Superheroes, virtual worlds and hindu gods: a visual genealogy of James Cameron's Avatar - based on my article "Les Avatars Bleus" (Communications, 2005). For those who don't speak French. Also, for those who simply can't be bothered to go through 30 pages of socio-babbling ;) ... Read more »
Antonio A. Casilli. (2005) [Blue Avatars, about three strategies of cultural borrowing at the heart of computer culture] Les avatars bleus, Autour de trois stratégies d’emprunt culturel au cœur de la cyberculture. Communications, 77(1), 183-209. info:/
The relationship between personality and political preferences is not the simple relation between conservatism and negative personality traits on the one hand and liberalism and positive personality traits on the other hand. Personality is understood as the combination of innate dispositions and personal experiences that guides behavior in a stable and predictive manner. Behavior is [...]
Related posts:Maturation of Personality in Adolescence Haven’t written about adolescence for some time now. The...Are Facebook Users Different? Characteristics of social networking sites It can allow an...The Technology Profile Inventory for Nerds, Geeks, Medbloggers? You have a personality profile but you also have...
Related posts brought to you by Yet Another Related Posts Plugin.... Read more »
Verhulst, B., Hatemi, P., & Martin, N. (2009) The nature of the relationship between personality traits and political attitudes. Personality and Individual Differences. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2009.11.013
Last week I gave a talk to some students at the School of Politics and International Studies (POLIS), at the University of Leeds. I've been an honorary Visiting Research Fellow with POLIS since April 2006, and it's a rare occasion when I'm actually on-site. In fact, this was only the second time, the first being a talk I gave in late 2007. Then, I was still a serving staff officer with NATO, and my talk was about a book I'd just published. This time, I was speaking as an academic, recently resigned from NATO service, and offering students my observations on what it's like to be a functionary in an International Organization. Despite working in some very interesting places - Bosnia, Kosovo and Afghansitan, as well as Western Europe - I couldn't honestly claim to know much about them, and my own perceptions of those experiences are very much "the view from the veranda."
That phrase is lifted from an article , written by Belgian academic Julian Eckl and published in International Political Sociology, entitled "Responsible Scholarship After Leaving the Veranda: Normative Issues Faced by Field Researchers - and Armchair Scientists." ... Read more »
Eckl, J. (2008) "Responsible Scholarship After Leaving the Veranda: Normative Issues Faced by Field Researchers-and Armchair Scientists." . International Political Sociology, 2(3), 185-203. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-5687.2008.00044.x
Routinely, I enjoy crapping on the common biological explanations of various mental illnesses (e.g., monoamine hypothesis). However, this does not mean that I do not believe in the importance biology plays in the development of mental illness.To say that a specific mental illness is the result of a "chemical imbalance" or one "bad gene" is ridiculous. The problem with biological explanations of mental illness is that they neglect the psycho/social aspects of illness development (they are also poorly support by research too!).Since I'm a psychologist, I pay attention to stress. I believe stress to the be the glue that binds biology and psychology together. This is because stress or more importantly, psychological stress, has a biological mechanism that has both short-term and long-term effects on the body and brain. Certain aspects of the physiology of stress act as "transcription factors," that is, they regulate gene expression. This means the effects of stress can be felt acutely (i.e., in the short-term) or many years later (e.g., the average time span between onset of sexual abuse and the development of clinical depression is 11.5 years, 1).This poses an interesting question: can the age at which one experience "stress" predict both the onset and type of mental illness? That's what Lupien et al. (2) wanted to answer in an interesting paper that was published in Nature Reviews Neuroscience earlier this year.Before I delve into their hypothesis, I am required by law to describe the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (see below).This is how it works. You perceive a stressor (e.g., all the women with whom you were having extra-marital affairs, suddenly decide to tell their "stories" to TMZ), your hypothalamus releases corticotropin release hormone (CRH). CRH stimulates its neighbor, the pituitary gland, to release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which finds its way down your blood stream and stimulates the adrenal glands to release glucocorticoids (steroids) as well as catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine).After this, many wonderful things occur: your wife attacks you with a golf club; your blood sugar spikes, blood pressure and heart rate increase, which delivers a rush of blood and oxygen to your thigh muscles. This enables you to run to your SUV, which you crash 5 feet from your drive way. Now the stressor is gone (i.e., you release a statement on your website indicating that you need to do some "soul searching"); the glucocorticoids bind to certain receptors (i.e., GRs & MRs), and the system shuts down and returns back to its homeostatic baseline.Lupien et al. reviewed the relevant literature on the effects of stress (e.g., chronic stress, abuse, etc) and neurological development during the following life phases: prenatal, postnatal, adolescence, and adulthood. What they found is summarized below. "How the effects of chronic or repeated exposure to stress (or a single exposure to severe stress) at different stages in life depend on the brain areas that are developing or declining at the time of the exposure."