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  • March 27, 2014
  • 08:19 AM
  • 391 views

5 facts explain why we love music

by Flora Brils in United Academics

Music seems of great significance for many. It makes us dance, cheers us up, makes us cry; accompanying us through happy and sad life events. 5 facts give insight in the human love for music.... Read more »

Logeswaran, N., & Bhattacharya, J. (2009) Crossmodal transfer of emotion by music. Neuroscience Letters, 455(2), 129-133. DOI: 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.03.044  

Locke, D., & Hill, R. (1979) Drums of West Africa: Ritual Music of Ghana. Ethnomusicology, 23(2), 366. DOI: 10.2307/851482  

  • March 25, 2014
  • 12:02 AM
  • 478 views

“I am Working-Class”: Self-Identification as a Measure of Social Class in Educational Research

by Mark Rubin in Mark Rubin's Social Psychology Research Blog

Governments around the world are trying to open up higher education to working-class people. For example, in January this year, the White House released a report titled: "Increasing college opportunity for low-income students: Promising models and a call to action." In the context of this general push towards widening participation in higher education, my colleagues and I have been developing a research project that aims to investigate social class differences in social integration among students atuniversity. After all, we need to bring working-class people into our universities socially and psychologically as well as physically. As we developed our research project, we quickly realised that the measurement of social class is an extremely contentious issue, with different researchers often preferring different measures. In particular, we noticed that there was a clear divergence between social psychologists and educational researchers in the types of social class measures that they used. Following the recommendations of a 2006 American Psychological Association report on measuring social class, modern-day social psychologists use subjective, self-identification measures of social class alongside more objective measures of income, occupation, and education (for a good example, see Michael Kraus’work). In contrast, educational researchers have tended to restrict themselves to objective measures and to ignore the more subjective aspects of social class (for a recent review, see Rubin, 2012; for a notable exception, see Ostrove & Long, 2007). We have discussed this interdisciplinary discrepancy in a recent review article published online this month in Educational Researcher. In our article, we call for educational researchers to follow the lead of social psychologists and complement (not replace) their objective measures of social class with measures of subjective social class. We believe that subjective measures are not only valid and reliable but also more direct and sensitive in their assessment of social class compared with objective measures. Most importantly, subjective measures tap the social identity aspect of social class, and they give a voice to students’ own opinions about their social class.

For further information, please see the following article: Rubin, M., Denson, N., Kilpatrick, S., Matthews, K., Stehlik, T., & Zyngier, D. (2014). "I am working-class": Subjective self-definition as a missing measure of social class and socioeconomic status in higher education research. Educational Researcher DOI: 10.3102/0013189X14528373... Read more »

  • March 24, 2014
  • 09:43 AM
  • 385 views

Oral Health Status among 12 Year Old Children in a Rural Kenyan Community

by JDOH in JScholar Publishers

Dental caries remains a common disease among school-aged children and is thought to be increasing worldwide, especially in developing countries. The Oral Health Country/Area Profile Project reported that the Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, a standard indicator of oral health, increased steadily from 1.15 in 2004 to 1.19 in 2011 in 12-year-old children living in African countries [1]. In contrast, a systematic review of information published from 1967 to 1997 concluded that the DMFT index among 11–13-year-old in Sub-Saharan Africa had not increased significantly during this earlier time period [2,3]. However, assessing long-term trends in the incidence of dental caries is difficult due to the lack of nationwide survey data in most African countries. Several studies have examined oral health status among schoolchildren in Kenya, but they have mainly been conducted in urban areas and cross sectional in nature. Accordingly, neither the current oral health status nor changes over time is adequately documented in rural Kenyan schoolchildren.

For full-text of the article please visit: http://www.jscholaronline.org/full-text/JDOH/201/Oral-Health-Status-among-12-Year-Old-Children-in-a-Rural-Kenyan-Community.php... Read more »

Yoshihiko Hayashi, Cyril N. Ogada, Eunice Kihara, Evelyn G. Wagaiyu, Hideki Fukuda*. (2014) Oral Health Status among 12 Year Old Children in a Rural Kenyan Community. JOURNAL OF DENTISTRY AND ORAL HEALTH, 2(1), 1-5. info:/JDOH 2: 101

  • March 23, 2014
  • 04:56 AM
  • 394 views

Invisible Cure For TBI: Good News For NFL And US Army?

by Harsha Radhakrishnan in United Academics

In a recent review in Nature Reviews Neurology, Sharp et al. have discussed the possibility of using network level analysis to further understand effects of TBI and hopefully develop treatment methods.... Read more »

