A network of interacting brain regions known as the default mode network (DMN) was found to have stronger connections in adults and children with a high risk of depression compared to those with a low risk. These findings suggest that increased DMN connectivity is a potential precursor, or biomarker, indicating a risk of developing major depressive disorder (MDD).... Read more »
Posner, J., Cha, J., Wang, Z., Talati, A., Warner, V., Gerber, A., Peterson, B., & Weissman, M. (2015) Increased Default Mode Network Connectivity in Individuals at High Familial Risk for Depression. Neuropsychopharmacology. DOI: 10.1038/npp.2015.342
How do cancer research decide what experiments to do? And who pays for it...?... Read more »
AG McCluskey. (2015) Money, Money, Money.. Zongo's Cancer Diaries. info:/
Researchers are proposing a new "hydricity" concept aimed at creating a sustainable economy by not only generating electricity with solar energy but also producing and storing hydrogen from superheated water for round-the-clock power production.... Read more »
Emre Gencer, Dharik S. Mallapragada, Francois Marechal, Mohit Tawarmalani. (2015) Round-the-clock power supply and a sustainable economy via synergistic integration of solar thermal power and hydrogen processes. Proceedings of the natural sciences academy of the United States of America. info:/http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2015/12/09/1513488112.abstract
A recent study spearheaded by researchers from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel followed 800 eaters to see how their blood sugar levels responded to their meals. It turns out that everybody processes food in her or his unique way.... Read more »
Zeevi, D., Korem, T., Zmora, N., Israeli, D., Rothschild, D., Weinberger, A., Ben-Yacov, O., Lador, D., Avnit-Sagi, T., Lotan-Pompan, M.... (2015) Personalized Nutrition by Prediction of Glycemic Responses. Cell, 163(5), 1079-1094. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.11.001
Research shows that our hearts beat in sync when we think about trusting each other.
trust, heart, heartbeat, synchronisation, public goods game
Trust is a crucial part of society, building complicated links between individuals, companies and even nations, but behavioural scientists have struggled to find a way to measure the physiological signs of trust. A new study suggests that our hearts might hold a clue: the heart rates of people who think about trusting one another start to beat in sync.
Researchers from Aarhus University in Denmark studied the heartbeats of 37 pairs of participants as they solved four building tasks using Lego toys. The researchers then studied the heartbeats of a further 20 pairs of participants as they solved the same four building tasks, with an additional ‘trust-building’ game between each task. The researchers found that the heartbeats of these pairs sped up and were more strongly synchronised compared to the heartbeats of pairs who did not play the trust game.
“This is the first time that anyone has shown that trust between two people can be seen in heart rhythms and we have no idea why it happens,” said Panagiotis Mitkidis, co-author of the study and assistant professor at the Centre for Interacting Minds at Aarhus University.... Read more »
Mitkidis, P., McGraw, J., Roepstorff, A., & Wallot, S. (2015) Building trust: Heart rate synchrony and arousal during joint action increased by public goods game. Physiology , 101-106. DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.05.033
You might be wondering what Pinocchio and Captain Hook have in common. Well, they are both from children’s stories, they both have prosthetics, they have issues with being honest, and they both experience interesting maritime adventures. But there is something else too: they are both annoyed by a continuous ticking sound that follows them everywhere. For Pinocchio it is Jiminy Cricket who bothers him while for Hook the crocodile is ticking merrily away. I can hear you saying: “So? What’s the point? These are fairy tales. We are grownups, we live in the real world!” Right, so let’s look at the real world equivalent to these bothersome sounds.... Read more »
Okamoto, H., Stracke, H., Stoll, W., & Pantev, C. (2009) Listening to tailor-made notched music reduces tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related auditory cortex activity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(3), 1207-1210. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0911268107
Pantev C, Rudack C, Stein A, Wunderlich R, Engell A, Lau P, Wollbrink A, & Shaykevich A. (2014) Study protocol: Münster tinnitus randomized controlled clinical trial-2013 based on tailor-made notched music training (TMNMT). BMC neurology, 40. PMID: 24581050
Pantev, C., Wollbrink, A., Roberts, L., Engelien, A., & Lütkenhöner, B. (1999) Short-term plasticity of the human auditory cortex. Brain Research, 842(1), 192-199. DOI: 10.1016/S0006-8993(99)01835-1
Sanchez, T., & Rocha, C. (2011) Diagnosis and management of somatosensory tinnitus: review article. Clinics, 66(6), 1089-1094. DOI: 10.1590/S1807-59322011000600028
Scientists have found an explanation for one of the big mysteries in climate science with the help of 12,000-year old Swedish midges... Read more »
Muschitiello, F., Pausata, F., Watson, J., Smittenberg, R., Salih, A., Brooks, S., Whitehouse, N., Karlatou-Charalampopoulou, A., & Wohlfarth, B. (2015) Fennoscandian freshwater control on Greenland hydroclimate shifts at the onset of the Younger Dryas. Nature Communications, 8939. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9939
Patent for Bozepinib approved by scientists of University of Granada
Researchers at the University of Granada, Spain, have patented Bozepinib, a drug that inhibits the growth of cancer stem cells in breast, colon and melanoma cancers.
