Direct displays of respect can reduce conflict in Arab protests, where a premium is placed on honor. Such displays enable people in potentially volatile crowd situations to accrue honor while avoiding risks associated with violent confrontation. These conclusions are based … Continue reading →... Read more »
Sieck, W., Smith, J., Grome, A., Veinott, E., & Mueller, S. (2013) Violent and peaceful crowd reactions in the Middle East: cultural experiences and expectations. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 5(1), 20-44. DOI: 10.1080/19434472.2011.616668
Cheese may be a gourmet’s delight and a major industry these days, but it was probably originally just a good …Continue reading »... Read more »
Salque, M., Bogucki, P., Pyzel, J., Sobkowiak-Tabaka, I., Grygiel, R., Szmyt, M., & Evershed, R. (2012) Earliest evidence for cheese making in the sixth millennium bc in northern Europe. Nature, 493(7433), 522-525. DOI: 10.1038/nature11698
Evershed, R., Payne, S., Sherratt, A., Copley, M., Coolidge, J., Urem-Kotsu, D., Kotsakis, K., Özdoğan, M., Özdoğan, A., Nieuwenhuyse, O.... (2008) Earliest date for milk use in the Near East and southeastern Europe linked to cattle herding. Nature, 455(7212), 528-531. DOI: 10.1038/nature07180
The topic this week in my Intro to Bioanthro course is genetics, with the subtheme being the mechanisms getting us from a genotype to "the" human phenotype (next week is variation and population genetics). Of course we talked about things like DNA, simple Mendelian inheritance (even though many traits/diseases probably aren't really Mendelian), and even epigenetics and genomic imprinting. But I also wanted to point out the many ways that our very existence relies of life extrinsic to that encoded by our personal genomes (this was inspired by the intriguingly titled, "A symbiotic view of life: We have never been individuals," [Gilbert et al., 2012; free pdf]).Mitochondria are classic examples. These "powerhouses of the cell" or "cellular powerplants" (thanks, Wikipedia!) seem to have once been, at least a billion years ago, their own unicellular organisms that somehow came under the employ of early enterprising eukaryotes. These little organelles are indispensable players in cell metabolism, implicated also in ageing and certain diseases.In addition, there's been a lot of research lately on the human 'microbiome' - the specific set of bacteria living in and on our bodies, which aren't incorporated into our individual cells like mitochondria, but are nevertheless requisite for us to thrive. Analyses of poop, of all things (a scatological lecture is always a good one), have revealed that the bacterial composition of human digestive tracts varies between geographical regions, but also that age-related changes in the microbiome are similar between regions (Yatsunenko et al., 2012; see the review by Ed Yong). These bacteria are crucial to our ability to digest certain foods, and some variation in gut flora probably underlies some diseases (Smith et al., 2013); this is why you may have read about a rise in poop transplants lately (van Nood et al., 2013).Finally, and I think perhaps most intriguingly, there is evidence that our own genes may be commandeered by the the RNA produced by the things we eat. Now, the regulation of gene expression is bewilderingly complex, and one important player in this are various types of non-coding RNA, including micro RNA (miRNA), piwi-interacting RNA, etc. (I grew up under the paradigm 'a gene codes for a protein and our genomes contain all this "junk" DNA,' so RNA-interference and the like blow my mind). Recently, Lin Zhang and colleagues (2012) have found that some miRNA produced by plants can not only survive cooking and digestion, but that these miRNAs can actually interact with, and alter the expression of, at least one human gene (involved in removing bad cholesterol in this case). WHAT?!One of the most exciting areas of modern biology is the discovery of the various genetic and developmental mechanisms and processes that literally make us human. Of course the genetics of human uniqueness and variation are, to use a phrase I hate, 'much more complex than previously thought' (such a pervasive mantra in any field of research...). Not only that, but being human, arguably the most successful complex organism in recent history, is something we cannot even do on our own.ReferencesGilbert, S., Sapp, J., & Tauber, A. (2012). A Symbiotic View of Life: We Have Never Been Individuals The Quarterly Review of Biology, 87 (4), 325-341 DOI: 10.1086/668166Smith MI, Yatsunenko T, Manary MJ, Trehan I, Mkakosya R, Cheng J, Kau AL, Rich SS, Concannon P, Mychaleckyj JC, Liu J, Houpt E, Li JV, Holmes E, Nicholson J, Knights D, Ursell LK, Knight R, & Gordon