Much research has been done on personality traits associated with eating disorders, and, as I’ve blogged about here and here, on personality subtypes among patients with EDs. For example, researchers have found that individuals with AN tend to have higher levels of neuroticism and perfectionism than healthy controls (Bulik et al., 2006; Strober, 1981). Moreover, some traits, such as anxiety, have been associated with a lower likelihood of recovery, whereas others, such as impulsivity, with........ Read more »
Atiye M, Miettunen J, & Raevuori-Helkamaa A. (2014) A Meta-Analysis of Temperament in Eating Disorders. European eating disorders review : the journal of the Eating Disorders Association. PMID: 25546554
In today’s society, when it is so easy to over medicate children and adults alike it is nice to finally read something that looks for an alternative option. This particular case deals with pain management in children post surgery and the study shows that pediatric patients who listened to 30 minutes of songs by Rihanna, Taylor Swift and other singers of their choosing — or audio books — had a significant reduction in pain after major surgery.... Read more »
Sunitha Suresh B. S., & Santhanam Suresh. (2015) The effect of audio therapy to treat postoperative pain in children undergoing major surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatric Surgery International. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00383-014-3649-9
Subliminal perception has long been a hot topic. The idea that something (generally an image) could appear and disappear before us so quickly that it escapes conscious perception, and yet affect us subconsciously, is a fascinating (and scary) one.
Psychologists and neuroscientists are fairly skeptical of any grand or sinister claims for the power of subliminal advertising or propaganda, but on the other hand, many of them use the technique as a research tool.
So what's the absolute speed l... Read more »
Sperdin HF, Spierer L, Becker R, Michel CM, & Landis T. (2014) Submillisecond unmasked subliminal visual stimuli evoke electrical brain responses. Human brain mapping. PMID: 25487054
Pressing Ctrl-S is a reflex for me, born in the heyday of the Blue Screen of Death and activated every few sentences of text, or every few words in the case of some of my more laborious college term papers. Though it’s far less necessary with today’s more stable technology, I still consider it a an action to bring about peace of mind…and, perhaps, to clear the mind as well.... Read more »
Storm BC, & Stone SM. (2014) Saving-Enhanced Memory: The Benefits of Saving on the Learning and Remembering of New Information. Psychological science. PMID: 25491269
Former Enron CEO Jeff Skilling (left) and his attorney leave the courthouse in 2006When high-ranking members of an organisation break the rules, it's not just their own reputation on the line. New research from Stanford University shows that the stain of transgression sends its fingers out to every organisational member.In a series of online studies, Takuya Sawaoka and Benoît Monin presented participants with information about a hypothetical company employee involved in unethical activity such ........ Read more »
"The findings show that ADS [abdominal discomfort syndrome] is a characteristic of a subset of patients with ME/CFS [Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome] and that increased bacterial translocation (leaky gut) is associated with ADS symptoms."Right there. God does not build in straight lines.So said the study by Michael Maes and colleagues  looking at both gastrointestinal (GI) symptom presentation in diagnosed cases of ME/CFS and "the IgA and IgM responses dire........ Read more »
Maes M, Leunis JC, Geffard M, & Berk M. (2014) Evidence for the existence of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) with and without abdominal discomfort (irritable bowel) syndrome. Neuro endocrinology letters, 35(6), 445-453. PMID: 25433843
Some people will tell you that they have a clear sense of who they are, and that their sense of self is stable over time. Psychologists refer to this as having high "self-concept clarity". In a new study, Jean Guerrettaz and Robert Arkin shine a spotlight on these self-proclaimed self-knowers. The researchers find that their confidence is often fragile, and that somewhat paradoxically, it is people confident in their sense of self whose self-esteem is most undermined by challenging questions abo........ Read more »
Guerrettaz, J., & Arkin, R. (2014) Who Am I? How Asking the Question Changes the Answer. Self and Identity, 14(1), 90-103. DOI: 10.1080/15298868.2014.955049
New research investigates whether age of neutering affects feline behaviour – and looks at punishment and other variables too.Photo: NCAimages / ShutterstockThere are so many cats without homes that some shelters neuter kittens early, at 8 – 12 weeks old, so they are neutered prior to adoption. This is the only way they can guarantee that a kitten will be neutered. Normally, cats are neutered at 6 – 8 months old. Kittens, like puppies, have a sensitive period that is an important soci........ Read more »