The mechanisms of action of Bozepinib were first described in an article published in the Open Access journal Oncotarget back in 2014. The team showed that Bozepinib was able to inhibit growth and metastasis of tumors in mice without inducing toxicity. Follow-up studies have proved that the drug was able to reduce tumor activity by 50% after forty-one days of treatment.
Bozepinib’s powerful anti-tumorigenic properties are mainly due to the inhibition of HER-2 signaling pathways. In normal cells HER-2 protein is associated with survival, growth and proliferation. However, HER-2 is over-expressed in cancer cells, ultimately leading to a poor prognosis and decreased overall patient survival rate. This makes HER-2 one exciting target for anti-cancer therapies. The ability to target cancer stem cells is one of the aspects that makes Bozepinib a promising drug in cancer treatment.... Read more »
Ramírez A, Boulaiz H, Morata-Tarifa C, Perán M, Jiménez G, Picon-Ruiz M, Agil A, Cruz-López O, Conejo-García A, Campos JM.... (2014) HER2-signaling pathway, JNK and ERKs kinases, and cancer stem-like cells are targets of Bozepinib small compound. Oncotarget, 5(11), 3590-606. PMID: 24946763
Eager to travel to Mars? Think twice!
NASA, galactic cosmic rays, mars, space travel
Explorations of Mars with probes and spacecraft are revealing intriguing features of the Red Planet. The most recent discovery by the NASA spacecraft Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, that liquid water very likely flows on Mars, has stirred enthusiasm among scientists who have been looking for signs of “life-as-we-know-it” on the planet for the last twenty years.
One of the major future goals of both the European and American space agencies, ESA and NASA, is to send human explorers to Mars to carry out investigations that cannot be performed by robots.
But aside from the technical challenges, how safe is it for the human body to travel in the cosmos under a shower of galactic cosmic rays?... Read more »
Using special antibodies to attack HIV
HIV, AIDS, ART, treatment, therapy, health
More than thirty-five million people in the world today are living with HIV/AIDS. In the last few decades there have been concerted, large-scale efforts worldwide to contain the spread of this pandemic and to help infected people survive the virus and live with it.
At the forefront of anti-HIV therapy stands a class of drugs known as anti-retroviral therapy or ART. These drugs are able to reduce the numbers of virus-infected immune cells in blood circulation but are unable to eliminate it completely. One of the major challenges of HIV research is to find ways to eliminate host cells that are infected but are dormant. Once patients stop taking ART, production of viruses from infected reserves of dormant T-cells resumes and the disease progresses anew.
In two recently published papers, scientists from two different labs have achieved some success in activating the virus in dormant T-cells and simultaneously getting the body’s T-cells to target such reactivated cells.... Read more »
Pegu, A., Asokan, M., Wu, L., Wang, K., Hataye, J., Casazza, J., Guo, X., Shi, W., Georgiev, I., Zhou, T.... (2015) Activation and lysis of human CD4 cells latently infected with HIV-1. Nature Communications, 8447. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9447
Sung, J., Pickeral, J., Liu, L., Stanfield-Oakley, S., Lam, C., Garrido, C., Pollara, J., LaBranche, C., Bonsignori, M., Moody, M.... (2015) Dual-Affinity Re-Targeting proteins direct T cell–mediated cytolysis of latently HIV-infected cells. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 125(11), 4077-4090. DOI: 10.1172/JCI82314
Once upon a time there was a high school student who was struggling to write a literature essay. The student couldn’t find anything good about the writer she had to discuss; he simply looked like a depressed misogynist, unable to even properly commit suicide at the first try. There is no need to write and publish a poem called “Death Will Come and Will Have Your Eyes” just because a woman broke up with you (not that the student would blame her), right?