JI (2013). Gut Microbiomes of Malawian Twin Pairs Discordant for Kwashiorkor. Science PMID: 23363771van Nood E, Vrieze A, Nieuwdorp M, Fuentes S, Zoetendal EG, de Vos WM, Visser CE, Kuijper EJ, Bartelsman JF, Tijssen JG, Speelman P, Dijkgraaf MG, & Keller JJ (2013). Duodenal infusion of donor feces for recurrent Clostridium difficile. The New England Journal of Medicine, 368 (5), 407-15 PMID: 23323867Yatsunenko T, Rey FE, Manary MJ, Trehan I, Dominguez-Bello MG, Contreras M, Magris M, Hidalgo G, Baldassano RN, Anokhin AP, Heath AC, Warner B, Reeder J, Kuczynski J, Caporaso JG, Lozupone CA, Lauber C, Clemente JC, Knights D, Knight R, & Gordon JI (2012). Human gut microbiome viewed across age and geography. Nature, 486 (7402), 222-7 PMID: 22699611... Read more »
Gilbert, S., Sapp, J., & Tauber, A. (2012) A Symbiotic View of Life: We Have Never Been Individuals. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 87(4), 325-341. DOI: 10.1086/668166
Smith MI, Yatsunenko T, Manary MJ, Trehan I, Mkakosya R, Cheng J, Kau AL, Rich SS, Concannon P, Mychaleckyj JC.... (2013) Gut Microbiomes of Malawian Twin Pairs Discordant for Kwashiorkor. Science. PMID: 23363771
van Nood E, Vrieze A, Nieuwdorp M, Fuentes S, Zoetendal EG, de Vos WM, Visser CE, Kuijper EJ, Bartelsman JF, Tijssen JG.... (2013) Duodenal infusion of donor feces for recurrent Clostridium difficile. The New England Journal of Medicine, 368(5), 407-15. PMID: 23323867
Yatsunenko T, Rey FE, Manary MJ, Trehan I, Dominguez-Bello MG, Contreras M, Magris M, Hidalgo G, Baldassano RN, Anokhin AP.... (2012) Human gut microbiome viewed across age and geography. Nature, 486(7402), 222-7. PMID: 22699611
Zhang L, Hou D, Chen X, Li D, Zhu L, Zhang Y, Li J, Bian Z, Liang X, Cai X.... (2012) Exogenous plant MIR168a specifically targets mammalian LDLRAP1: evidence of cross-kingdom regulation by microRNA. Cell Research, 22(1), 107-26. PMID: 21931358
A new ecological method of control for an African parasitic disease, an analysis of the benefits and limitations of this approach. ... Read more »
E Markham. (2013) Predatory Prawns. Blogspot. info:/
The skulls have very different forms, they lay in a seemingly insignificant location, and some of them have fingers in their eyes. What happened here?... Read more »
Morehart, C., Peñaloza, A., Sánchez, C., de Tapia, E., & Morales, E. (2012) Human Sacrifice During the Epiclassic Period in the Northern Basin of Mexico. Latin American Antiquity, 23(4), 426-448. DOI: 10.7183/1045-6622.214.171.1246
In a recent post, I reviewed language policy research that shows how compulsory English in China has given rise to new inequities and is far from being a means to fair development. In that context, compulsory English language learning is … Continue reading →... Read more »
Pasassung, Nikolaus. (2003) Teaching English in an "Acquisition-Poor Environment": An Ethnographic Example of a Remote Indonesian EFL Classroom. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Sydney. info:/
Money not only shapes the way that you live, it also can determine the manner of your death. From cemeteries we can infer social status and wealth based on the presence of exotic artifacts and more grave goods than other individuals. For example, the Viking boat burials that consist of entire ships being buried in … Continue reading »... Read more »
Mallios, S., & Caterino, D. (2011) Mortality, Money, and Commemoration: Social and Economic Factors in Southern California Grave-Marker Change During the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. International Journal of Historical Archaeology, 15(3), 429-460. DOI: 10.1007/s10761-011-0152-z
A couple of weeks ago Britain woke up to the news that horse DNA had been found in what supposedly were beef burgers sold at several big-chain supermarkets across the country. Understandably people were upset that they had been sold something different…Read more ›... Read more »
Paleopathology is the study of ancient diseases in human or animal remains. Usually this means analysis of the skeleton. Paleopathology is not a straightforward science. Many diseases do not even appear on bone, and when they do they can present very similar manifestations. For example, periostitis is a non-specific infection of the bone that causes … Continue reading »... Read more »
Armentano, N., Subirana, M., Isidro, A., Escala, O., & Malgosa, A. (2012) An ovarian teratoma of late Roman age. International Journal of Paleopathology, 2(4), 236-239. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpp.2012.11.003
Cope, D., & Dupras, T. (2011) Osteogenesis imperfecta in the archeological record: An example from the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt. International Journal of Paleopathology, 1(3-4), 188-199. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpp.2012.02.001
