Two articles are discussed which focus on the discrepancy between the body shapes of children's toys and reality.... Read more »
Dittmar, H., Halliwell, E., & Ive, S. (2006) Does Barbie make girls want to be thin? The effect of experimental exposure to images of dolls on the body image of 5- to 8-year-old girls. Developmental Psychology, 42(2), 283-292. DOI: 10.1037/0012-1618.104.22.1683
Pope HG Jr, Olivardia R, Gruber A, & Borowiecki J. (1999) Evolving ideals of male body image as seen through action toys. The International journal of eating disorders, 26(1), 65-72. PMID: 10349585
Pope, H. G., Olivardia, R., Gruber, A. J., . (1999) Evolving ideals of the male body as seen through action toys. International Journal of Eating Disorders. info:/
New research confirms that religious teens in the US start drinking slightly later than non-religious ones, but that this probably is nothing to do with their religious beliefs.Kathryn Paige Harden (University of Texas) did this by looking not only at individual teens, but also at their brothers and sisters. Some of them were identical twins, but others ranged in genetic relatedness from normal siblings to half-siblings (i.e. one parent different) to cousins to adopted (unrelated).Using this da........ Read more »
Harden, K. (2010) Does religious involvement protect against early drinking? A behavior genetic approach. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02247.x
Empathy is a complicated emotion, even for mice. On seeing another in pain, a mouse will act as if it itself is also hurting—much more, though, if it knows the first mouse. Capuchin monkeys will help out another monkey, without any reward, but only if they're on friendly terms. People also feel less for those they dislike. But our species adds another layer of complication: We empathize more with people who are "like us" than with "them." This study, published this month, suggests that th........ Read more »
Gutsell, J., & Inzlicht, M. (2010) Empathy constrained: Prejudice predicts reduced mental simulation of actions during observation of outgroups. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. DOI: 10.1016/j.jesp.2010.03.011
Xu, X., Zuo, X., Wang, X., & Han, S. (2009) Do You Feel My Pain? Racial Group Membership Modulates Empathic Neural Responses. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(26), 8525-8529. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2418-09.2009
Singer, T., Seymour, B., O'Doherty, J., Stephan, K., Dolan, R., & Frith, C. (2006) Empathic neural responses are modulated by the perceived fairness of others. Nature, 439(7075), 466-469. DOI: 10.1038/nature04271
MIT brain scanners Fedorenko et al present A new method for fMRI investigations of language: Defining ROIs functionally in individual subjects. Also on the list of authors is Nancy Kanwisher, one of the feared fMRI voodoo correlations posse.The paper describes a technique for mapping out the "language areas" of the brain in individual people, not for their own sake, but as a way of improving other fMRI studies of language. That's important because while everyone's brain is organized roughly th........ Read more »
Fedorenko, E., Hsieh, P., Nieto Castanon, A., Whitfield-Gabrieli, S., & Kanwisher, N. (2010) A new method for fMRI investigations of language: Defining ROIs functionally in individual subjects. Journal of Neurophysiology. DOI: 10.1152/jn.00032.2010
The authors (Rhodes et al. (2010)) describe the dilemmas posed for men who like to have sex with men (MSM) but who go no further than that.... Read more »
Rhodes, S., Hergenrather, K., Vissman, A., Stowers, J., Davis, A., Hannah, A., Alonzo, J., & Marsiglia, F. (2010) Boys Must Be Men, and Men Must Have Sex With Women: A Qualitative CBPR Study to Explore Sexual Risk Among African American, Latino, and White Gay Men and MSM. American Journal of Men's Health. DOI: 10.1177/1557988310366298
My research focuses on the left occipitotemporal region. One area in this region, also commonly referred to as the visual word form area, has been shown to activate selectively for letters. Presumably, since reading is too recent a phenomenon to have...