The student grew up, forgetting about the high school essay, and entered the academic world, until one day a colleague invited her to read a research article…... Read more »
Caputo GB. (2015) Dissociation and hallucinations in dyads engaged through interpersonal gazing. Psychiatry research, 228(3), 659-63. PMID: 26112448
Goldstein MA, Kilroy MC, & Van de Voort D. (1976) Gaze as a function of conversation and degree of love. The Journal of psychology, 92(2d Half), 227-234. PMID: 1271300
Prevention of peanut allergies is a controversial issue, leaving society uncertain whether children should eat or avoid peanuts. Recent scientific studies show...... Read more »
Du Toit G, Katz Y, Sasieni P, Mesher D, Maleki SJ, Fisher HR, Fox AT, Turcanu V, Amir T, Zadik-Mnuhin G.... (2008) Early consumption of peanuts in infancy is associated with a low prevalence of peanut allergy. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 122(5), 984-91. PMID: 19000582
Du Toit G, Roberts G, Sayre PH, Bahnson HT, Radulovic S, Santos AF, Brough HA, Phippard D, Basting M, Feeney M.... (2015) Randomized trial of peanut consumption in infants at risk for peanut allergy. The New England journal of medicine, 372(9), 803-13. PMID: 25705822
Gruchalla RS, & Sampson HA. (2015) Preventing peanut allergy through early consumption--ready for prime time?. The New England journal of medicine, 372(9), 875-7. PMID: 25705823
Fleischer DM, Sicherer S, Greenhawt M, Campbell D, Chan E, Muraro A, Halken S, Katz Y, Ebisawa M, Eichenfield L.... (2015) Consensus Communication on Early Peanut Introduction and Prevention of Peanut Allergy in High-Risk Infants. Pediatric dermatology. PMID: 26354148
Gupta R, Holdford D, Bilaver L, Dyer A, Holl JL, & Meltzer D. (2013) The economic impact of childhood food allergy in the United States. JAMA pediatrics, 167(11), 1026-31. PMID: 24042236
The headlines scream, "Sausages Cause Cancer!"
But what are the real risks...?... Read more »
Bouvard, V., Loomis, D., Guyton, K., Grosse, Y., Ghissassi, F., Benbrahim-Tallaa, L., Guha, N., Mattock, H., & Straif, K. (2015) Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat. The Lancet Oncology. DOI: 10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00444-1
AG McCluskey. (2015) A MEaty Subject.. Zongo's Cancer Diaries. info:/
From a new date for earliest life on earth to the potentially controversial findings that Antarctica is gaining more ice than it’s loosing, here are 5 of the latest scientific studies published open-access this week.... Read more »
Bell, E., Boehnke, P., Harrison, T., & Mao, W. (2015) Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201517557. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1517557112
Zwally, H. Jay, Li, Jun, Robbins, John W, Saba, Jack L, Yi, Donghui, & Brenner, Anita C. (2015) Mass gains of the Antarctic ice sheet exceed losses. Journal of Glaciology. DOI: 10.3189/2015JoG15J071
Kim TW, Ping Y, Galli GA, & Choi KS. (2015) Simultaneous enhancements in photon absorption and charge transport of bismuth vanadate photoanodes for solar water splitting. Nature communications, 8769. PMID: 26498984
Tyagi, N., Farnell, E., Fitzsimmons, C., Ryan, S., Tukahebwa, E., Maizels, R., Dunne, D., Thornton, J., & Furnham, N. (2015) Comparisons of Allergenic and Metazoan Parasite Proteins: Allergy the Price of Immunity. PLOS Computational Biology, 11(10). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004546
Barrett, S., Speth, R., Eastham, S., Dedoussi, I., Ashok, A., Malina, R., & Keith, D. (2015) Impact of the Volkswagen emissions control defeat device on US public health. Environmental Research Letters, 10(11), 114005. DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/10/11/114005
Scientists have made the first ever field observations of the Omura's whale -- the least known species of whales in the world. The results are published in the open-access Royal Society Open Science journal.... Read more »
