Oxytocin, sometimes called ”The Love Hormone“, has emerged over the past decade as somewhat of a magical substance. It has been known for some time to be central in mother-child bonding in animals, but more recently has been implicated in human behaviors, like increasing trust in strangers. The excitement over oxytocin has encouraged scientists to better understand its effects and some studies have recently revealed a “dark side” to oxytocin, like increased anxiety.... Read more »
Guzmán YF, Tronson NC, Jovasevic V, Sato K, Guedea AL, Mizukami H, Nishimori K, & Radulovic J. (2013) Fear-enhancing effects of septal oxytocin receptors. Nature neuroscience. PMID: 23872596
For more than a decade, studies have reported a drop in the numbers of pollinator species, such as bees and butterflies, but so far computer models have predicted that plant communities would be able to recover from this cutback. However, it turns out that losing just a single bumblebee species can have a dramatic impact on plant reproduction, by changing how remaining pollinators react, says a study published in PNAS.
“I had been sceptical of the computer models that predict strong resilience of plant communities to pollinator species losses for some time”, said Dr Berry Brosi, ecologist from Emory University and first author in the study. “I was particularly dubious of the assumption that there will be no change in the interactions between plants and pollinators when you lose species from the system.”... Read more »
Brosi BJ, & Briggs HM. (2013) Single pollinator species losses reduce floral fidelity and plant reproductive function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. PMID: 23878216
by Terrific T in Science, I Choose You
This is part 2 of my 4-part series about studying gender bias in science (See part 1). For studies using existing data, we look at information that is already available, and learn from the information through data analysis. The difficulty in these studies is that because you are not in control of how the information […]... Read more »
Isbell Lynne A., Young Truman P., Harcourt Alexander H., & Lambert Joanna E. (2012) Stag Parties Linger: Continued Gender Bias in a Female-Rich Scientific Discipline. PLoS ONE, 7(11). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049682.g002
Schroeder J., Dugdale H. L., Radersma R., Hinsch M., Buehler D. M., Saul J., Porter L., Liker A., De Cauwer I., & Johnson P. J. (2013) Fewer invited talks by women in evolutionary biology symposia. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. DOI: 10.1111/jeb.12198
Taking antioxidant supplements when exercising could do more harm than good.... Read more »
Gliemann, L., Schmidt, J.F., Olesen, J., Biensø, S.U., Mortensen, S.P., Nyberg, M., Bangsbo, J., Pilegaard, H. and Hellsten, Y. (2013) Resveratrol blunts the positive effects of exercise training on cardiovascular health in aged men. The Journal of Physiology. DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2013.258061
Nanoparticles heated by an alternating magnetic field could be used to treat cancers.... Read more »
Huang TE . (2013) Intravenous magnetic nanoparticle cancer hyperthermia. International Journal of Nanomedicine . DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S43770
The microbes of an organism could affect the evolution of a new species.... Read more »
Robert M. Brucker and Seth R. Bordenstein. (2013) The Hologenomic Basis of Speciation: Gut Bacteria Cause Hybrid Lethality in the Genus Nasonia. Science. info:/
The DNA of Albert Perry may change the story of human origins. Perry, an African-American, approached a DNA testing company to find out more about his ancestry. The results would have come as quite a surprise (had he lived to see them), and have raised questions for geneticists around the world.
It turns out that Perry carried a very different type of Y chromosome, never seen before. Every male has a Y chromosome, which is a piece of DNA inherited by sons from their fathers. But, unlike most DNA, the Y chromosome is not shuffled as it is passed down, and changes only slowly through mutation. Tracking these mutations allows scientists to create a genetic tree of fathers and sons going back through time.... Read more »
Batini C, & Jobling MA. (2011) The jigsaw puzzle of our African ancestry: unsolved, or unsolvable?. Genome biology, 12(6), 118. PMID: 21722347
Strange as it may seem, water doesn’t actually freeze at zero degrees. In fact, even at temperatures as cold as -10°C, water still needs help turning into ice. Living creatures of all stripes have learned to take advantage of this curious fact in different ways, though none have done so with quite as much style as bacteria.... Read more »
Constantinidou HA, Hirano SS, Baker LS, . (2013) Atmospheric Dispersal of Ice Nucleation-Active Bacteria: The Role of Rain Phytopathology. Phytopathology. DOI: 10.1094/Phyto-80-934
Morris CE, Sands DC, Vinatzer BA, Glaux C, Guilbaud C, Buffière A, Yan S, Dominguez H, . (2008) he life history of the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae is linked to the water cycle. The ISME journal. DOI: 10.1038/ismej.2007.113
The famous paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould once asked what would happen if we were to ‘replay the tape of life’. How different or similar would it turn out? He himself thought it could be profoundly different. In other words, in his view evolution is unrepeatable.