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Brem S, Bach S, Kucian K, Guttorm TK, Martin E, Lyytinen H, Brandeis D, & Richardson U. (2010) Brain sensitivity to print emerges when children learn letter-speech sound correspondences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. PMID: 20395549
When I’m writing one of these posts it is difficult to edit them in such a way as to convey my meaning clearly to those without the background I share. I’m not talking about scientific or technical background though, I mean the background that allows me access to my own thoughts. When I re-read my [...]... Read more »
Apparently, an increasing number of colleges and professors are banning laptops in their classrooms, citing poor grades and general distraction. These are definitely issues worth consideration, but the article raises a good point counterpoint:For years, educators have been clamoring to put technology in the hands of young students through partnerships with big tech companies, best symbolized by
... Read more »
Anderson, K., & McClard, A. (1993) Study Time: Temporal Orientations of Freshmen Students and Computing. Anthropology Education Quarterly, 24(2), 159-177. DOI: 10.1525/aeq.1993.24.2.05x1119a
Brown, J. (2000) Growing Up: Digital: How the Web Changes Work, Education, and the Ways People Learn. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 32(2), 11-20. DOI: 10.1080/00091380009601719
What information is contained in the call of a mammal? Some calls might reflect the internal emotional state of the animal, like fear or anxiety, or they can refer to an external object, agent, or event, like the presence of a predator. Rhesus monkeys, lemurs, baboons, and guinea pigs, for example, will produce calls when separated from their conspecifics or in the presence of a stranger. Howler monkeys produce specific alarm calls for avian predators, even when they have never encountered an av........ Read more »
King, L., Soltis, J., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Savage, A., & Vollrath, F. (2010) Bee Threat Elicits Alarm Call in African Elephants. PLoS ONE, 5(4). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010346
The football World Cup in South Africa is almost upon us and the clock is ticking down on London 2012. It's a timely moment to ask: why, when it costs a country billions of pounds to host a major international sporting event, do they bother?The usual argument is that it's all about the legacy - the lasting economic benefit. But according to two economists, Georgios Kavetsos and Stefan Szymanski, the evidence for this simply isn't there. For example, there's research showing that the economic ben........ Read more »
Kavetsos, G., & Szymanski, S. (2010) National well-being and international sports events. Journal of Economic Psychology, 31(2), 158-171. DOI: 10.1016/j.joep.2009.11.005
'Colour-changing-card-me' confused about the combination of a new paper and a much older report on the effect of magic tricks on children! A post that looks at the questions about whether popular appeal of magic demonstrations really means health or educational benefits.... Read more »
Hart R, & Walton M. (2010) Magic as a therapeutic intervention to promote coping in hospitalized pediatric patients. Pediatric nursing, 36(1), 11. PMID: 20361440
If David Cameron wants to beat Gordon Brown next month, he might want to play a lot of tennis. According to this paper, anyway, gestures and small movements are enough to give people a clear impression of a candidate's overall health—and he who seems healthiest will get their vote.
It's another blow to the notion that we know what we are doing when we vote, which has taken a pounding in recent research. In 2008, for instance, Jonah Berger and his colleagues reported that where people vo........ Read more »
Kramer, R., Arend, I., & Ward, R. (2010) Perceived health from biological motion predicts voting behaviour. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63(4), 625-632. DOI: 10.1080/17470210903490977
Berger, J., Meredith, M., & Wheeler, S. (2008) From the Cover: Contextual priming: Where people vote affects how they vote. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(26), 8846-8849. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0711988105
Anxiety and False Assurances First
Relief Third, Hopefully
Large rocks hurtle towards our heads. What happens? We duck. The process, however, is complex.
It involves answering two questions: what is that? and how do I behave? This anthropomorphic perspective is backwards and flawed. It suggests searching (for what, that and how) and then behaving.