Cerchio, S., Andrianantenaina, B., Lindsay, A., Rekdahl, M., Andrianarivelo, N., & Rasoloarijao, T. (2015) Omura’s whales (Balaenoptera omurai) off northwest Madagascar: ecology, behaviour and conservation needs . Royal Society Open Science, 2(10), 150301. DOI: 10.1098/rsos.150301
There's simply not enough time in the week to write about everything that I'd like! So here are 6 extra short summaries of scientific studies published during the past week, available free via open-access journals for anyone and everyone to read and enjoy!... Read more »
Bergmann, M., Sandhop, N., Schewe, I., & D’Hert, D. (2015) Observations of floating anthropogenic litter in the Barents Sea and Fram Strait, Arctic. Polar Biology. DOI: 10.1007/s00300-015-1795-8
Padowski, J., Gorelick, S., Thompson, B., Rozelle, S., & Fendorf, S. (2015) Assessment of human–natural system characteristics influencing global freshwater supply vulnerability. Environmental Research Letters, 10(10), 104014. DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/10/10/104014
Conrad, T., & Ayasse, M. (2015) The Role of Vibrations in Population Divergence in the Red Mason Bee, Osmia bicornis. Current Biology. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2015.08.059
Luo J, Ault JS, Shay LK, Hoolihan JP, Prince ED, Brown CA, & Rooker JR. (2015) Ocean Heat Content Reveals Secrets of Fish Migrations. PloS one, 10(10). PMID: 26484541
Yoon JH, Wang SY, Gillies RR, Kravitz B, Hipps L, & Rasch PJ. (2015) Increasing water cycle extremes in California and in relation to ENSO cycle under global warming. Nature communications, 8657. PMID: 26487088
Lively, J. (2015) A new species of baenid turtle from the Kaiparowits Formation (Upper Cretaceous, Campanian) of southern Utah. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2015.1009084
DNA from Bronze Age skeletons shows that the plague is truly an ancient disease, and was endemic across Eurasia at least 3,000 years earlier than previously thought.... Read more »
Simon Rasmussen, Morten Erik Allentoft, Kasper Nielsen, Ludovic Orlando, Martin Sikora, Karl-Göran Sjögren, Anders Gorm Pedersen, Mikkel Schubert, Alex Van Dam, Christian Moliin Outzen Kapel.... (2015) Early Divergent Strains of Yersinia pestis in Eurasia 5,000 Years Ago. Cell, 163(3). info:/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2015.10.009
TFTK has found five of the best free maps that show the neighbourhoods most vulnerable to sea level rise.... Read more »
Winkelmann, R., Levermann, A., Ridgwell, A., & Caldeira, K. (2015) Combustion of available fossil fuel resources sufficient to eliminate the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Science Advances, 1(8). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1500589
Strauss BH, Kulp S, & Levermann A. (2015) Carbon choices determine US cities committed to futures below sea level. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. PMID: 26460051
How are cancer survival statistics like the British Cycling team? Answer: Improvements come from lots of little changes. Welcome, to Marginal Gains...... Read more »
Quaresma, M., Coleman, M., & Rachet, B. (2015) 40-year trends in an index of survival for all cancers combined and survival adjusted for age and sex for each cancer in England and Wales, 1971–2011: a population-based study. The Lancet, 385(9974), 1206-1218. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61396-9
AG McCluskey. (2015) Marginal Gains. Zongo's Cancer Diaries. info:/
In the third in the series covering the historical texts suggested in the reading list for INSTG004 Cataloguing, this post discusses the continuing influence of Charles Ammi Cutters' ideas, as expressed in his Rules for a Printed Dictionary Catalogue (1876).... Read more »
Charles Ammi Cutter. (1876) Rules for a Printed Dictionary Catalogue. Internet Archive. info:/
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