Two anthropology papers came out yesterday in advance print at the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. I'd like first to draw your attention to the fact that they're open access - normally such scientific papers are behind a paywall, but these two can be obtained by anyone (well, anyone with internet). One is about the chronology and nature of Acheulean technology at the 1.7-1.0 mya site of Konso in Ethiopia. The other, and the subject of this post, is about life history in wild chimpanzees from Uganda.Tanya Smith and colleagues analyzed behavior of chimps and photographs of chimps' erupting first molars ("M1") to determine a] the age at which these events happen in the wild (in this population at least), and b] whether M1 eruption is tightly linked with other important life history variables, such as the adoption of adult foods, as had previously been claimed. What an adorable study - check out figure 1 from the paper (right):Figuring out age at M1 eruption in wild, healthy chimps is important because there has been debate about whether wild chimps actually erupt their teeth at as young of ages as they do in captivity - not natural conditions. This question has recently been investigated in a skeletal sample of wild chimps of known age, from Tai forest in Cote d'Ivoire (Zihlman et al. 2004, T Smith et al. 2010), but somehow these studies raised more questions than they answered (e.g. BH Smith and Boesch 2011). So TM Smith and colleagues decided to further address this question with photographic evidence of living, arguably healthy chimps. I'm kicking myself in the ass because I had this exact same idea a few months ago but had a bit too much on my plate to tacklet it at the time. Life.Anyway, Smith and pals showed found that M1 eruption occurred anywhere from 2.8-3.3 years of age in their sample of 5 cuddly infants, consistent with estimates from captivity. I have to say I'm a bit surprised it wasn't later (but what fun is science if it's not surprising?). Of course, this is based on 5 infants from one population, so it could stand to be reinvestigated in other chimp populations, as the authors note; variation is, after all, key for evolution and a key problem for evolutionary biologists. Maybe I'll get another crack at a photo-based eruption study after all...Smith et al's second task was to see how well age at M1 eruption coincided with other life history variables - this is supposed to be an important event, alleged to coincide with cessation of weaning and the adoption of adult foods. Moreover, since a mother is no longer nursing her infant, M1 eruption "should" also be roughly contemporaneous with a mother's return to estrus cycling and subsequent re-pregnancy. Many infants were observed to begin eating adult-like foods prior to M1 eruption, around 3 years. Unexpectedly however, infants also nursed for a while even after M1 eruption. In fact, time spent nursing actually increased for a brief period around 3 years of age, possibly because their mothers' milk was not as nutritious as at younger ages.Now, what interests me most about this are possible implications for my research on the evolution of growth and life history. Many researchers have argued that extinct hominids, like the australopithecines, would have grown up relatively rapidly like apes, rather than slowly like humans. This claim has been based pretty much entirely on dental development, until my dissertation research. There, I've shown that one hominid, Australopithecus robustus, probably experienced greater jaw growth than humans prior to eruption of the M2. Now, if this hominid erupted its teeth as fast as apes, and grew more than humans, this implies really really high growth rates for A. robustus (that is, if we can extrapolate from the jaw to the overall body size).I'll be working a bit more on this latter point in the near future. In the mean time, let's hear it for bioanthro dominating open access today!ReferencesSmith BH, & Boesch C (2011). Mortality and the magnitude of the "wild effect" in chimpanzee tooth emergence. Journal of human evolution, 60 (1), 34-46 PMID: 21071064Smith TM, Smith BH, Reid DJ, Siedel H, Vigilant L, Hublin JJ, & Boesch C (2010). Dental development of the Taï Forest chimpanzees revisited. Journal of human evolution, 58 (5), 363-73 PMID: 20416929Smith, T., Machanda, Z., Bernard, A., Donovan, R., Papakyrikos, A., Muller, M., & Wrangham, R. (2013). First molar eruption, weaning, and life history in living wild chimpanzees Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1218746110Zihlman A, Bolter D, & Boesch C (2004). Wild chimpanzee dentition and its implications for assessing life history in immature hominin fossils. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101 (29), 10541-3 PMID: 15243156... Read more »
