This paper in the current issue of the journal Neuron claims to add some MRI findings to the evidence that human empathy and kindness stop at the border between "our group" and "others." Tania Singer, Grit Hein and their colleagues found that Swiss soccer fans feel more, and do more, about the suffering of fellow fans than they do for supporters of a rival team.
The researchers recruited 16 Zurich men from a local fan club, telling them they would be involved in a comparison of brain ........ Read more »
Hein, G., Silani, G., Preuschoff, K., Batson, C., & Singer, T. (2010) Neural Responses to Ingroup and Outgroup Members' Suffering Predict Individual Differences in Costly Helping. Neuron, 68(1), 149-160. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.09.003
Xu, X., Zuo, X., Wang, X., & Han, S. (2009) Do You Feel My Pain? Racial Group Membership Modulates Empathic Neural Responses. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(26), 8525-8529. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2418-09.2009
Gutsell, J., & Inzlicht, M. (2010) Empathy constrained: Prejudice predicts reduced mental simulation of actions during observation of outgroups. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. DOI: 10.1016/j.jesp.2010.03.011
Singer, T., Seymour, B., O'Doherty, J., Stephan, K., Dolan, R., & Frith, C. (2006) Empathic neural responses are modulated by the perceived fairness of others. Nature, 439(7075), 466-469. DOI: 10.1038/nature04271
When do liberals and conservatives veer away from their traditional styles of decision-making? How can you predict this and incorporate it into your case narrative strategy?... Read more »
Morgan GS, Mullen E, & Skitka LJ. (2010) When values and attributions collide: liberals' and conservatives' values motivate attributions for alleged misdeeds. Personality and social psychology bulletin, 36(9), 1241-54. PMID: 20699405
Sibling differentiation, identity development, and the lateral dimension of psychic life From Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association Last week in UK politics some commentators remarked how “brotherly love took a backseat to a lust for power” as the Miliband brothers competed against each other for the position of Labour party leader. Shortly after Ed [...]... Read more »
Vivona, J. (2007) Sibling Differentiation, Identity Development, and the Lateral Dimension of Psychic Life. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 55(4), 1191-1215. DOI: 10.1177/000306510705500405
To evolutionary psychologists, the noise made by gorillas, chimps and bonobos when you tickle their feet is no laughing matter. These distinctive vocalisations suggest that rather than evolving separately, laughter evolved in a shared common ancestor before becoming tailored in each primate species, including humans.
To find support for this idea, Diana Szameitat and her colleagues scanned the brains of 18 men and women whilst they listened to the sound of human tickle-induced laughter as well ........ Read more »
Szameitat, D., Kreifelts, B., Alter, K., Szameitat, A., Sterr, A., Grodd, W., & Wildgruber, D. (2010) It is not always tickling: Distinct cerebral responses during perception of different laughter types. NeuroImage, 53(4), 1264-1271. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.06.028
[Wherein our hero, sleepy from all his blogging, decides to take a nap. But is a siesta such a good idea?]
Here in Australia it's just getting into Summer. And the trick with 'getting into summer' is enduring the brief but painful transition from cool to hot. It usually only last a few weeks, but it's a few weeks characterised by sleeplessness, crankiness and trying to get u; (read more)
Source: Rift - Discipline: Psychology... Read more »
HORNE, J., ANDERSON, C., & PLATTEN, C. (2008) Sleep extension versus nap or coffee, within the context of ‘sleep debt’. Journal of Sleep Research, 17(4), 432-436. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2008.00680.x
Milner CE, & Cote KA. (2009) Benefits of napping in healthy adults: impact of nap length, time of day, age, and experience with napping. Journal of sleep research, 18(2), 272-81. PMID: 19645971
Zhao D, Zhang Q, Fu M, Tang Y, & Zhao Y. (2010) Effects of physical positions on sleep architectures and post-nap functions among habitual nappers. Biological psychology, 83(3), 207-13. PMID: 20064578
There is growing interest in the relationship between cannabis use and psychosis. Epidemiologic studies support higher rates of cannabis use in those that develop psychosis, but this could just be an association finding rather than a causal effect. For example, a genetic factor that increases risk for psychosis could also increase risk for cannabis use. Alternatively, subtle pre-psychosis onset symptoms may increase risk for the use of cannabis—cannabis may be used to t........ Read more »
McGrath J, Welham J, Scott J, Varghese D, Degenhardt L, Hayatbakhsh MR, Alati R, Williams GM, Bor W, & Najman JM. (2010) Association between cannabis use and psychosis-related outcomes using sibling pair analysis in a cohort of young adults. Archives of general psychiatry, 67(5), 440-7. PMID: 20194820
