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  • July 14, 2014
  • 08:00 AM
  • 91 views

The Psychology of Studying – Writing vs. Typing Your Notes

by Ryo in Skeptikai

With more access to compact technology such as ipads and laptop computers, more students are making digital notes instead of grandpa and grandma's pen & paper notebook scribbling. But which is better for note-taking? Writing or typing?... Read more »

  • July 13, 2014
  • 08:53 PM
  • 306 views

Photosynthesis in action: new technique resolves atomic changes in undamaged photosystems

by Jonathan Trinastic in Goodnight Earth

A new experimental technique allows scientists to see conformational changes in photosynthetic systems without damaging the samples!... Read more »

Kupitz, C., Basu, S., Grotjohann, I., Fromme, R., Zatsepin, N., Rendek, K., Hunter, M., Shoeman, R., White, T., Wang, D.... (2014) Serial time-resolved crystallography of photosystem II using a femtosecond X-ray laser. Nature. DOI: 10.1038/nature13453  

  • July 13, 2014
  • 03:15 PM
  • 266 views

New ways to test for Alzheimers

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Accurately diagnosing alzheimer’s is not an easy thing to do. In fact most of the time people aren’t diagnosed until very late in the progression of the disease, long after […]... Read more »

Matthew E Growdon,, Aaron Schultz,, Alexander Dagley,, Rebecca Amariglio,, Trey Hedden,, Dorene M. Rentz,, Keith Johnson,, Reisa Sperling,, Mark W. Albers,, & Gad Marshall,. (2014) Olfactory identification and Alzheimer's disease biomarkers in clinically normal elderly. Nature Neuroscience. info:/

  • July 13, 2014
  • 05:21 AM
  • 300 views

Hotter, Smarter, Better Brains

by Viputheshwar Sitaraman in Draw Science

It is evident that (a) higher body temperature leads to higher brain performance and (b) the sames holds true in an evolutionary context in terms of brain size. So hotter = smarter? [Infographic]... Read more »

James F. Gillooly. (2013) Hotter is Smarter: The temperature-dependence of brain size in vertebrates. PeerJ. info:/10.7287/peerj.preprints.155v1

Wright KP Jr, Hull JT, & Czeisler CA. (2002) Relationship between alertness, performance, and body temperature in humans. American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology, 283(6). PMID: 12388468  

  • July 12, 2014
  • 01:59 PM
  • 286 views

Infant once thought Cured of HIV tests Positive

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

I hate doing sad posts, it’s not my thing. But this is a big deal so I thought I would share it, the child known as the “Mississippi baby” – whom for […]... Read more »

Persaud, D., Gay, H., Ziemniak, C., Chen, Y., Piatak, M., Chun, T., Strain, M., Richman, D., & Luzuriaga, K. (2013) Absence of Detectable HIV-1 Viremia after Treatment Cessation in an Infant. New England Journal of Medicine, 369(19), 1828-1835. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1302976  

  • July 12, 2014
  • 02:29 AM
  • 289 views

Night-to-night variability of sleep in traumatic brain injury

by William Lu in The Quantum Lobe Chronicles

It's been a while since I've posted something substantial. My apologies to all 20 followers of TQLC. Academia and clinical cases have been taking up most of my time. However, some exciting news! My paper on variability of respiration during sleep in traumatic brain injury (TBI) has recently been accepted into Neurorehabilitation. In the paper my colleagues and I examined the sleep processes of individuals with TBI using polysomnography. Polysomnography is a tool used to measure biophysical changes during sleep and diagnose disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea in which breathing repeatedly stops and starts during sleep, a big problem for individuals with TBI. The contraption is quite uncomfortable (as you can see by the image) and takes some getting used to. Thus, we looked at the "first-night effects" of polysomnography on our subjects to see if the measurements from night-to-night were reliable. We found that polysomnography was quite reliable on the first night compared to the second night, especially for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea. This isn't typically the case for the general population so we were a bit surprised. There are a few possible explanations for why individuals with TBI don't seem to experience such first-night effects. One reason is that after a TBI, sleep becomes disrupted due to biological changes in the brain that regulate sleep processes. Thus, when our sample entered the sleep lab, their sleep remained poor on night 1 AND night 2 with little change. A second possible explanation may be that they were unaffected by external environmental stimuli such as the uncomfortable sensors they had to wear. This explanation is supported by the fact that individuals with TBI tend to have higher amounts of slow-wave sleep (the deep, restful kind). However, our subjects still tended to complain of sleep disturbances and daytime fatigue. Quite the mystery and something that needs to be further explored. I would love to hear your thoughts.Here is a link to the uncorrected abstract. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24990025References:Lu W, Cantor J, Aurora RN, Nguyen M, Ashman T, Spielman L, Ambrose A, Krellman J, & Gordon W (2014). Variability of respiration and sleep during polysomnography in individuals with TBI. NeuroRehabilitation PMID: 24990025... Read more »