Smith BH, & Boesch C. (2011) Mortality and the magnitude of the "wild effect" in chimpanzee tooth emergence. Journal of human evolution, 60(1), 34-46. PMID: 21071064
Smith TM, Smith BH, Reid DJ, Siedel H, Vigilant L, Hublin JJ, & Boesch C. (2010) Dental development of the Taï Forest chimpanzees revisited. Journal of human evolution, 58(5), 363-73. PMID: 20416929
Smith, T., Machanda, Z., Bernard, A., Donovan, R., Papakyrikos, A., Muller, M., & Wrangham, R. (2013) First molar eruption, weaning, and life history in living wild chimpanzees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1218746110
Zihlman A, Bolter D, & Boesch C. (2004) Wild chimpanzee dentition and its implications for assessing life history in immature hominin fossils. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(29), 10541-3. PMID: 15243156
The 14th century was a tumultuous time in Great Britain: there were severely erratic weather patterns including an usually warm period, which led to a famine from 1315-1322, the Scottish were fighting for their independence in 1298-1328 and again from 1332-1357, and the Hundred Year war was being waged against France from 1337-1453. All of … Continue reading »... Read more »
Kendall, E., Montgomery, J., Evans, J., Stantis, C., & Mueller, V. (2013) Mobility, mortality, and the middle ages: Identification of migrant individuals in a 14th century black death cemetery population. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 150(2), 210-222. DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.22194
Here’s a question every scientist at some point asks themselves: does this data that I can easily and (relatively) inexpensively collect reasonably approximate the data that I would collect in an ideal world where I had bucket loads of money and an infinite amount of time? It may not be apparent from science news coverage, but a lot of science involves routinely checking that the methods we are... Read more »
Wesolowski, A., Buckee, C., Pindolia, D., Eagle, N., Smith, D., Garcia, A., & Tatem, A. (2013) The Use of Census Migration Data to Approximate Human Movement Patterns across Temporal Scales. PLoS ONE, 8(1). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052971
Understanding trends of violence in the past is important for interpretations of the character of past cultures, origins of warfare and relationships between (or within) groups. By looking at the total deceased population of a site during the same time period we can see patterns of violence associated with specific age, sex or social groups. Only … Continue reading »... Read more »
Fibiger L, Ahlström T, Bennike P, & Schulting RJ. (2013) Patterns of violence-related skull trauma in neolithic southern scandinavia. American journal of physical anthropology, 150(2), 190-202. PMID: 23184653
If you ask most heterosexual people what height they're looking for in a partner, they'll describe basically what a children's-book illustrator would draw: the man taller than the woman but not towering over her. But those of us who aren't pen-and-paper must settle for real human partners in human shapes and sizes. Nevertheless, new research says most people end up with a reality that matches the fantasy.
Researchers led by Gert Stulp of the University of Groningen in the Netherlands wondered whether people's professed height preferences matched who they ended up with. Earlier studies had shown that within Western cultures, there are clear trends: Taller people are interested in other tall people; shorter people like short people. And both sexes prefer that the male be taller.
But not too tall! One study combed through thousands of personal ads from a dating site that let users indicate the tallest and shortest person they'd consider dating. On average, women said they weren't interested in men more than 17% taller than themselves. For a 5-foot-5 woman, for example, that means a man over 6 foot 4 seems like a little much.
To compare these preferences to a real population, Stulp and his coauthors used data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a broad sampling of almost 19,000 babies born in the United Kingdom in the year 2000. Among other things, the parents of these babies had been asked for their heights, and 12,502 couples had answered the question.
To see what it would look like if people paired off with no regard to height, the researchers created 10,000 random reshufflings of their UK couples. They then compared these chance pairings to reality.
First, they tested whether people seek out their own kind. Sure enough, taller people had taller partners, and shorter people had shorter partners.