Herron, M., Shofer, F., & Reisner, I. (2009) Survey of the use and outcome of confrontational and non-confrontational training methods in client-owned dogs showing undesired behaviors. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 117(1-2), 47-54. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2008.12.011
Porters, N., de Rooster, H., Verschueren, K., Polis, I., & Moons, C. (2014) Development of behavior in adopted shelter kittens after gonadectomy performed at an early age or at a traditional age. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 9(5), 196-206. DOI: 10.1016/j.jveb.2014.05.003
Strickler, B., & Shull, E. (2014) An owner survey of toys, activities, and behavior problems in indoor cats. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 9(5), 207-214. DOI: 10.1016/j.jveb.2014.06.005
It has been quite a few weeks since the publication of the paper by Simone Gupta and colleagues  (open-access) talking about "observations [that] provide pathways and candidate genes that highlight the interplay between innate immunity and neuronal activity in the aetiology of autism."I'm a wrecker. I wreck things, professionally. I mean.At the time of publication in early December (2014), there was quite a bit of media interest in the findings as per reports such as this one and th........ Read more »
Gupta S, Ellis SE, Ashar FN, Moes A, Bader JS, Zhan J, West AB, & Arking DE. (2014) Transcriptome analysis reveals dysregulation of innate immune response genes and neuronal activity-dependent genes in autism. Nature communications, 5748. PMID: 25494366
Well I’ve got some bad news to all you selfie fanatics out there, a new study showed that men who posted more online photos of themselves than others scored higher on measures of narcissism and psychopathy. The study looked exclusively at men, however the men out there should have no fear, there is a follow up study being done with women as well.... Read more »
Fox, J., & Rooney, M. (2015) The Dark Triad and trait self-objectification as predictors of men’s use and self-presentation behaviors on social networking sites. Personality and Individual Differences, 161-165. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.12.017
A good poker face may help you win a Hold 'Em tournament, but it won't do your memory any favors. Our faces naturally flinch into emotional expressions that match what we're seeing or hearing. These quick expressions, in addition to giving away our pocket aces, seem to help us recall things later. Using stiff cosmetic masks, scientists showed that it also works the other way: if we can't move our faces, emotional memories are harder to hang onto.
We may not realize when our facial muscle........ Read more »
Baumeister J, Rumiati RI, & Foroni F. (2014) When the mask falls: The role of facial motor resonance in memory for emotional language. Acta psychologica, 29-36. PMID: 25553341
Video games allow players to indulge in simulated behaviours that in the real world would be highly antisocial or unethical, and many people are concerned how this might spill over from the screen to the street. A new study, however, suggests that such activities can elicit a moral response in players, reinforcing the potential of the medium as a means of civic development.In the study developed by Matthew Grizzard and colleagues, players of a first-person shooter game reported higher levels of ........ Read more »
Grizzard, M., Tamborini, R., Lewis, R., Wang, L., & Prabhu, S. (2014) Being Bad in a Video Game Can Make Us Morally Sensitive. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17(8), 499-504. DOI: 10.1089/cyber.2013.0658
"These results collectively provide strong evidence for a mechanism underlying olanzapine-induced weight gain in mouse and a hypothesis for clinical translation in human patients."That was the summary statement derived from data published by Andrew Morgan and colleagues  (open-access) looking at how some of those trillions of wee beasties which colonise humans and animals (the microbiome) may very well influence response to medicines... at least in mice. The authors' specific focus on on........ Read more »
Morgan AP, Crowley JJ, Nonneman RJ, Quackenbush CR, Miller CN, Ryan AK, Bogue MA, Paredes SH, Yourstone S, Carroll IM.... (2014) The Antipsychotic Olanzapine Interacts with the Gut Microbiome to Cause Weight Gain in Mouse. PloS one, 9(12). PMID: 25506936
Have you ever wondered how the content of your dreams differs from that of your friends? How about the dreams of people raised in different countries and cultures? It is not always easy to compare dreams of distinct individuals because the content of dreams depends on our personal experiences. This is why dream researchers have developed standardized dream questionnaires in which common thematic elements are grouped together. These questionnaires can be translated into various languages and used........ Read more »