Lu W, Cantor J, Aurora RN, Nguyen M, Ashman T, Spielman L, Ambrose A, Krellman J, & Gordon W. (2014) Variability of respiration and sleep during polysomnography in individuals with TBI. NeuroRehabilitation. PMID: 24990025  

  • July 11, 2014
  • 04:33 PM
  • 375 views

Coronavirus nsp-6 and the inhibition of autophagy

by thelonevirologist in Virology Tidbits

The Coronaviridae, which include viruses capable of infecting animals as well as humans, belong to order of the Nidovirales and as such are enveloped positive strand ssRNA viruses.
As described before, they induce the formation of Replication Transcription Complexes (RTCs), essentially double membrane vesicles (DMVs) derived from the ER containing enzymes and viral RNA. The biogenesis of these DMVs has been connected with the early secretory pathway and involves components of the autophagic pathway which in tun is triggered by he accumulation of viral nonstructural proteins (nsps) in the ER, although CoV nsps involved in the formation of DMVs lack conventional signal sequences found in ER or Golgi resident proteins.The expression of CoV nsp-6 derived from the avian IBV, the murine MHV, and the human SARS-CoV has been shown not only to induce autophagy-like vesicles which do not mature into autolysosomes. This block is facilitated by inhibiting mTORC1.... Read more »

Fujita N, Itoh T, Omori H, Fukuda M, Noda T, & Yoshimori T. (2008) The Atg16L complex specifies the site of LC3 lipidation for membrane biogenesis in autophagy. Molecular biology of the cell, 19(5), 2092-100. PMID: 18321988  

Liu, D., Fung, T., Chong, K., Shukla, A., & Hilgenfeld, R. (2014) Accessory proteins of SARS-CoV and other coronaviruses. Antiviral Research. DOI: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2014.06.013  

Cottam EM, Whelband MC, & Wileman T. (2014) Coronavirus NSP6 restricts autophagosome expansion. Autophagy, 10(8). PMID: 24991833  

Flinn RJ, Yan Y, Goswami S, Parker PJ, & Backer JM. (2010) The late endosome is essential for mTORC1 signaling. Molecular biology of the cell, 21(5), 833-41. PMID: 20053679  

Li L, Kim E, Yuan H, Inoki K, Goraksha-Hicks P, Schiesher RL, Neufeld TP, & Guan KL. (2010) Regulation of mTORC1 by the Rab and Arf GTPases. The Journal of biological chemistry, 285(26), 19705-9. PMID: 20457610  

  • July 11, 2014
  • 04:11 PM
  • 313 views

Antioxidants can accelerate Cancer, ya really!

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Oxidative stress on the body caused by free radicals, billed as a bad thing. Fruits, veggies and just about anything with the word healthy in the title is “jam packed” […]... Read more »

Phimister, E., Chandel, N., & Tuveson, D. (2014) The Promise and Perils of Antioxidants for Cancer Patients. New England Journal of Medicine, 371(2), 177-178. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMcibr1405701  

  • July 11, 2014
  • 01:45 PM
  • 294 views

Change your Genes with Stem Cells!