The next question was whether people really care about the man being taller. Of course, since men are on average taller than women, randomly pairing people off is likely to get you a taller male anyway. In the randomized UK couples, the male was taller 89.8% of the time. But in reality, 92.5% of couples had a taller male, a significant difference. And when the woman was taller, it was likely to be only by a tiny bit.
Finally, people say they prefer height differences that aren't too exaggerated. But do they follow through? The authors looked for height gaps of 25 centimeters or more. In the random pairings, this occurred in 15.7% of couples. But in real life, only 13.9% of couples had a height difference this huge.
More often than chance would predict, these couples had followed traditional height preferences. That suggests that when we choose our partners, height does matter.
The study doesn't address the preferences (or reality) of couples who are not heterosexual, not parents, or not in the United Kingdom. Stulp says research has shown that across Western cultures, heterosexual people report very similar preferences for a partner's height. (The Netherlands, where the 6-foot-7 Stulp lives, is home to the tallest people in the world. But he says he believes height preferences in this land of giants are the same, just shifted upward.) In non-Western cultures, he says, those preferences are slightly different and more variable.
Stulp, in fact, was surprised that height preferences didn't have an even stronger affect on the results. He expected reality to be further from random chance than it was. But, writing in PLOS ONE, he acknowledges that many factors affect our choice of partner. "Height," he writes, "is but one of many characteristics valued in a mate."
Stulp, G., Buunk, A., Pollet, T., Nettle, D., & Verhulst, S. (2013). Are Human Mating Preferences with Respect to Height Reflected in Actual Pairings? PLoS ONE, 8 (1) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054186
Image: Peter Rukavina (Flickr)
... Read more »
Stulp, G., Buunk, A., Pollet, T., Nettle, D., & Verhulst, S. (2013) Are Human Mating Preferences with Respect to Height Reflected in Actual Pairings?. PLoS ONE, 8(1). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054186
What was the role of music in the evolutionary history of human beings? And is it possible at all, you might wonder, to empirically study this, given the fact that neither music nor musicality fossilises? So, better forget about it? ... Read more »
Honing, H., & Ploeger, A. (2012) Cognition and the Evolution of Music: Pitfalls and Prospects. Topics in Cognitive Science, 4(4), 513-524. DOI: 10.1111/j.1756-8765.2012.01210.x
de Waal, F., & Ferrari, P. (2010) Towards a bottom-up perspective on animal and human cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14(5), 201-207. DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2010.03.003
Far from being passive hangers-on, symbiotic microbes may shape the evolution of the plants and animals that play host to them... Read more »
Carrie Arnold. (2013) The hologenome: A new view of evolution. New Scientist. info:/
American Horror Story: Asylum takes place in 1964 at Briarcliff Manor, a terrifying mental institution for the criminally insane. The show uses every over-the-top stereotype in the book — straightjackets, isolation cells, shock treatment, the chronic masturbator, the nymphomaniac, the sadistic nun, the evil mad doctor, unethical experimentation, wrongful commitment, alien abduction, demonic possession, you name it — yet it still manages to be scary and stylish and suspenseful.The episode about a poor soul possessed by the devil naturally includes an exorcism by Catholic priests. The afflicted boy becomes ugly and deformed by the demon, who spews out lewd words and exerts its supernatural telekinetic powers by throwing objects (and priests) across the room.Regarding exorcism, the Catholic Encyclopedia says:Exorcism is (1) the act of driving out, or warding off, demons, or evil spirits, from persons, places, or things, which are believed to be possessed or infested by them, or are liable to become victims or instruments of their malice; (2) the means employed for this purpose, especially the solemn and authoritative adjuration of the demon, in the name of God, or any of the higher power in which he is subject. Religious belief in the existence of demons is a sincere part of the Catholic faith, so demonic possession can be a particularly frightening Hollywood trope for devout Catholics (and former Catholics). Walking out of the theater into the dark parking lot and entering your empty apartment after a midnight showing of The Exorcist can be creepy for the believer and the agnostic alike. Even if Satan isn't lurking in your shower, a serial killer like "Bloody Face" could be under your bed. Indoctrination into a belief system where devils are real can haunt a young child into adulthood.In contrast, the rationalist perspective presents historical and medically-based views of possession phenomena in terms of epilepsy, schizophrenia, and possession trance disorder (PTD), a possible variant of dissociative identity disorder. Nothing evil or supernatural takes over the identity of the person