Nielsen, T., Zadra, A., Simard, V., Saucier, S., Stenstrom, P., Smith, C., & Kuiken, D. (2003) The Typical Dreams of Canadian University Students. Dreaming, 13(4), 211-235. DOI: 10.1023/B:DREM.0000003144.40929.0b
SUMMARY: A “halfsider” -- half male and half female bird -- has been mentioned in the news over the holidays. More properly known as bilateral gynandromorphs or tetragametic chimæras, these unusual birds are actually two genetically distinct individuals -- twins -- fused into one being. But what is it like to be such an individual? A recently published paper shares observations of the behaviour and social life of one such individual living in the wild.... Read more »
Peer Brian D. (2014) Observations of a Bilateral Gynandromorph Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) . The Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 126(4), 778-781. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1676/14-025.1
Agate R. J., J. Wade, S. Mann, J. Wingfield, C. Schanen, A. Palotie, & A. P. Arnold. (2003) Neural, not gonadal, origin of brain sex differences in a gynandromorphic finch. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(8), 4873-4878. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0636925100
Chue Justin. (2011) Sex determination and sexual differentiation in the avian model. FEBS Journal, 278(7), 1027-1034. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08032.x
One of the greatest challenges to the scientific study of mindfulness is finding a way to objectively measure how mindful someone is. Only with a clear, unbiased measure we can we feel confident in when and why a person’s mindfulness changes, and what greater levels of mindfulness can mean for us. But mindfulness is a mental process, invisible to anyone outside our heads and sometimes even to ourselves. So how can we truly know whether someone is mindful, or has benefited from training to ........ Read more »
Levinson DB, Stoll EL, Kindy SD, Merry HL, & Davidson RJ. (2014) A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness. Frontiers in psychology, 1202. PMID: 25386148
If you think neurolaw and neuroscience are everywhere–and don’t find it particularly challenging to talk about brain science, apparently you are living in a very rarified environment. It’s hard to believe but evidently, most people do not think the exploding field of brain science is fascinating! Instead, when they think of brain science they think […]
What do those jurors really know about science and technology?
A new question for the jury: Did my brain implant........ Read more »
O'Connor, C., & Joffe, H. (2014) Social Representations of Brain Research: Exploring Public (Dis)engagement With Contemporary Neuroscience. Science Communication, 36(5), 617-645. DOI: 10.1177/1075547014549481
Ante-natal classes only serve to increase fathers' feelings of separation from their pregnant partners, according to a series of in-depth interviews with ten White British fathers.Anja Wittkowski and her colleagues interviewed the men to help increase our understanding of what it's like for men to become a father for the first time - a neglected area of research. All the participants, aged 27 to 47, were married to their partners, they were middle-class, employed, and the pregnancies were all pl........ Read more »
Kowlessar, O., Fox, J., & Wittkowski, A. (2014) First-time fathers’ experiences of parenting during the first year. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 1-11. DOI: 10.1080/02646838.2014.971404
There were a few reasons why I wanted to bring the commentary from Sven Bölte  on the topic of systematic reviews and autism research to your attention. One particular sentence included in the text stuck out for me: "... systematic reviews do not always tell the whole truth either" reflective of how we perhaps should always be a little cautious in the way we interpret science even when faced with the platinum standard that is the systematic review (with or without meta-analysi........ Read more »
The news isn’t shy in reporting the effects of being obese, high blood pressure, and diabetes (just to name a few). However, new research demonstrates that obesity does not always go hand in hand with metabolic changes in the body that can lead to diabetes, heart disease and stroke. Determining how and why may help reduce or eliminate the health risks in other people dealing with obesity.... Read more »
Fabbrini E, Yoshino J, Yoshino M, Magkos F, Tiemann Luecking C, Samovski D, Fraterrigo G, Okunade AL, Patterson BW, & Klein S. (2015) Metabolically normal obese people are protected from adverse effects following weight gain. The Journal of clinical investigation. PMID: 25555214
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