Sharp, D., Scott, G., & Leech, R. (2014) Network dysfunction after traumatic brain injury. Nature Reviews Neurology, 10(3), 156-166. DOI: 10.1038/nrneurol.2014.15  

  • March 18, 2014
  • 02:35 AM
  • 354 views

Mixed Models in Sports and Health

by Altea Lorenzo in FreshBiostats, Young researchers in Biostatistics

Short literature review of papers using mixed models in the area of sports and health... Read more »

Casals, M., & Martinez, J.A. (2013) Modelling player performance in basketball through mixed models . Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 13(1), 64-82. info:/

McHale, I., & Szczepański, L. (2014) A mixed effects model for identifying goal scoring ability of footballers. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), 177(2), 397-417. DOI: 10.1111/rssa.12015  

  • March 12, 2014
  • 07:41 PM
  • 576 views

Canines and Castles: 4th Canine Science Forum Abstract & Early Bird Registration Deadline Friday

by Cobb & Hecht in Do You Believe In Dog?

“Two canine scientists, Julie Hecht and Mia Cobb, met briefly at a conference in Barcelona in late July 2012. They share a passion for canine science, good communication, social media and fun.” So reads the 'About' page at Do You Believe in Dog?. After a brief hello at the 3rd Canine Science Forum in Barcelona, we decided to embark on an adventure as digital pen pals, taking turns blogging on topics related to our own research, that of other research groups and general dog science themes. In the last two years, Do You Believe in Dog? has grown to include a blog with over 100 posts, contributions from guest blogging canine scientists around the world, as well as vibrant Facebook and Twitter communities.Pretty soon, it’ll be time for the 4th Canine Science Forum (Facebook) July 15-17, 2014 in Lincoln, UK! The conference will be proceeded by the 1st Feline Science Forum, July 14, same location, as well as a day dedicated to Companion Animals - Human Health & Disease, July 18, same location (scroll down for the program).This is a reminder that this Friday, March 14, 2014, is the deadline for abstract submission and early bird conference registration.The scientific programme includes a number of already scheduled talks. Read about the invited speakers here: Prof. Benjamin Hart (USA) From the Woods to Home: What Wolves Tell Us About Dog BehaviorDr. Mariana Bentosela (Argentina) ‘Reinforcement effects upon interspecific communication in domestic dogs. What do we know so far?’Dr Erik Axelsson (Sweden) ‘What makes the dog special – The canine genome in comparison with other mammalian genomes’Prof. Clive D. L. Wynne (USA) ‘Comparative Cognition of Dogs and Wolves: What Makes a Dog a Dog?’Prof. Claudio Sillero (UK) ‘What shapes dog society? Cooperation in the wonderfully adaptable Canidae’Dr. John Finarelli (Ireland) ‘Patterns and processes from the fossil record of canids’Prof. James Serpell (USA) Public Lecture ~~Did we mention the Gala Dinner is in a Castle?See you at the 4th Canine Science Forum in Lincoln, UK!Mia and Julie Check out some of the science presented at CSF2012:Cobb M., Branson N. & McGreevy P. (2013). Advancing the welfare of Australia’s iconic working dogs, Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 8 (4) e42-e43. DOI: 10.1016/j.jveb.2013.04.054Hecht J. & Horowitz A. (2013). Physical prompts to anthropomorphism of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris), Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 8 (4) e30. DOI: 10.1016/j.jve... Read more »

Cobb Mia, Branson Nick, & McGreevy Paul. (2013) Advancing the welfare of Australia’s iconic working dogs. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 8(4). DOI: 10.1016/j.jveb.2013.04.054  

Hecht J., & Horowitz A. (2013) Physical prompts to anthropomorphism of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 8(4). DOI: 10.1016/j.jveb.2013.04.013  

Racca A., Range F., Virányi Z., & Huber L. (2013) Discrimination of familiar human faces in domestic dogs. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 8(4). DOI: 10.1016/j.jveb.2013.04.071  

Howell Tiffani J., Toukhsati Samia, Conduit Russell, & Bennett Pauleen. (2013) Do dogs use a mirror to find hidden food?. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 8(6), 425-430. DOI: 10.1016/j.jveb.2013.07.002  

  • March 12, 2014
  • 04:12 PM
  • 466 views

Audience analysis chart

by Olga Vovk in Milchstraße

A helpful way of gathering information about your readers is to conduct an audience analysis using a chart where on the x axis you list all possible and potential audiences you consider and on the y axis list audience analysis questions. ... Read more »

