School Students. Medicine , 47(9), 1913-1921. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000616
Can we please talk about how we keep kids trapped for too long in counting number land? I've got this marvelous study to show you which might provides some good reasons to interleave different number systems throughout students' educations. It's this one.... Read more »
Birnbaum, M., Kornell, N., Bjork, E., & Bjork, R. (2012) Why interleaving enhances inductive learning: The roles of discrimination and retrieval. Memory , 41(3), 392-402. DOI: 10.3758/s13421-012-0272-7
“Gaydar” — the purported ability to infer whether people are gay or straight based on their appearance — seemed to get a scientific boost from a 2008 study that concluded people could accurately guess someone’s sexual orientation based on photographs of their faces. In a new paper researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison challenge what they call “the gaydar myth.” William Cox, an assistant scientist in the Department of Psychology and the lead author, says gaydar isn’t ........ Read more »
Cox, W., Devine, P., Bischmann, A., & Hyde, J. (2015) Inferences About Sexual Orientation: The Roles of Stereotypes, Faces, and The Gaydar Myth. The Journal of Sex Research, 1-15. DOI: 10.1080/00224499.2015.1015714
Most Psychology findings are not replicable. What can be done? Stanford psychologist Michael Frank has an idea : Cumulative study sets with internal replication. ‘If I had to advocate for a single change to practice, this would be it.’ I took a look whether this makes any difference. A recent paper in the journal Science […]... Read more »
Bem DJ. (2011) Feeling the future: experimental evidence for anomalous retroactive influences on cognition and affect. Journal of personality and social psychology, 100(3), 407-25. PMID: 21280961
Open Science Collaboration. (2015) PSYCHOLOGY. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6251). PMID: 26315443
Ritchie SJ, Wiseman R, & French CC. (2012) Failing the future: three unsuccessful attempts to replicate Bem's 'retroactive facilitation of recall' effect. PloS one, 7(3). PMID: 22432019
Schimmack U. (2012) The ironic effect of significant results on the credibility of multiple-study articles. Psychological methods, 17(4), 551-66. PMID: 22924598
A slightly more light-hearted but nevertheless important post for you today as I bring to your attention the paper by Banaz Al-Khalidi and colleagues  and their conclusion that: "Vitamin D3 is safe and bioavailable from fortified mozzarella cheese baked on pizza."Adding vitamin D3 - cholecalciferol - to mozzarella cheese, researchers assessed what happened to serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a high (28,000 international units, IU) and low (200 IU) dose group of "96 appare........ Read more »
Al-Khalidi B MSc, Chiu W MSc, Rousseau D PhD, & Vieth R PhD. (2015) Bioavailability and Safety of Vitamin D3 from Pizza Baked with Fortified Mozzarella Cheese: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Canadian journal of dietetic practice and research : a publication of Dietitians of Canada , 76(3), 109-116. PMID: 26280790
A commonly prescribed antidepressant may alter brain structures in depressed and non-depressed individuals in very different ways, according to new research. The study – conducted in nonhuman primates with brain structures and functions similar to those of humans – found that the antidepressant sertraline, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) marketed as Zoloft, significantly increased the volume of one brain region in depressed subjects but decreased the volume of two brain areas........ Read more »
Willard, S., Uberseder, B., Clark, A., Daunais, J., Johnston, W., Neely, D., Massey, A., Williamson, J., Kraft, R., Bourland, J.... (2015) Long term sertraline effects on neural structures in depressed and nondepressed adult female nonhuman primates. Neuropharmacology, 369-378. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.06.011
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