Dangerous activities of a person can be increased with the use of safety equipments as, for example, “wearing a bicycle helmet can increase risk taking and sensation seeking in adults.”
In a study, researchers from the University of Bath’s department of psychology have reported that humans develop their risk-taking behavior on the basis of the use of safety equipments.
They worked with some people ........ Read more »
Gamble, T., & Walker, I. (2016) Wearing a Bicycle Helmet Can Increase Risk Taking and Sensation Seeking in Adults. Psychological Science. DOI: 10.1177/0956797615620784
A musician takes up his/her violin and starts to play, but rather than gripping the strings, the fingers seize up--and this happens every time he/she takes up the instrument. Such a movement disorder--the so-called focal dystonia-- is a dramatic disease for those affected, which has thus far barely been studied.
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Rozanski VE, Rehfuess E, Bötzel K, Nowak D. (2015) Task-specific dystonia in professional musicians—a systematic review of the importance of intensive playing as a risk factor. Dtsch Arztebl Int. info:/10.3238/arztebl.2015.0871
22q11.2 deletion syndrome has turned out to be something of real interest to this blog. Not only because of the reported connection to the presentation of autism (see here) including some suggestion of a role for the immune system (see here) but also because of the idea that certain somatic comorbidity linked to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract might also figure as part of the presentation of at least some cases of Del22 (see here). Said GI issues have also cropped up across quite a few other lab........ Read more »
Vangkilde, A., Olsen, L., Hoeffding, L., Pedersen, C., Mortensen, P., Werge, T., & Trabjerg, B. (2016) Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders in a Danish 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Cohort Compared to the Total Danish Population—A Nationwide Register Study. Schizophrenia Bulletin. DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbv195
By guest blogger Laura SpinneyWhat were the greatest human catastrophes of the 20th century? When asked this question, most people answer the Second World War, followed by the First World War. The former killed around 50 million people, the latter 17 million. But there was another catastrophe that dwarfed both of these, that is rarely mentioned. The influenza pandemic of 1918-1920, better known as the Spanish flu, killed at least 50 million people worldwide, and perhaps as many as 100 million.Wh........ Read more »
Zaromb, F., Butler, A., Agarwal, P., & Roediger, H. (2013) Collective memories of three wars in United States history in younger and older adults. Memory , 42(3), 383-399. DOI: 10.3758/s13421-013-0369-7
Challenging behaviours or behavioural crisis in relation to autism is a topic that has graced this blog before (see here). Covering a whole spectrum of issues ranging from aggression (self and/or directed against others) to various other quite undesirable presentations (such as smearing) quite a lot of behaviour can potentially fall into this description.Without heading too far into the possible [often very individual] reasons as to why challenging behaviours occur and their meaning (see he........ Read more »
Smith, C., Carr, E., & Moskowitz, L. (2016) Fatigue as a biological setting event for severe problem behavior in autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 131-144. DOI: 10.1016/j.rasd.2015.12.003
Memory capacity of brain is about 10 times more than previous estimations, which is in the petabyte range, i.e. almost equivalent to the entire Web.
Memories and thoughts in our brain are caused by a distinct pattern of chemical and electrical activity. Our brain has branches of neurons, which are connected to each other through synapses. Signals and information travel through these synapses with the help of neurotransmitters. Each ne........ Read more »
Bartol, T., Bromer, C., Kinney, J., Chirillo, M., Bourne, J., Harris, K., & Sejnowski, T. (2015) Nanoconnectomic upper bound on the variability of synaptic plasticity. eLife. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.10778
Capgras syndrome is a strange disorder in which the sufferer becomes convinced that someone close to them has been replaced by an impostor.
Yet now, a new and even stranger variant of the syndrome has been reported - "Cat-gras". This is the name coined by Harvard neurologists R. Ryan Darby and David Caplan in a new paper in the journal Neurocase. The authors describe the case of a man who believed that his cat was in fact a different cat.
According to Darby and Caplan, the patient ... Read more »
Darby, R., & Caplan, D. (2016) “Cat-gras” delusion: a unique misidentification syndrome and a novel explanation. Neurocase, 1-6. DOI: 10.1080/13554794.2015.1136335
A scientific review paper warns that people need to find ways to reduce chronic stress and anxiety in their lives or they may be at increased risk for developing depression and even dementia. Led by the Rotman Research Institute at Baycrest Health Sciences, the review examined brain areas impacted by chronic anxiety, fear and stress in animal and human studies that are already published.... Read more »
If you’re wondering who to appoint to run a team with creative goals, you might favour a non-creative, reasoning that it’s down to the team members to generate creativity, with the person at the top acting more as driver and dogged coordinator. However, new research in Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes suggests that teams produce more creative outcomes when their managers have greater confidence in their own creativity.Lei Huang of Auburn University and his collaborators s........ Read more »
Huang, L., Krasikova, D., & Liu, D. (2016) I can do it, so can you: The role of leader creative self-efficacy in facilitating follower creativity. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 49-62. DOI: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2015.12.002
"Multiple studies have examined the risk of prenatal antidepressant exposure and risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with inconsistent results."And..."These results suggest that prior reports of association between prenatal antidepressant exposure and neurodevelopmental disease are likely to represent a false-positive finding, which may arise in part through confounding by indication."'These results' refers to the findings reported by Castr........ Read more »
Castro VM, Kong SW, Clements CC, Brady R, Kaimal AJ, Doyle AE, Robinson EB, Churchill SE, Kohane IS, & Perlis RH. (2016) Absence of evidence for increase in risk for autism or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder following antidepressant exposure during pregnancy: a replication study. Translational psychiatry. PMID: 26731445
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jerry Park, Ph.D. Associate professor of sociology Affiliate Fellow, Institute for Studies on Religion Baylor’s College of Arts & Sciences Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Park: Research … Continue reading →
The post Students At Elite Universities Also View Asians As The Model Minority appeared first on MedicalResearch.com.