Genetic Risk and Outcome in Psychosis (GROUP) Investigators. (2010) Evidence That Familial Liability for Psychosis Is Expressed as Differential Sensitivity to Cannabis: An Analysis of Patient-Sibling and Sibling-Control Pairs. Archives of general psychiatry. PMID: 20921112
A simple posture change transforms hormone levels in a matter of minutes – and literally makes people more powerful. Previous research has shown that humans and other animals express ... Read more »
Carney, D.R., Cuddy, A.J., & Yap, A.J. (2010) Power Posing: Brief Nonverbal Displays Affect Neuroendocrine Levels and Risk Tolerance. Psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science/ APS. PMID: 20855902
Part 6 of my series examining research evidence for the value of video games. This time: video games and children with developmental disorders.... Read more »
Durkin, K. (2010) Videogames and young people with developmental disorders. Review of General Psychology, 14(2), 122-140. DOI: 10.1037/a0019438
A link round-up on evolutionary psychology, rape, infanticide, and other nasty stuff.... Read more »
Thornhill, R, & Thornhill, NW. (1992) The evolutionary psychology of men's coercive sexuality. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 363-421. info:/
There are three basic schools of thought on the Israel / Palestine thing.Those evil Israelis are out to destroy Palestine, and the Palestinians are just fighting back.Those evil Palestinians are out to destroy Israel, and the Israelis are just fighting back.It's a cycle of violence, where both sides are fighting back against the other.Which one you subscribe to depends mostly on where you were born. I'm not aware of many people who've changed their minds on this issue, perhaps because doing so ........ Read more »
Haushofer J, Biletzki A, & Kanwisher N. (2010) Both sides retaliate in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. PMID: 20921415
Actions make projects. Projects make career. Career gives meaning to projects and projects give meaning to actions. But how is that useful?... Read more »
Young, R. (2004) The construction of career through goal-directed action. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 64(3), 499-514. DOI: 10.1016/j.jvb.2003.12.012
Dyer, B., Pizzorno, M., Qu, K., Valach, L., Marshall, S., & Young, R. (2010) Unconscious processes in a career counselling case: an action-theoretical perspective. British Journal of Guidance , 38(3), 343-362. DOI: 10.1080/03069885.2010.482395
Consider the following:
(1) Sally hates Mary.
a. How likely is this because Sally is the kind of person who hates people?
b. How likely is this because Mary is the kind of person whom people hate?
Sally hates Mary doesn't obviously supply the relevant information, but starting with work by Roger Brown and Debora Fish in 1983, numerous studies have found that people nonetheless rate (a) as more likely than (b). In contrast, people find Sally frightens Mary more indicative of Sal........ Read more »
One of the most common objections to Gibson's ecological approach to perception is to point to illusions such as the Ames Room as evidence of how perception can be fooled, revealing the assumptions required. Gehringer & Engel (1986) put Gibson to the test against the Ames Room, but their final conclusion (that there was still a residual error, disproving Gibson) was based on a misreading of Gibson and numerous other key problems. Runeson's (1988) rebuttal stands as a model paper for an........ Read more »
Gehringer, W., & Engel, E. (1986) Effect of ecological viewing conditions on the Ames' distorted room illusion. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 12(2), 181-185. DOI: 10.1037//0096-15126.96.36.199
Runeson, S. (1988) The distorted room illusion, equivalent configurations, and the specificity of static optic arrays. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 14(2), 295-304. DOI: 10.1037//0096-15188.8.131.525
Creativity plays a big part in most areas of everyday life. Sternberg and Lubart (1996) define creativity as the ability to produce work that is original, useful and, generative. Psychologists usually measure creativity with the Alternative Uses (AU) task. In this particular test individuals are asked to list as many possible uses for a common [...]... Read more »
Fink A, Grabner RH, Gebauer D, Reishofer G, Koschutnig K, & Ebner F. (2010) Enhancing creativity by means of cognitive stimulation: evidence from an fMRI study. NeuroImage, 52(4), 1687-95. PMID: 20561898
It's not difficult to readily imagine the rebellious angst ridden teenager or the wise old man of very few words. McCrae, et al.’s 1999 research findings seem to have validated these prototypical depictions. They found that across various cultures (Germany, Italy, Portugal, Croatia, and South Korea) there were higher levels of neuroticism in young adults and decreases in extraversion and openness in older adults. Older adults also showed increase rates of agreeableness and conscientiousness. B........ Read more »
Cohen MX, Young J, Baek JM, Kessler C, & Ranganath C. (2005) Individual differences in extraversion and dopamine genetics predict neural reward responses. Brain research. Cognitive brain research, 25(3), 851-61. PMID: 16289773