Carrie Ann Koplinka-Loehr. (1984) The Use of Educational Theory in Science Writing: Audience Analysis and Accommodation. Cornell University. info:/

Butcher, G. (2005) Using audience analysis in the development of web sites. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting. info:other/#ED53B-01

  • March 7, 2014
  • 02:15 AM
  • 395 views

How intensive care is linked to cognitive defecits

by Rebekah Morrow in United Academics

Patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) often develop cognitive deficits. The symptoms are very similar to Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia. New research focuses on this link. ... Read more »

Pandharipande PP1, Girard TD, Jackson JC, Morandi A, Thompson JL, Pun BT, Brummel NE, Hughes CG, Vasilevskis EE, Shintani AK, Moons KG, Geevarghese SK, Canonico A, Hopkins RO, Bernard GR, Dittus RS, Ely EW; BRAIN-ICU Study Investigators. (2014) Long-Term Cognitive Impairment after Critical Illness. New England Journal of Medicine, 370(2), 184-186. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc1313886  

  • March 6, 2014
  • 09:07 AM
  • 453 views

What’s My Sex Again? Self-image And Gender Affected By Media

by Eva de Lozanne in United Academics

Study shows that sex-priming substantially influences gender-based self-perception... Read more »

  • March 3, 2014
  • 10:10 AM
  • 369 views

Why People Pay Fortunes For Celebrity Memorabilia

by Agnese Mariotti in United Academics

Objects that belonged to famous personalities are very wanted. People pay incredibly high prices to obtain them. Researchers found that the price of an object was influenced by the estimated amount of physical contact that the celebrity had with it. Two theories may explain this finding. ... Read more »

  • March 2, 2014
  • 12:13 AM
  • 653 views

Tree types of audience

by Olga Vovk in Milchstraße

Interestingly enough, as soon as one starts answering audience analysis questions, one realizes that there is more than one potential audience. Sometimes one can count 3 to 6 (and even more) different groups of people who made up for different audiences. Yes they all will read your communication.... Read more »

Carrie Ann Koplinka-Loehr. (1984) The Use of Educational Theory in Science Writing: Audience Analysis and Accommodation. Cornell University. info:/

Butcher, G. (2005) Using audience analysis in the development of web sites. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting. info:other/#ED53B-01

  • March 1, 2014
  • 07:42 AM
  • 406 views

Suicide in organisms can benefit kin

by Flora Brils in United Academics

Researchers found that in single-celled algae, suicide is altruistic and helps the organism’s relatives. An interview with the researcher about his findings and the implications for human suicide.... Read more »

  • February 28, 2014
  • 05:10 AM
  • 442 views

Sing me a song: the link between bird song and classical music

by Nura Rutten in United Academics

Researchers define the attractiveness of bird song to humans... Read more »

Hsu, K., & Hsu, A. (1990) Fractal geometry of music. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 87(3), 938-941. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.87.3.938  

  • February 24, 2014
  • 03:06 PM
  • 440 views

Audience analysis – 1

by olga Vovk in Milchstraße

The audience analysis is an important task, which should be done at the very beginning of the writing process, but which is often overlooked in both scientific, technical, and technology writing.... Read more »

Carrie Ann Koplinka-Loehr. (1984) The Use of Educational Theory in Science Writing: Audience Analysis and Accommodation. Cornell University. info:/

  • February 21, 2014
  • 08:21 AM
  • 502 views

Virtual Customer Service Agents: Any Help?

by Nura Rutten in United Academics

Perhaps you are able to recall this, but there was a time that if you had a question or a complaint, you could go to a building, with a desk, and there was an actual person to talk to and get annoyed with. Nowadays, you type hours of your life away writing emails or filling in contact forms, while being on hold at the customer service for days in a row. However, not long ago, the virtual customer service agent (VCSA) appeared. ... Read more »

  • February 21, 2014
  • 02:51 AM
  • 399 views

No Sex Please: Understanding Asexuality

by Elisabeth Buhl Thubron in United Academics

Lack of sexual interest in a highly sexualised Western society: how does that work? Interest in this topic has sky-rocketed in the past decade, yet we still know very little about it. Once thought to be a psychological or biological disorder, asexuality is slowly being accepted as a normal orientation separate from sexual orientations such as heterosexuality and homosexuality.... Read more »

Van Houdenhove E, Gijs L, T'sjoen G, & Enzlin P. (2013) Asexuality: Few Facts, Many Questions. Journal of sex . PMID: 24134401  