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

So researchers for the first time were evaluating the safety and reliability of the existing targeted gene correction technologies and in the process they successfully developed a new method of gene […]... Read more »

  • July 10, 2014
  • 01:59 PM
  • 456 views

Don’t Listen to the Voices: Understanding Consciousness

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

There is a voice in my head. Don't worry it's mine... I think [a story for another time I'm sure], but why is my voice inside my head? What causes me to hear myself while I type these very words, or even better you to hear them in your voice as you read them? Consciousness is a complex and very confusing thing. I think therefore I am? Science has had trouble cracking that nut and philosophy just won't cut it in the realm of neuroscience. [...]... Read more »

Paller, K., & Suzuki, S. (2014) The source of consciousness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2014.05.012  

  • July 9, 2014
  • 01:37 PM
  • 371 views

Lose Weight, Live Longer. Simple, Right?

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Suprise! Really this shouldn’t come as a shock, but adults with extreme obesity have increased risks of dying at a younger age from cancer and other complications like stroke, diabetes, heart disease, […]... Read more »

Kitahara, C., Flint, A., Berrington de Gonzalez, A., Bernstein, L., Brotzman, M., MacInnis, R., Moore, S., Robien, K., Rosenberg, P., Singh, P.... (2014) Association between Class III Obesity (BMI of 40–59 kg/m2) and Mortality: A Pooled Analysis of 20 Prospective Studies. PLoS Medicine, 11(7). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001673  

  • July 9, 2014
  • 11:00 AM
  • 308 views

Chimp Talk

by Viputheshwar Sitaraman in Draw Science

Learn how to speak chimp with the newly translated language of chimpanzee gestures in non-play context. [Infographic]... Read more »

Hobaiter C, & Byrne RW. (2014) The Meanings of Chimpanzee Gestures. Current biology : CB. PMID: 24998524  

  • July 9, 2014
  • 01:18 AM
  • 301 views

The Warrior Gene, Back from the Grave

by nooffensebut in The Unsilenced Science

Recently two meta-analyses on the gene, monoamine oxidase A, and its relationship with violence came to opposite conclusions. I review those studies and pose the questions that the scientists were too afraid to answer.... Read more »

  • July 8, 2014
  • 02:17 PM
  • 261 views

Skin Cells and Skin… smells?!

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Yeah we all know that your nose smells. Yawn! Boring I know, this isn’t kindergarten this is Loony Labs! Thankfully that isn’t what I have for you [as much as […]... Read more »

Busse, D., Kudella, P., Grüning, N., Gisselmann, G., Ständer, S., Luger, T., Jacobsen, F., Steinsträßer, L., Paus, R., Gkogkolou, P.... (2014) A Synthetic Sandalwood Odorant Induces Wound Healing Processes in Human Keratinocytes via the Olfactory Receptor OR2AT4. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. DOI: 10.1038/jid.2014.273  

  • July 7, 2014
  • 01:27 PM
  • 291 views

Staying up late? You’re going Crazy

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

All night cram sessions, anyone in college has probably had more than just a few of these [okay maybe only if you are a procrastinator like me]. If you have […]... Read more »

  • July 6, 2014
  • 01:10 PM
  • 275 views

New tool helps Doctors treat Menopause

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

With the SCOTUS ruling for the Hobby Lobby case [if you have no idea what I am talking about you can read about that anywhere on the net, like here] […]... Read more »

  • July 6, 2014
  • 01:05 PM
  • 356 views

Emperors in danger: penguin populations predicted to decline due to climate change and sea ice loss

by Jonathan Trinastic in Goodnight Earth

New Nature Climate Change research predicts drastic declines in emperor penguin populations by 2100 due to increased variability in sea ice levels.... Read more »

Jenouvrier, S., Holland, M., Stroeve, J., Serreze, M., Barbraud, C., Weimerskirch, H., & Caswell, H. (2014) Projected continent-wide declines of the emperor penguin under climate change. Nature Climate Change. DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2280  

  • July 5, 2014
  • 01:00 PM
  • 246 views

Breast Cancer… and Cholesterol?!