Golimbet, V., Alfimova, M., Gritsenko, I., & Ebstein, R. (2007) Relationship between dopamine system genes and extraversion and novelty seeking. Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology, 37(6), 601-606. DOI: 10.1007/s11055-007-0058-8
Resnick SM, Lamar M, & Driscoll I. (2007) Vulnerability of the orbitofrontal cortex to age-associated structural and functional brain changes. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 562-75. PMID: 17846159
Reeves SJ, Mehta MA, Montgomery AJ, Amiras D, Egerton A, Howard RJ, & Grasby PM. (2007) Striatal dopamine (D2) receptor availability predicts socially desirable responding. NeuroImage, 34(4), 1782-9. PMID: 17188897
Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Logan J, Gatley SJ, MacGregor RR, Schlyer DJ, Hitzemann R, & Wolf AP. (1996) Measuring age-related changes in dopamine D2 receptors with 11C-raclopride and 18F-N-methylspiroperidol. Psychiatry research, 67(1), 11-6. PMID: 8797238
Sutin AR, Beason-Held LL, Resnick SM, & Costa PT. (2009) Sex differences in resting-state neural correlates of openness to experience among older adults. Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991), 19(12), 2797-802. PMID: 19366871
Roppongi T, Nakamura M, Asami T, Hayano F, Otsuka T, Uehara K, Fujiwara A, Saeki T, Hayasaka S, Yoshida T.... (2010) Posterior orbitofrontal sulcogyral pattern associated with orbitofrontal cortex volume reduction and anxiety trait in panic disorder. Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences, 64(3), 318-26. PMID: 20602731
Rankin KP, Rosen HJ, Kramer JH, Schauer GF, Weiner MW, Schuff N, & Miller BL. (2004) Right and left medial orbitofrontal volumes show an opposite relationship to agreeableness in FTD. Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders, 17(4), 328-32. PMID: 15178947
Jackson J, Balota DA, & Head D. (2009) Exploring the relationship between personality and regional brain volume in healthy aging. Neurobiology of aging. PMID: 20036035
A cultural and cognitive shift is well underway in terms of how we access and process information via digital media. And a recent study confirms our suspicions: though we are becoming more tech savvy, it may be at the expense of creative and critical thinking. Researchers from the University of Israel (2009), tested digital literacy with a group in 2002. In 2007, they tested this same group again and found statistically significant changes on the test scores. Is this further proof of the w........ Read more »
A report was published in Science last week titled « Evidence for a collective intelligence factor in the performance of human groups ». They set up the « c factor », for collective intelligence, somehow a parallel of the g (for general intelligence. I told a bit about this after Prof. Haier’s conference at the EMBO meeting). In brief, what the authors report, is that individual intelligence of people constituting a group (a team) is not correlated with the success ........ Read more »
Anita Williams Woolley, Christopher F. Chabris, Alexander Pentland, Nada Hashmi, Thomas W. Malone. (2010) Evidence for a Collective Intelligence Factor in the Performance of Human Groups. Science. info:/10.1126/science.1193147
by Nestor Lopez-Duran PhD in Child-Psych
Psychiatric disorders are diagnosed by determining the presence of specific symptoms, mostly without regards for what caused the symptoms. That is, if you have a specific number of symptoms and meet some additional criteria, then by definition, you have the disorder. For the most part, the rest of medicine doesn’t work this way. If you [...]... Read more »
Dadds, M., Jambrak, J., Pasalich, D., Hawes, D., & Brennan, J. (2010) Impaired attention to the eyes of attachment figures and the developmental origins of psychopathy. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02323.x
This has nothing to do with nuns' clothing. Habits are those behaviours that have become automatic, triggered by a cue in the environment rather than by conscious will. Health psychologists are interested for obvious reasons - they want to assist people in breaking unhealthy habits, while helping them adopt healthy ones. Remarkably, although there are plenty of habit-formation theories, before now, no-one had actually studied habits systematically as they are formed.
Phillippa Lally and her tea........ Read more »
Lally, P., van Jaarsveld, C., Potts, H., & Wardle, J. (2009) How are habits formed: Modelling habit formation in the real world. European Journal of Social Psychology. DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.674
Benjamin Evett, John Douglas Thompson, and Mirjana Jokovic in the American Repertory Theatre's production of Othello.O! beware, my lord, of jealousy;It is the green-ey'd monster which doth mockThe meat it feeds on. Iago, Act III scene iii of Shakespeare's OthelloOthello syndrome is a rare psychiatric condition marked by morbid, pathological, or delusional jealousy (Miller et al., 2010). It can occur in the context of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, alcoholism, or epilepsy, but sometimes it's ob........ Read more »
TODD J, & DEWHURST K. (1955) The Othello syndrome; a study in the psychopathology of sexual jealousy. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 122(4), 367-74. PMID: 13307271
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