  • February 20, 2014
  • 10:17 PM
  • 731 views

Smart Materials from Nanotechnology for Global Challenges

by JNSM in JScholar Publishers

There are several open challenges that our society has to address in the near future: produce sufficient amounts of clean energy from renewable sources, design new technologies that enable a sustainable economic growth, address some relevant environmental issues like quality of air and water or waste recycling, improve our standard of life via more accurate diagnostic tools and new medical treatments, just to mention a few. Most of these challenges deal with the design, synthesis, characterization and industrial production of new smart materials. Smart materials are defined as materials with properties engineered to change in a controlled and desired way. This can be obtained by applying a specific external stimulus like a temperature change, an external voltage, a force, a magnetic field, a change in pH, or a change in concentration of chemical species. Nanoscience and nanotechnology today offer an incredible potential for the conceptual design and the practical realization of radically new smart materials that can help solve some of the aforementioned global challenges.... Read more »

Gianfranco Pacchioni. (2014) Smart Materials from Nanotechnology for Global Challenges. Journal of Nanotechnology and Smart Materials, 1(1), 1-1. info:/1: 101

  • February 12, 2014
  • 07:47 PM
  • 589 views

Scientific Approaches to Enriching the Lives of Sanctuary Wolves and Wolf-Dog “Hybrids”

by Cobb & Hecht in Do You Believe In Dog?

Hi Julie and Mia, I wanted to update you on some unique but exciting research that I conducted while working toward my Ph.D. at the University of Florida’s Canine Cognition and Behavior Lab. This particular research focuses on the welfare of wolves and wolf-dog “hybrids” in private sanctuaries.The common use of the term “hybrid” is perhaps the first indication of how poorly we understand these animals. The term “hybrid” is technically inaccurate – as wolves and domestic dogs are considered taxonomically the same species, so “wolfdog” or “wolf-dog cross” is more accurate. It is estimated that there are 300,000-500,000 wolfdogs in the United States, but a solid census – as well as reliable means of identifying them – is sorely needed. Hundreds of wolfdogs are either euthanized or surrendered to sanctuaries - permanent residences for unwanted, abused and neglected wolves and wolfdogs that cannot be adopted out by shelters. Although typically filled to capacity, private sanctuaries have little funding opportunities, often relying only modest private donations and volunteers to keep the facility running and ensure that the animals’ needs adequately met. Consequently, the cost of implementing traditional enrichment items (e.g., toys, objects, scents) to keep the animals stimulated may neither address this goal or prove to be financially feasible. In many cases, the goal of enrichment for captive animals is not only to increase species-typical behaviors and activity levels, but to reduce or eliminate undesirable behaviors as well. Interaction with regular, experienced volunteers, however, is an alternative approach. Many animals arrive at sanctuaries with long histories of human interaction, having been obtained by their former owners from breeders at a young age and raised in an environment similar to our pet dogs. The ResearchWe observed three pairs of wolfdogs and one pair of wolves, all of which resided for at least six months at Big Oak Wolf Sanctuary in Green Cove Springs, Florida. For years, owners John and Debra Knight and their volunteers have prioritized daily human interaction sessions to their animals without the use of food-based reinforcers. This provided a unique opportunity for me to examine the effects of human interaction alone on the animals’ behavior. Was there any scientific merit to my observations, or did I simply just want to believe that these animals were responding positively to their new lives? This also seemed to be an ideal opportunity to investigate whether human interaction was a a legitimate enrichment strategy for a captive animal population. The FindingsFor all subjects, the levels of positive, species-typical affiliative behaviors increased, as did their overall increased activity levels. Remarkably, subjects spent significantly more time playing with the other animal in their enclosure when human interaction was provided. In this way, it appears that human interaction also enhances the behaviors between the paired animals.Three wolfdogs also exhibited pacing (widely considered a stereotypic behavior in captive animals) in initial baselines. The pacing was reduced substantially or eliminated for during a human interaction sessions.These findings, published in the most recent issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, collectively support the notion that human interaction is in itself enriching for well-socialized wolves and wolfdogs. Needless to say, these results did not come as a surprise to volunteers at Big Oak (or the other sanctuaries I have worked with) – who have spent countless hours closely interacting with their animals. More data is certainly needed to determine if this effect is true for other wolves and wolfdogs at other sanctuaries, as well as the long-term effects of human interaction on behavioral welfare. Although the lack of scientific studies on wolfdog behavior leaves many opportunities to scientists interested in studying them, it poses a difficulty for the general public who seek objective, reliable information on wolfdogs. So, I think it’s worth ending with some recommendations for future reading.You will likely come to find that everyone has their own opinion on wolfdogs – and that is because no two wolfdogs are the same; nor are any of our experiences with them identical. I hope you’ve enjoyed reading, and I look forward to research that continues to examine ways of further improving the welfare of these wonderful – but often misunderstood – animals. Best,Lindsay R. MehrkamPh.D. CandidateCanine Cognition & Behavior LabUniversity of Florida  PS: Big Oak Wolf Sanctuary is in need of donations. Details here: http://www.bigoakwolfsanctuary.org/donate.aspFurther Reading:... Read more »