(Paraphrased for simplicity) prenatal stress (defined as maternal stress or exogenous steroids during pregnancy) affects the development of many of the brain regions that are involved in regulating the HPA axis (i.e., hippocampus, frontal cortex, and amygdala)."Postnatal stress has varying effects: exposure to maternal separation during childhood leads to increased secretion of glucocorticoids, whereas exposure to severe abuse is associated with decreased levels of glucocorticoids. Thus, glucocorticoid production during childhood differentiates as a function of the environment.""From the prenatal period onwards...some areas undergo rapid growth during a particular period. From birth to 2 years of age the hippocampus is developing; it might therefore be the brain area that is most vulnerable to the effects of stress at this time. By contrast, exposure to stress from birth to late childhood might lead to changes in amygdala volume, as this brain region continues to develop until the late 20s. During adolescence...there is an important increase in frontal volume. Consequently, stress exposure during this period should have major effects on the frontal cortex." "In adulthood and during aging the brain regions that undergo the most rapid decline as a result of aging (amygdala, frontal cortex, hippocampus) are highly vulnerable to the effects of stress hormones. Stress during these periods can lead to the manifestation of incubated effects of early adversity on the brain or to maintenance of chronic effects of stress."What all that psychobabble means is this: certain brain regions (i.e., amygdala, hippocampus, & frontal cortex) are more vulnerable to stress during certain developmental stages (e.g., the hippocampus is most vulnerable before age two). What the authors are postulating is that these areas, when affected by stress, can be use to predict the nature of the psychopathology that will result from exposure to stress at different ages. Or in their words:"Exposure to adversity at the time of hippocampal development could lead to hippocampus dependent emotional disorders, which would be different from disorders arising from exposure to adversity a times of frontal cortex development."This sounds very interesting! Is there any evidence to support it? They list two studies (3, 4). "The first reported that women who experienced trauma before the age of 12 years had increased risk for major depression, whereas women who experienced trauma between 12 and 18 years of age more frequently developed PTSD. The second study reported that repeated episodes of sexual abuse were associated with reduced hippocampal volume if the abuse occurred early in childhood, but with reduced prefrontal cortex volume if the abuse occurred during adolescence."This does seem to support their hypothesis. However, if you read those two studies, you'll find that it is not as clean cut as these authors suggest. Also, other variables were not discussed such as temperament and genetics, sex and gender, SES, and culture. The research is also murky on what constitutes a "prefrontal" disorder versus a "hippocampal" disorder (not to mention the many anatomical overlaps between psychiatric diagnoses). In spite of those limitations, it is an interesting hypothesis that is worth exploring. To read an excellent book on this subject, check out Robert Sapolsky's Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers.Lupien, S., McEwen, B., Gunnar, M., & Heim, C. (2009). Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10 (6), 434-445 DOI: 10.1038/nrn2639... Read more »
Lupien, S., McEwen, B., Gunnar, M., & Heim, C. (2009) Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10(6), 434-445. DOI: 10.1038/nrn2639
This week’s focus are risks in the maritime supply chain and today’s article reflects on security in maritime supply chains and suggests that the complex interaction of ports, maritime operations and supply chains creates vulnerabilities that extends beyond the immediate shipping line.
... Read more »
BARNES, P., & OLORUNTOBA, R. (2005) Assurance of security in maritime supply chains: Conceptual issues of vulnerability and crisis management. Journal of International Management. DOI: 10.1016/j.intman.2005.09.008
This week’s focus are risks in the maritime supply chain. Today’s article reflects on security in maritime supply chains: Assurance of security in maritime supply chains: Conceptual issues of vulnerability and crisis management by Paul Barnes and Richard Oloruntoba from the Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane, Australia, suggests that the complex interaction of ports, [ ... ]... Read more »
BARNES, P., & OLORUNTOBA, R. (2005) Assurance of security in maritime supply chains: Conceptual issues of vulnerability and crisis management. Journal of International Management. DOI: 10.1016/j.intman.2005.09.008
Sequencing centers keep pumping large amounts of sequence data into the omics-sphere (will I get a New Worst omics Word Award for this?) There is no way we can annotate even a small fraction of those experimentally and indeed most annotations are automatic, done bioinformatically. Typically function is inferred by homology: if the protein sequence [...]... Read more »
Schnoes, A., Brown, S., Dodevski, I., & Babbitt, P. (2009) Annotation Error in Public Databases: Misannotation of Molecular Function in Enzyme Superfamilies. PLoS Computational Biology, 5(12). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000605
If you could choose to learn a foreign language, which one would it be? And why?