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Jerry Park, Ph.D. (2016) Students At Elite Universities Also View Asians As The Model Minority. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
Ever feel overwhelmed when you are depressed, well the good news is it isn't just you, the bad news is it's probably your brain. Regions of the brain that normally work together to process emotion become decoupled in people who experience multiple episodes of depression, neuroscientists report. The findings may help identify which patients will benefit from long term antidepressant treatment to prevent the recurrence of depressive episodes.
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Jacobs, R., Barba, A., Gowins, J., Klumpp, H., Jenkins, L., Mickey, B., Ajilore, O., Peciña, M., Sikora, M., Ryan, K.... (2016) Decoupling of the amygdala to other salience network regions in adolescent-onset recurrent major depressive disorder. Psychological Medicine, 1-13. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291715002615
Surely you can expect that the ubiquitous furry creature — a regular at your public park — is a master problem-solver. After all, squirrels must continuously stockpile acorns and occasionally raid bird feeders, all while playing in traffic and dodging hairy little beasts on leashes. But what personality characteristic most drives these exceptional abilities: persistence or flexibility? ... Read more »
Chow, P., Lea, S., & Leaver, L. (2016) How practice makes perfect: the role of persistence, flexibility and learning in problem-solving efficiency. Animal Behaviour, 273-283. DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2015.11.014
Research shows the challenges of assessing behaviour in shelter dogs.We know our pets well. My dog Bodger is bouncy and friendly; he sits to be patted, then jumps up with a surreptitious kiss; he likes zucchini and hates thunder. We form these observations through time spent with our dogs. But at animal shelters it’s not so easy. How do you assess the temperament of a dog you’ve only just met?Research by Kate Mornement(Monash University; Pets Behaving Badly) et al investigates this problem. ........ Read more »
Mornement, K., Coleman, G., Toukhsati, S., & Bennett, P. (2014) Development of the behavioural assessment for re-homing K9's (B.A.R.K.) protocol. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 75-83. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2013.11.008
Despite recent improvements to their training, a new study in the journal of Police and Criminal Psychology suggests the police are as susceptible as the general public to holding false beliefs about psychology that apply to their work. The research, conducted in the UK, also showed that police officers have more confidence than the public in their false beliefs.Chloe Chaplin, a programme facilitator at the London Probation Trust, and Julia Shaw, senior lecturer at South Bank university, recruit........ Read more »
Chaplin, C., & Shaw, J. (2015) Confidently Wrong: Police Endorsement of Psycho-Legal Misconceptions. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology. DOI: 10.1007/s11896-015-9182-5
In parallel with the difficulties caused by trauma, such as depression and ill health, some people experience positive psychological changes, such as a renewed appreciation for life and increased resilience – a phenomenon psychologists term "post traumatic growth". According to a new study in the journal Emotion, we can add another positive outcome related to adversity – compassion. The more adversity in life a person has experienced, the more compassion they tend to feel and show toward oth........ Read more »
Lim, D., & DeSteno, D. (2016) Suffering and Compassion: The Links Among Adverse Life Experiences, Empathy, Compassion, and Prosocial Behavior. Emotion. DOI: 10.1037/emo0000144
I'm gonna be fairly brief today in drawing your attention to the paper published by Daniel Adams and colleagues  reporting that: "Children with ASD [autism spectrum disorders] are more likely to have middle ear infections and otitis-related complications."The results, which we've known were coming (see here), detail findings based on a retrospective case-cohort study where the health insurance records of children of US military families were initially screened for the presence of au........ Read more »
Adams, D., Susi, A., Erdie-Lalena, C., Gorman, G., Hisle-Gorman, E., Rajnik, M., Elrod, M., & Nylund, C. (2016) Otitis Media and Related Complications Among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. DOI: 10.1007/s10803-015-2689-x
There is good news for frequent public speakers. New research shows that individuals have the ability to quickly and accurately identify a crowd's general emotion as focused or distracted, suggesting that we can trust our first impression of a crowd's mood.
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Haberman, J., Lee, P., & Whitney, D. (2015) Mixed emotions: Sensitivity to facial variance in a crowd of faces. Journal of Vision, 15(4), 16. DOI: 10.1167/15.4.16
With the ever-increasing volumes of research being published in the peer-reviewed domain these days, one sometimes has to be a little creative to ensure that your research paper stands out and is not lost in the scientific noise. Quite a good way of getting noticed is to make sure that your paper catches the attention of your reader base. Y'know, give it a snappy title; something that social media might pick up on...So it was that my attention was taken when coming across the paper by Diaz-........ Read more »
Diaz-Beltran L, Esteban FJ, & Wall DP. (2016) A common molecular signature in ASD gene expression: following Root 66 to autism. Translational psychiatry. PMID: 26731442
By Caitlin LockardWhen playing Frisbee with your dog, do you ever wonder how they have the ability to catch it so effortlessly? The art of being able to figure out where something like a Frisbee is headed requires some crazy math skills. Ostracods are one kind of animal that puts their wicked math skills to the test while finding a mate.The image above of a female ostracod was provided by Trevor Rivers.You’ve never heard of an ostracod you say? Ostracods are small crustaceans, which basicall........ Read more »
Rivers, T., & Morin, J. (2013) Female ostracods respond to and intercept artificial conspecific male luminescent courtship displays. Behavioral Ecology, 24(4), 877-887. DOI: 10.1093/beheco/art022
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