  • February 11, 2014
  • 02:49 AM
  • 515 views

Is Parapsychology a "Taboo" Subject in Science?

by Scott McGreal in Eye on Psych

An opinion piece recently published in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, endorsed by 90 signatories calls for a more “open-minded” consideration of the subject. What particularly struck me about this piece was the claim that investigation into the subject is not just controversial, but actually “taboo”. Examination of the history of parapsychology indicates that the scientific mainstream has shown considerable open-mindedness towards the subject, and that claims that it has been treated as some sort of “forbidden” topic are both hyperbolic and disingenuous.... Read more »

  • February 4, 2014
  • 06:50 AM
  • 544 views

Stereotypical dogs: repetitive and pointless?

by Cobb & Hecht in Do You Believe In Dog?

"I'm a labrador" does not = "I'm hungry" (source)Hey Julie,it's great to get an updated view of what's on the canine science cards for you in 2014 - looks like we're both going to be keeping busy - and wouldn't have it any other way!I can't believe we're already into February, to be honest. There are so many great new publications coming out, it's quite exciting to be able to share them with you here! You know I'm always thinking about the welfare of kennelled dogs (because PhD!) and I noticed a new study from the University of Bristol titled Repetitive behaviour in kennelled domestic dog: Stereotypical or not? (reference given below). Now of course, you know we're not talking about "all labradors are greedy" or "all little dogs are yappy" kind of stereotypes here, we're talking about describing a specific type of behaviour.I know you're interested in stereotypical animal behaviour too, so I wanted to share this with you! As you know, stereotypical behaviours have traditionally be thought of as repetitive and invariant behaviour patterns with no obvious goal or function.  Typical stereotypies that many people would be familiar with, include elephants in zoos/circuses swinging their trunks and/or swaying side to side; horses 'weaving' in stables; and bears route tracing when in captivity:In these situations, it's generally understood that the behaviour is the result of the animal feeling frustrated, fearful, restrained, stressed or lacking stimulation and when seen frequently, is often considered an indicator of poor welfare. Determining whether such behaviours are 'without function' has proven difficult. Research over the past decade has shed more light on the reasons animals might develop these behaviour patterns, and suggests that performing the behaviour is not always without a function, but can actually serve a role in helping animals to cope. We have discovered that the animals showing frequent stereotypical behaviour may not be the individuals suffering the most (you know that old saying - it's the quiet ones you've got to watch!).   As such, a refined definition better separates 'abnormal repetitive behaviours' from 'stereotypical behaviours' (which are considered to be caused by inadequate housing that causes frustration and may be overcome with appropriate change of environment including social and/or environmental enrichment). Dog-focussed research in this area has shown that kennelled dogs kept in restricted environments (such as laboratories or rescue shelters) may show behaviour as pacing, circling, spinning, wall bouncing or barking:The new research from Bristol set out to investigate if every dog observed in a working dog facility showing repetitive behaviour could really be described as stereotypical (which would suggest they were experiencing compromised welfare). The researchers examined the behaviour and physiology (using the urine's cortisol/creatinine ratio) of 30 German Shepherd Police dogs. They saw repetitive behaviours in over 40% of the behavioural samples in response to ten deliberately arousing activities (such as a kennel staff member standing outside the kennel yard, clicking the clip of a leash - indicating exercise time; or a full food bowl being placed outside the front of the kennel enclosure; or a stranger walking through the kennel complex). Only two individual dogs were not observed performing any repetitive behaviour.The study confirmed that dogs housed in kennel facilities long-term commonly exhibit repetitive behaviours when presented with a variety of routine activities as stimuli; also showing that individual dogs differ in the way that they respond.Some dogs only engaged in repetitive behaviours only during husbandry events when a person was there. Most dogs showed more than one of: circle, spin, bounce, pace, generally in some kind of combination (the spin an... Read more »

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