Such choices are usually constrained by what is on offer. However, someone must choose the offerings – e.g., language policy makers around the world have for the past couple of decades decided that English is a must-have first foreign [...]... Read more »
Piller, Ingrid, & Takahashi, Kimie. (2006) A passion for English: desire and the language market. Aneta Pavlenko. Ed. Bilingual minds: Emotional experience, expression, and representation. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 59-83. info:/
Children's Health... Read more »
Crystal, S., Olfson, M., Huang, C., Pincus, H., & Gerhard, T. (2009) Broadened Use Of Atypical Antipsychotics: Safety, Effectiveness, And Policy Challenges. Health Affairs, 28(5). DOI: 10.1377/hlthaff.28.5.w770
The current global order has thrown up yet another bewildering language problem: the monolingual sniffer dog!
I glean the following from a recent NYT article about Rabbis in Montana: with all the concerns about homeland security, the US has an expanding need for sniffer dogs. Training sniffer dogs locally is costly (the article quotes US$ [...]... Read more »
Duchêne, A. (2008) Marketing, management and performance: multilingualism as commodity in a tourism call centre. Language Policy, 8(1), 27-50. DOI: 10.1007/s10993-008-9115-6
Piller, Ingrid, & Pavlenko, Aneta. (2007) Globalization, gender, and multilingualism. Helene Decke-Cornill and Laurenz Volkmann (Eds.), Gender Studies and Foreign Language Teaching. Tübingen: Narr, 15-30. info:/
"In 1896, the Scientific American published an article, Is Insanity Due to a Microbe?''," and thus started a lively discussion on infectious causes of schizophrenia, epilepsy and other diseases of the mind...... Read more »
da Silva RC, & Langoni H. (2009) Toxoplasma gondii: host-parasite interaction and behavior manipulation. Parasitology research, 105(4), 893-8. PMID: 19548003
Breaking news from the BBC -Testosterone link to aggression 'all in the mind' Work in Nature magazine suggests the mind can win over hormones... Testosterone induces anti-social behaviour in humans, but only because of our own prejudices about its effect rather than its biological activity, suggest the authors. The researchers, led by Ernst Fehr of the University of Zurich, Switzerland, said the results suggested a case of "mind over matter" with the brain overriding body chemistry. "Whereas other animals may be predominantly under the influence of biological factors such as hormones, biology seems to exert less control over human behaviour," they said. Phew, that's a relief - for a minute back there I was worried we didn't have free will. But look a little closer at the study, and it turns out that all is not as it seems. The experiment (Eisenegger et al) involved giving healthy women 0.5 mg testosterone, or placebo, in a randomized double-blind manner, and then getting them to take part in the "Ultimatum Game".This is a game for two players. One, the Proposer, is given some money, and then has to offer to give a certain proportion of it to the other player, the Receiver. If the Receiver accepts the offer, both players get the agreed-upon amount of money. If they reject it, however, no-one gets anything.The Proposer is basically faced with the choice of making a "fair" offer, e.g. giving away 50%, or a greedy one, say offering 10% and keeping 90% for themselves. Receivers generally accept fair offers, but most people get annoyed or insulted by unfair ones, and reject them, even though this means they lose money (10% of the money is still more than 0%).What happened? Testosterone affected behaviour. It had no effect on women playing the role of the Receivers, but the Proposers given testosterone made significantly fairer offers on average, compared to those given placebo. That's not mind over matter, that's matter over mind - give someone a hormone and their behaviour changes.The direction of the effect is quite interesting - if testosterone increased aggression, as popular belief has it, you might expect it to decrease fair offers. Or, you might not. I suppose it depends on your understanding of "aggression". For their part, Eisenegger et al interpret this finding as suggesting that testosterone doesn't increase aggression per se, but rather increases our motivation to achieve "status", which leads to Proposers making fairer offers, so as to appear nicer. Hmm. Maybe.But where did the BBC get the whole "all in the mind" thing from? Well, after the testing was over, the authors asked the women whether they thought they had taken testosterone or placebo. The results showed that the women couldn't actually tell which they'd had - they were no more accurate than if they were guessing - but women who believed they'd got testosterone made more unfair offers than women who believed they got placebo. The size of this effect was bigger than the effect