However, instances of convergent evolution, where organisms of a different pedigree can evolve to look surprisingly similar, have caused some to ask whether there might not be somewhat predictable patterns or trends in the grand process that is evolution. Just think of a tuna (fish), dolphin (mammal), and ichthyosaur (reptile). Look quite similar, don’t they?... Read more »
Mahler, D.L.; Ingram, T.; Revell, L.J. . (2013) Exceptional Convergence on the Macroevolutionary Landscape in Island Lizard Radiations. Science. DOI: 10.1126/science.1232392
n a paper published in March 2013, Drs. Rohan, Heo, Choi and colleagues have examined the relationship between body fat and the risk for development of breast cancer in post-menopausal women. ... Read more »
Rohan TE, Heo M, Choi L, Datta M, Freudenheim JL, Kamensky V, Ochs-Balcom HM, Qi L, Thomson CA, Vitolins MZ.... (2013) Body fat and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: a longitudinal study. Journal of cancer epidemiology, 754815. PMID: 23690776
The road to market for a promising new therapy can be notoriously long and treacherous. Before the first small-scale clinical trials in humans can even be contemplated, a new therapy (such as a drug or surgical procedure) must first pass muster in preclinical animal studies.... Read more »
Tsilidis KK, Panagiotou OA, Sena ES, Aretouli E, Evangelou E, Howells DW, Salman RA, Macleod MR . (2013) Evaluation of excess significance bias in animal studies of neurological diseases. PLoS Biology . DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001609
Hi Julie, I loved hearing from Clare Browne about her research into timing of reinforcement in our first guest post last week, and it certainly stimulated lots of great comments and questions on Facebook and Google+. I know you've been busy Chaser-ing around (lucky ducks, both!) and there's also all those amazing conferences happening this week, what with the ISAZ, IAHAIO and AVSAB events on in Chicago, so just a very quick post from me this week! You know how we recently put together out list of top ten books for the Science Book a Day team? Well, Chaser's upcoming book release reminded me that we should put them all in one place here, so that we (or anyone else looking for a canine science book or fourteen) could find them easily if needed. Science Book A DayIn no particular order, here they are: McGreevy (2009) A Modern Dog’s Life. A fabulous book, written with humour and insight, that offers a modern take on what challenges and motivates our dogs and how we can best meet their needs.http://doyoubelieveindog.blogspot.com/2012/09/todays-favorites-paul-mcgreevys-books.htmlSearch to purchase: http://booko.com.au/9781742231051/A-Modern-Dog-s-LifeHorowitz (2009) Inside of a Dog.What’s it like to be a dog? This book covers the science of how dogs think and perceive the world and is accompanied by personal reflections on Horowitz’s own dog’s behaviour. Get to know the umwelt of the dog.http://doyoubelieveindog.blogspot.com.au/2012/12/tis-season-to-be-doggy-fa-la-la-la-laaaa.htmlSearch to purchase: http://booko.com.au/9781451672756/Inside-of-a-Dog Bradshaw (2012) Dog Sense: How the New Science of Dog Behavior Can Make You a Better Friend to Your Pet.This recent publication answers the very important question: “What’s good for dogs?” Exp... Read more »
Ramos Daniela, Ades Cesar, & Dornhaus Anna. (2012) Two-Item Sentence Comprehension by a Dog (Canis familiaris). PLoS ONE, 7(2). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029689.g002
van der Zee Emile, Zulch Helen, Mills Daniel, & Dornhaus Anna. (2012) Word Generalization by a Dog (Canis familiaris): Is Shape Important?. PLoS ONE, 7(11). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049382.s003
You know it’s not only you and me who are constantly evolving by adjusting to our living environment; There are millions of others too who are doing this job as efficiently as it could be. Researchers from University of Illinois have discovered that gut bacteria facilitate the adaptation of the western corn rootworm, which is basically a beetle, to crop rotation.... Read more »
Chu CC, Spencer JL, Curzi MJ, Zavala JA, & Seufferheld MJ. (2013) Gut bacteria facilitate adaptation to crop rotation in the western corn rootworm. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. PMID: 23798396
Is the lifespan of a neuron is proportional to the lifespan of its species?... Read more »
Magrassi L, Leto K, . (2013) Lifespan of neurons is uncoupled from organismal lifespan. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1217505110
Monday mornings. They drag. Getting the ol’ noodle back into work-mode, especially after a fun summer weekend, can be a tall order. Many of us head straight for the classic boost – a cup of Joe – to help combat a case of the Monday’s but some new studies suggest that chewing gum could also provide some relief by enhancing our brain’s arousal, alertness, and attention.