with PTD. Nonetheless, exorcisms performed on mentally ill people continue to this day.For example, Tajima-Pozo and colleagues (2011) reported on the case of a 28 yr old woman in Spain who had been diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. Over the course of 5 yrs she had been treated with the antipsychotic drugs clozapine, risperidone, ziprasidone and onlanzapine, without complete remission. She was an inpatient on a psychosis ward, and yet some diabolical priests managed to get in and convince her that she was possessed by demons. Some of the priests had knowledge of the patient's psychiatric history and should have known better. But they performed multiple exorcisms anyway, which disrupted her clinical treatment.1 In DSM-IV, spirit possession falls under the category of Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, with more specific research criteria (but not an official diagnosis) fitting Dissociative Trance Disorder (possession trance): This category [DDNOS] is included for disorders in which the predominant feature is a dissociative symptom (i.e., a disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, or perception of the environment) that does not meet the criteria for any specific dissociative disorder.. . .Dissociative trance disorder: single or episodic disturbances in the state of consciousness, identity, or memory that are indigenous to particular locations and cultures. Dissociative trance involves narrowing of awareness of immediate surroundings or stereotyped behaviors or movements that are experienced as being beyond one's control. Possession trance involves replacement of the customary sense of personal identity by a new identity, attributed to the influence of a spirit, power, deity, or other person and associated with stereotyped involuntary movements or amnesia, and is perhaps the most common dissociative disorder in Asia. Examples include amok (Indonesia), bebainan (Indonesia), latah (Malaysia), pibloktoq (Arctic), ataque de nervios (Latin America), and possession (India). The dissociative or trance disorder is not a normal part of a broadly accepted collective cultural or religious practice. Note the culture-specific aspect of the disorder, which shows substantial heterogeneity in its expression. Dr. Romeo Vitelli at the blog Providentia has written about some of these phenomena. For instance, Amok is an aggressive trance-like state in Malay culture, whereas Pibloktoq is an acute dissociative reaction in the Inuit tradition, caused by evil spirits possessing the living. In two previous posts here at The Neurocritic, we also learned about cen in Uganda, ghosts that replace the identity of the afflicted individual. Dissociative Disorders in DSM-5Will there be changes for Dissociative Trance Disorder (DTD) in DSM-5? The new (and already reviled) psychiatric manual makes its debut in May 2013.2 A 2011 paper by Spiegel et al. described some of the proposed changes to the dissociative disorders. The Pathological Possession Trance (PPT) component of DTD is claimed to be be similar to dissociative identity disord... Read more »
Tajima-Pozo, K., Zambrano-Enriquez, D., de Anta, L., Moron, M., Carrasco, J., Lopez-Ibor, J., & Diaz-Marsa, M. (2011) Practicing exorcism in schizophrenia. Case Reports, 2011(feb15 1). DOI: 10.1136/bcr.10.2009.2350
Duijl, M., Kleijn, W., & Jong, J. (2012) Are symptoms of spirit possessed patients covered by the DSM-IV or DSM-5 criteria for possession trance disorder? A mixed-method explorative study in Uganda. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. DOI: 10.1007/s00127-012-0635-1
Last week I had the privilege of attending, virtually, a seminar devoted to “Mobilities, Language Practices and Identities” organized by the CIEN Group at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. The seminar brought together a small number of international scholars working … Continue reading →... Read more »
Nercissians, E. (2001) Bilingualism and diglossia: patterns of language use by ethnic minorities in Tehran. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 2001(148). DOI: 10.1515/ijsl.2001.014
Leprosy was an epidemic disease that not only infected millions of people over a span of thousands of years, but it still remains a threat in Third World countries. Due to its destructive effects on the flesh of those infected, leprosy created a history of fear and segregation caused by misconceptions and rumor. In the … Continue reading »... Read more »
Roffey, S., & Tucker, K. (2012) A contextual study of the medieval hospital and cemetery of St Mary Magdalen, Winchester, England. International Journal of Paleopathology, 2(4), 170-180. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpp.2012.09.018
The treatment of infants in the past can vary significantly from their treatment in modern times; which is why a recent find from Italy has caused discussion. The excavation at Poggio Civitate in Tuscancy has revealed a number of infant bones within garbage debris along the floor of the villa. The site dates to the late … Continue reading »... Read more »
Maureen Carroll. (2011) Infant death and burial in Roman Italy. Journal of Roman Archaeology, 99-120. info:/
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