of testosterone.Is that "mind over matter"? Do beliefs about testosterone exert a more powerful effect on behaviour than testosterone itself? Maybe they do, but these data don't tell us anything about that. The women's beliefs weren't manipulated in any way in this trial, so as an experiment it couldn't investigate belief effects. In order to show that belief alters behaviour, you'd need to control beliefs. You could randomly assign some subjects to be told they were taking testosterone, and compare them to others told they were on placebo, say.This study didn't do anything like that. Beliefs about testosterone were only correlated with behaviour, and unless someone's changed the rules recently, correlation isn't causation. It's like finding that people with brown skin are more likely to be Hindus than people with white skin, and concluding that belief in Brahma alters pigmentation. It could even be that the behaviour drove the belief, because subjects were quizzed about their testosterone status after the Ultimatum Game - maybe women who, for whatever reason, behaved selfishly, decided that this meant they had taken testosterone!Overall, this study provides quite interesting data about hormonal effects on behaviour, but tells us nothing about the effects of beliefs about hormones. On that issue, the way the media have covered this experiment is rather more informative than the experiment itself.Eisenegger, C., Naef, M., Snozzi, R., Heinrichs, M., & Fehr, E. (2009). Prejudice and truth about the effect of testosterone on human bargaining behaviour Nature DOI: 10.1038/nature08711... Read more »
Eisenegger, C., Naef, M., Snozzi, R., Heinrichs, M., & Fehr, E. (2009) Prejudice and truth about the effect of testosterone on human bargaining behaviour. Nature. DOI: 10.1038/nature08711
I don’t envy the job of health economists – nor policy-makers or politicians who need to make the difficult decisions about who should receive allocation within the restricted health funding that is available. At the same time, I’m often worried when I hear that ‘high-tech’ treatments, and those that are perceived as ‘glamour’ health problems [...]... Read more »
Hara, K., & Borchgrevink, P. (2010) National guidelines for evaluating pain—Patients’ legal right to prioritised health care at multidisciplinary pain clinics in Norway implemented 2009. Scandinavian Journal of Pain, 1(1), 60-63. DOI: 10.1016/j.sjpain.2009.10.002
This is not your typical journal article on supply chain risk. It starts out as an easy read, reviewing the literature and discussing risk sources and risk consequences, but ends in an inconclusive and unsurmountable stack of equations not suited for the stochastically uninitiated researcher like me. Nonetheless, the arguments leading up to the equations are definitely worth reflecting on. In particular, the difference between external risks and risk externalities are worth noting.
... Read more »
Annikas' friend brings her back some chocolate, and places it into the blue cupboard. Annika sees this and then goes out to play. While Annika is gone, her friend eats some chocolate and then places it into the red cupboard. Later, when Annika comes back and goes about getting a piece of chocolate, where will she look for it?
If you are a two year old, you will expect Annika to look for the chocolate in the red cupboard, simply because you know that is where the chocolate is. If you are a little older and have already developed a so called theory of mind - of course -, you understand that Annika does not have access to what you know, that in Annika's mind the chocolate should still be in the blue cupboard, and that this is where she will most likely look.
Possession of a Theory of Mind describes
"the ability to attribute mental states -beliefs, intents, desires, pretending, knowledge, etc.- to oneself and others and to understand that others have beliefs, desires and intentions that are different from one's own."
It is hard to imagine any (social) activity in which we do not rely heavily on our theory of mind (imagine enjoying even the lamest movie plot without an adequate theory of mind...), and taking into consideration that others may not automatically know everything that we know - after a certain age (generally 4 - 6 years) - comes effortless to us; (Note: Some humans even appear capable of considering that other people may know things they themselves do not know...but this is rather seldom).
In fact, constructing other people's minds in our own head is so pervasive in our everyday lives and appears to require so little attention, effort and conscious thought, that psychologists have often assumed the process to be near automatic; saying that once you've learned that other people have minds of their own, this simply becomes the way your mind works; regardless of what else may be going on with you.