In a recent study published in the British Journal of Psychology, Morgan and colleagues assessed the performance of 40 psychology undergraduate students on an auditory vigilance task while chomping on a wad of gum.... Read more »
The criminal justice system has always been at the sharp end of race relations in the United States. Not only have African Americans been treated more harshly than whites as suspects and offenders, they have been taken less seriously as victims.... Read more »
Tushar Kansal. (2005) RACIAL DISPARITY IN SENTENCING: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE. The Sentencing Project. info:/
The Western lifestyle, with its abundant fast food, is wreaking havoc with our waistlines and sending many of us to early graves. A high fat, high salt, low cost diet has been fuelling an obesity epidemic in industrialised nations and, increasingly, in developing countries. While the consequences of obesity, such as an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, fatty liver, arthritis and cancer are well known, public health solutions are thin on the ground.... Read more »
Poutahidis T, Kleinewietfeld M, Smillie C, Levkovich T, Perrotta A et al. (2013) Microbial reprogramming inhibits Western diet-associated obesity. PLoS ONE. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068596
Do You Believe in Dog? is approaching our one-year anniversary (Wow! Yay!!!), and in the coming months, we will be opening up the blog to guest posts from other researchers exploring canine behaviour, cognition and welfare. Give a warm welcome to our first guest, Clare Browne from the University of Waikato in New Zealand. Hi Mia and Julie,As you both know from the last Canine Science Forum, my PhD investigates dog-human communication and how this communication affects dog training.(source)I would like to claim that everyone is New Zealand is a fantastic dog trainer and we all communicate brilliantly with our dogs, but alas, we’re just like everyone else. It turns out that when people give feedback to dogs during training, we’re often a bit slow. Let me explain...You’re no doubt aware that if we want to increase the likelihood that a behaviour occurs again, positive reinforcement (AKA “rewarding” -- adding something to keep the behaviour going) will achieve this. The types of positive reinforcement that are most commonly used in everyday dog training are verbal praise, food, and patting/petting. My PhD studies investigated two things: a) how fast are dog owners delivering positive reinforcement to dogs; and b) does it matter if owners are slow in providing dogs with reinforcement?Not really Clare's gumbootsTo answer the first of these questions, I put on my gumboots and spent many evenings at my friendly local dog clubs, filming owners training their dogs in beginner classes. I collected 1,810 instances where commands were given to dogs. I then went slightly mad and spent months watching videos of people training their dogs. Figure 1 shows how all the dogs responded to their owners, and 44% of the time, dogs did not respond to their owners at all. This one result made me feel like I wasn’t wasting all these years of my PhD – there clearly is a need for research into the efficacy of dog training!I used some fancy computer software and measured very precisely (down to 25 frames per second) the time between when the owners said the command and when the dogs performed the behavior, like laying down or sitting. I found that owners varied a lot in the time it took them to deliver positive reinforcement to their dogs. Some owners were almost instantaneous with their praise and then the treat followed quickly, whereas others took ages – the longest time was over 6 s! (That might not sound long to you, but try imagining that you’re a Labrador and having to wait 6 s for a treat, all of a sudden it’s a much more serious situation.) But does this even matter? Had I gone mad watching videos in my darkened office for no good reason?... Read more »
Browne Clare M., Starkey Nicola J., Foster T. Mary, & McEwan James S. (2013) What dog owners read: A review of best-selling books. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 8(4). DOI: 10.1016/j.jveb.2013.04.040
Do Virgos and Capricorns or Leos and Libras match?
Ok, let’s get it over with. There are so many people believing in matching sun signs, sometimes even seeming to have a point stating that the influence of the sun and stars can not be underestimated, that it’s time to put it to the test. Luckily David Voas, researcher at the University of Manchester, did so already in 2007.... Read more »
David Voas, Cathie Marsh. (2007) Ten million marriages: A test of astrological ‘love signs’. Centre for Census and Survey Research. info:/
It is stated that men could benefit from 60 minutes of aerobic exercise, even if they have not been active in a regular basis their whole life. It is as simple as this: during exercise, certain molecule levels will fluctuate, which will result in an adverse environment for prostate tumor development and progression.... Read more »
Rullman E, Mijwel S. (2013) Rundqvist H, Augsten M, Strömberg A, . Effect of Acute Exercise on Prostate Cancer Cell Growth. PLoS ONE. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067579
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