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Cholesterol, it’s bad for the heart. We know LDL bad, HDL good, eat healthier or ruin your arteries. I’m sure most of us have seen the public service announcements [at […]... Read more »

Potluri, R., Lavu, D., Uppal, H., & Chandran, S. (2014) P740 Hyperlipidaemia as a risk factor for breast cancer?. Cardiovascular Research, 103(suppl 1). DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvu098.160  

  • July 4, 2014
  • 07:50 PM
  • 351 views

Autophagy, Endosomes, and Viral Entry: UVRAG as an interlocutor

by thelonevirologist in Virology Tidbits

Although the role of various autophagy related proteins in viral infections is well established, the role of UVRAG in particular in mediating viral entry has been elusive. A potential role for UVRAG in mediating viral entry can be postulated from the observation that in UVRAG deficient cells cell surface receptor degradation is downregulated. Since UVRAG overexpression is known to target viral proteins to autophagosomes (and thus lead to potential degradation of viral components) and cell surface receptors to lysosomal degradation, findings that suggest that UVRAG overexpression leads to increased viral replication of two negative strand RNA viruses -Influenza A and Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) - seem at first counterintuitive.... Read more »

Pryor PR, Mullock BM, Bright NA, Lindsay MR, Gray SR, Richardson SC, Stewart A, James DE, Piper RC, & Luzio JP. (2004) Combinatorial SNARE complexes with VAMP7 or VAMP8 define different late endocytic fusion events. EMBO reports, 5(6), 590-5. PMID: 15133481  

Offenhäuser C, Lei N, Roy S, Collins BM, Stow JL, & Murray RZ. (2011) Syntaxin 11 binds Vti1b and regulates late endosome to lysosome fusion in macrophages. Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark), 12(6), 762-73. PMID: 21388490  

Liang, C., Lee, J., Inn, K., Gack, M., Li, Q., Roberts, E., Vergne, I., Deretic, V., Feng, P., Akazawa, C.... (2008) Beclin1-binding UVRAG targets the class C Vps complex to coordinate autophagosome maturation and endocytic trafficking. Nature Cell Biology, 10(7), 776-787. DOI: 10.1038/ncb1740  

Lamb CA, Yoshimori T, & Tooze SA. (2013) The autophagosome: origins unknown, biogenesis complex. Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology, 14(12), 759-74. PMID: 24201109  

Ao X, Zou L, & Wu Y. (2014) Regulation of autophagy by the Rab GTPase network. Cell death and differentiation, 21(3), 348-58. PMID: 24440914  

Pirooz SD, He S, Zhang T, Zhang X, Zhao Z, Oh S, O'Connell D, Khalilzadeh P, Amini-Bavil-Olyaee S, Farzan M.... (2014) UVRAG is required for virus entry through combinatorial interaction with the class C-Vps complex and SNAREs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(7), 2716-21. PMID: 24550300  

Huotari, J., & Helenius, A. (2011) Endosome maturation. The EMBO Journal, 30(17), 3481-3500. DOI: 10.1038/emboj.2011.286  

Berryman, S., Brooks, E., Burman, A., Hawes, P., Roberts, R., Netherton, C., Monaghan, P., Whelband, M., Cottam, E., Elazar, Z.... (2012) Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Induces Autophagosomes during Cell Entry via a Class III Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-Independent Pathway. Journal of Virology, 86(23), 12940-12953. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00846-12  

Alonso C, Galindo I, Cuesta-Geijo MA, Cabezas M, Hernaez B, & Muñoz-Moreno R. (2013) African swine fever virus-cell interactions: from virus entry to cell survival. Virus research, 173(1), 42-57. PMID: 23262167  

Jae LT, Raaben M, Herbert AS, Kuehne AI, Wirchnianski AS, Soh TK, Stubbs SH, Janssen H, Damme M, Saftig P.... (2014) Virus entry. Lassa virus entry requires a trigger-induced receptor switch. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6191), 1506-10. PMID: 24970085  

  • July 4, 2014
  • 01:00 PM
  • 432 views

Finally! A Definite Cause of Autism: Hint it isn’t Vaccines

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Autism, not caused by vaccines. In fact I’ve written several posts on the genetic clues to autism, now a new study offers more proof that it is purely genetic [at […]... Read more »

Bernier, R., Golzio, C., Xiong, B., Stessman, H., Coe, B., Penn, O., Witherspoon, K., Gerdts, J., Baker, C., Vulto-van Silfhout, A.... (2014) Disruptive CHD8 Mutations Define a Subtype of Autism Early in Development. Cell. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.06.017  

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