More and more experimental evidence, however, is beginning to question this assumption of an automated theory of mind module; most of which relies on the finding that people become less efficient at constructing theory of mind when they are under time pressure or distracted; thus implying that theory of mind construction does involve some (although apparently small) level of effort, and that even adults may sometimes draw conclusions about others that are equivalent to the child's assumption that Annika shares its knowledge of where the chocolate is hidden.
A further argument against an automated theory of mind can now be made based on a series of experiments that show how our mood influences how good we are at inferring other people's knowledge and intentions.
The hypothesis that emotions may influence theory of mind usage is not surprising, given that feelings of happiness and sadness are known to promote different ways of information processing. Happiness - so the current state of our knowledge - promotes heuristic-based thinking, which in turn interferes with the more deliberate processing that is usually associated with sadness.
To learn more about the potential linkage between emotions and theory of mind, a group of Psychologist at the University of Chicago set up a round of experiments including the following: As a means of inducing feelings of happiness (or sadness) participants were made to listen to a selection of happy (or sad) music. After listening to the music, the now measurably mood altered, participants were presented with an adult version of Annika's chocolate situation; which is summarized in the picture below:
Participants in the blue box condition do not know whether or not Vicki's sister moved the violin, while those in the red box condition know where the violin is. Regardless of whether participants knows where the violin is, theory of mind should lead them to infer that Vicki knows only where she put the violin, and that now the boxes have moved. Hence, any guess for where Vicki will look first should be irrespective of whether a participant is in the red-box or blue box condition.
For the group that listened to sad music at the outset of the experiment, this is also exacly what happens. For the group that listened to happy music, however, a more egocentric thought pattern emerges: People who listened to happy music and knew that the violin was in the red box, also assigned a significantly greater likelihood to the event that Vicki would look inside the red box (as compared to the happy people, who did not know where the violin was placed).
As the authors state it:
"These data suggest that participants were less likely to employ their theory of mind in the happy condition than in the sad condition."
Using this finding and those from another experiment (which can be found in the same publication), the authors come to the conclusion that
"mood states have important consequences for mental-state inferences, such that those in a happy mood may be less likely to utilize their theory of mind than those in a sad mood. These results are important [...] for the theoretical insights into how people make mental state inferences [...]. In particular, these results suggest that theory of mind requires deliberative processing to inhibit an egocentric assessment that is often more readily accessible than is specific knowledge about others. Happy people tend to rely on this egocentric default, whereas sad people incorporate knowledge about others more deliberately. These differential effects of mood are inconsistent with a purely automatic account of theory-of-mind use."
As a slight disclaimer they add that
"It is important to clarify that these results do not demonstrate that happiness will always increase egocentric bias, nor that egocentric bias will necessarily decrease accuracy"
One thing, this study has me thinking about is what this means for game theory: The premise of game theory is of course that people possess a capacity to iterate what they know other people know about what they know others to know about what... and so on...If a happy mood leads to less deliberation, and more heuristic processing this should show up in experimental games. Additionally, if experimental games over multiple... Read more »
Converse, B., Lin, S., Keysar, B., & Epley, N. (2008) In the mood to get over yourself: Mood affects theory-of-mind use. Emotion, 8(5), 725-730. DOI: 10.1037/a0013283
Did a 2001 white paper turn into a 2004 academic journal article just like that? In Mitigating supply chain risk through improved confidence, Martin Christopher and Hau Lee explore the impact confidence has on supply chain performance. Interestingly this 2004 article also appears as a 2001 white paper on supply chain confidence published by the Stanford Global Supply Chain Management Forum. Is the journal article just a re-published white paper?... Read more »
Christopher, M., & Lee, H. (2004) Mitigating supply chain risk through improved confidence. International Journal of Physical Distribution , 34(5), 388-396. DOI: 10.1108/09600030410545436
Written 12 years ago, but still holds true. Supply chains are increasingly becoming complex systems of webs and networks and the system thinking that already pervaded Einarsson and Rausand (1997) An Approach to Vulnerability Analysis of Complex Industrial Systems is today still applicable to toady's supply chains. In fact, there is little difference between vulnerability in supply chains and vulnerability in complex industrial systems.... Read more »
Einarsson, S., & Rausand, M. (1998) An Approach to Vulnerability Analysis of Complex Industrial Systems. Risk Analysis, 18(5), 535-546. DOI: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.1998.tb00367.x
During the 2008 primaries, the Clinton campaign was accused of altering footage of Barack Obama to darken his skin tone. Supposedly, this would activate negative stereotypes of Americans towards Black people; possibly following the same logic that Time magazine applied in 1994 when it darkened the face of O.J. Simpson for its cover.