The whole process (what, that and how) can be instinctive, like ducking the rock: body-as-it-was, object, body-as-it-is.1 Usual........ Read more »
Brewin, C., Gregory, J., Lipton, M., & Burgess, N. (2010) Intrusive images in psychological disorders: Characteristics, neural mechanisms, and treatment implications. Psychological Review, 117(1), 210-232. DOI: 10.1037/a0018113
Tedeschi, R., & Calhoun, L. (2004) TARGET ARTICLE: "Posttraumatic Growth: Conceptual Foundations and Empirical Evidence". Psychological Inquiry, 15(1), 1-18. DOI: 10.1207/s15327965pli1501_01
Brewin, C., Dalgleish, T., & Joseph, S. (1996) A dual representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Review, 103(4), 670-686. DOI: 10.1037//0033-295X.103.4.670
Say you're visiting Los Angeles and you have a sudden craving for Chinese food. Since you are only visiting, you might not be aware that nothing is open past, like, 10pm (not even coffee houses), but you get in your rental car and go driving around in search of your Chinese feast anyway. You try hitting up Panda Express, but no such luck. Of course they're closed. You try the neighborhood Chinese restaurant: closed as well. You get back in the car, and think to yourself "maybe the OTHER Panda Ex........ Read more »
Mather, J. (1991) Navigation by spatial memory and use of visual landmarks in octopuses. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 168(4), 491-497. DOI: 10.1007/BF00199609
In the May issue of the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs is an article titled "Parental R-Rated Movie Restriction and Early-Onset Alcohol Use." (1) Without reading the study, one can guess the reported result : the more R-rated movies that youths watch, the higher the frequency of early-onset alcohol use. This study was funded by the National Cancer Institute and National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Remember what the Last Psychiatrist says: What do researcher........ Read more »
Tanski SE, Cin SD, Stoolmiller M, & Sargent JD. (2010) Parental R-rated movie restriction and early-onset alcohol use. Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs, 71(3), 452-9. PMID: 20409440
Can this little blue pill make you more satisfied in your relationship? The answer is not as straightforward as you might think. Find out more.... Read more »
Aubin, S., Heiman, J., Berger, R., Murallo, A., & Yung-Wen, L. (2009) Comparing Sildenafil Alone Vs. Sildenafil Plus Brief Couple Sex Therapy on Erectile Dysfunction and Couples' Sexual and Marital Quality of Life: A Pilot Study. Journal of Sex , 35(2), 122-143. DOI: 10.1080/00926230802712319
Heiman JR, Talley DR, Bailen JL, Oskin TA, Rosenberg SJ, Pace CR, Creanga DL, & Bavendam T. (2007) Sexual function and satisfaction in heterosexual couples when men are administered sildenafil citrate (Viagra) for erectile dysfunction: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology, 114(4), 437-47. PMID: 17284249
Hundertmark J, Esterman A, Ben-Tovim D, Austin MA, & Dougherty M. (2007) The South Australian couples sildenafil study: double-blind, parallel-group randomized controlled study to examine the psychological and relationship consequences of sildenafil use in couples. The journal of sexual medicine, 4(4 Pt 2), 1126-35. PMID: 17627725
If you’ve read the sleep hygiene information I posted yesterday, you’ll read that it’s not a good idea to stay in bed if you’re not asleep. Here’s another version. Beds are for sleep and sex, not for being awake – because our brains are very good at learning to put two and two together to [...]... Read more »
Tang NK. (2009) Cognitive-behavioral therapy for sleep abnormalities of chronic pain patients. Current rheumatology reports, 11(6), 451-60. PMID: 19922736
Spielman AJ, Saskin P, & Thorpy MJ. (1987) Treatment of chronic insomnia by restriction of time in bed. Sleep, 10(1), 45-56. PMID: 3563247
The Cognitive Neuroscience Society 2010 Annual Meeting was held last week in Montreal, Québec. Unfortunately, many European registrants were unable to attend because of the Eyjafjallajokull volcano. The meeting website has links to the PDFs for 67 of these "Volcano Posters".One of those unable to attend was Dr. Jonas Persson of Stockholm University. He was scheduled to speak in the final symposium of the conference, which was on control of executive control, or who controls the "controller" in........ Read more »
Persson, J., & Reuter-Lorenz, P. (2008) Gaining Control: Training Executive Function and Far Transfer of the Ability to Resolve Interference. Psychological Science, 19(9), 881-888. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02172.x
PERSSON, J., WELSH, K., JONIDES, J., & REUTER-LORENZ, P. (2007) Cognitive fatigue of executive processes: Interaction between interference resolution tasks. Neuropsychologia, 45(7), 1571-1579. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.12.007
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Regular readers of this blog will be aware of my conception of positive emotions in terms of promotion focus and negative emotions in terms of prevention focus. Today I will try to relate this to the specific action-tendency theory of negative emotions and broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions (as proposed by Barbara Fredrickson).
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Related posts:Am happy, will seek novelty; am sad, will stic........ Read more »
The latest issue of Psychology of Music includes a very original study by Lisa Margulis (University of Arkansas) who decided to study what the effects are of the widespread practice of including program notes for classical concerts on the actual musical experience.In this study, the researchers presented people without formal musical training excerpts from Beethoven String Quartets prefaced by either a dramatic description, a structural description, or no description al all. Consequently, they w........ Read more »
Margulis, E. (2010) When program notes don't help: Music descriptions and enjoyment. Psychology of Music. DOI: 10.1177/0305735609351921
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