Whether or not this type of (subtle) manipulation actually suffices to swing people's decisions for something as important as an electoral vote is questionable (it did not seem to have worked for Hillary), yet it seems plausible enough that the combination of negative stereotypes against dark skinned people, the perception of someone being particularly dark, and our political support for this person may be linked.
One very interesting way in which these three elements truly are linked, may be somewhat different, however, from what you expected: As reported in this weeks' Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS), the degree to which you support a political candidate may influence how dark you perceive this candidate's skin tone to be.
The theoretical foundation that underlies the PNAS study builds on peoples' tendency to make their perceptions match their intuition and preferred choices (a line of research I am very involved in), as well as the human tendency to categorize and group people (and objects) and project desirable properties to the categories one considers as one's own group.
For example, social psychological research indicates that
"group membership affects conscious and unconscious reactions toward in-group and out-group members, and impacts both social judgments of others and visual perception of their physical features."
However, the strength of these tendencies to impact our choices - so experiments tell us - depends to a large extent on the ambiguity involved in the decision to be made. Highly ambiguous information is more readily molded in our minds into what we would like it to mean (sounds familiar?), while unequivocal information puts us more on the spot about seeing things the way they really are.
And as a consequence we often find that,
"The influence of group membership on social judgment and visual perception is stronger when the information under consideration is ambiguous"
Which is exactly why Barack Obama's candidacy in 2008 provided a terrific research environment to investigate whether political partisanship (i.e. the degree to which Barack Obama is considered to belong to one's "in-group") may be directly related to how dark one perceives him to be.
The experiment is rather clever: Participants were shown three pictures of Barack Obama, like those shown in this post. One of the pictures is manipulated to make him appear slightly more light skinned, while another is manipulated to show the current President as more dark skinned.
Which one of the pictures was manipulated differed randomly across participants, who were each asked to rate the pictures according to how representative they thought each picture was of then-candidate Barack Obama.
The hypothesis under consideration, suggested that participants who supported Barack Obama (and stated intentions of voting for him) would rate the lighter picture as more representative, while those participants who intended not to vote for B.H. Obama would consider the darkened picture as more representative.
The results are shown in the following table:
The above results (and those from two other experiments conducted for the PNAS study) suggest that
"partisans not only ‘‘darken'' those with whom they disagree, but also ‘‘lighten'' those with whom they agree."
Because the study included mostly white participants, no Black-White comparisons for this effect are possible, but even in the absence of this, the study is a fine reminder that what we think about the world and others has an enormous influence on the sense perception we eventually arrive at.
Caruso EM, Mead NL, & Balcetis E (2009). Political partisanship influences perception of biracial candidates' skin tone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America PMID: 19934033
... Read more »
Caruso EM, Mead NL, & Balcetis E. (2009) Political partisanship influences perception of biracial candidates' skin tone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. PMID: 19934033
Why such a title? The abstract of this article promises to highlight six areas of supply chain risk and discuss these at length, showing how they are endemic to the extended enterprise, and develop a typology for categorizing them. And indeed, a lengthy discussion it is, hence the “rambling”. That said, it is a lengthy discussion not to be missed.
... Read more »
Spekman, R., & Davis, E. (2004) Risky business: expanding the discussion on risk and the extended enterprise. International Journal of Physical Distribution , 34(5), 414-433. DOI: 10.1108/09600030410545454
In New Zealand, the national accident insurer, Accident Compensation Corporation, has been reviewing its pain management service contracts. The latest message from both the Government and ACC is the need to reduce costs (not that I’ve ever heard anyone say ‘let’s go for broke, let’s spend all we can!’) and one way to do [...]... Read more »
Pincus T, Vlaeyen JW, Kendall NA, Von Korff MR, Kalauokalani DA, & Reis S. (2002) Cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychosocial factors in low back pain: directions for the future. Spine, 27(5). PMID: 11880850
Do you write about peer-reviewed research in your blog? Use ResearchBlogging.org to make it easy for your readers — and others from around the world — to find your serious posts about academic research.
If you don't have a blog, you can still use our site to learn about fascinating developments in cutting-edge research from around the world.
Research Blogging is powered by SMG Technology.
To learn more, visit seedmediagroup.com.