I don't want to keep you too long today, what with it being All Hallows' Eve and all the formalities that accompany this festival. I would however like to pass the paper by Heidi Stanish and colleagues  your way and some details on the hows and whys of "physical activity enjoyment, perceived barriers, beliefs, and self-efficacy" when it comes to teens diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD).Based on questionnaire responses from 35 adolescents with ASD and 60 not-ASD controls (I'm not a great fan of the words 'typically developing'), researchers reported a few potentially important group differences in terms of enjoyment of things like physical education (84% vs. 98% respectively) and preferences to engage in physical activity in their spare time (25% vs. 58%). These and other group disparities are framed within the idea that "differences identified may inform program development" when it comes to getting teens with autism more involved in physical pursuits.As per other occasions on this blog (see here and see here), I'm particularly interested in the various research looking at physical activity and autism; specifically the ways and means sedentary behaviours can be 'modified' when it comes to parts of the autism spectrum (see here). We're all being told these days that everyone needs to perhaps move a little more to improve physical wellbeing (see here) and those on the autism spectrum are no exception to this advice.Some of the hurdles identified by Stanish et al focused on enjoyment of sport and exercise and the idea that "physical activities were too hard to learn" are factors that I would suggest, can be fairly easily overcome with the right advice and resources. As per the findings reported by Todd and colleagues  based on the use of cycling for example, certain "self-regulation interventions" can help to get children and young adults on the road to physical activity participation. Small steps and finding the right physical activity are perhaps other key tenets to improving participation and exposing those who are perhaps a little exercise-adverse to the wide, wide range of possible activities.Have I also mentioned that I'm a bit of fan of the potential benefits of the martial arts for those on the spectrum?Music: Safety Dance by Men Without Hats. Spooky stuff...---------- Stanish H. et al. Enjoyment, Barriers, and Beliefs About Physical Activity in Adolescents With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder. Adapt Phys Activ Q. 2015 Oct;32(4):302-17. Todd T. et al. Cycling for students with ASD: self-regulation promotes sustained physical activity. Adapt Phys Activ Q. 2010 Jul;27(3):226-41.----------Stanish H, Curtin C, Must A, Phillips S, Maslin M, & Bandini L (2015). Enjoyment, Barriers, and Beliefs About Physical Activity in Adolescents With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder. Adapted physical activity quarterly : APAQ, 32 (4), 302-17 PMID: 26485735... Read more »
Stanish H, Curtin C, Must A, Phillips S, Maslin M, & Bandini L. (2015) Enjoyment, Barriers, and Beliefs About Physical Activity in Adolescents With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder. Adapted physical activity quarterly : APAQ, 32(4), 302-17. PMID: 26485735
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Yung-Tai Chen MD Division of Nephrology Department of Medicine Taipei City Hospital Heping Fuyou Branch Taipei, Taiwan Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Chen: Recent studies concluded … Continue reading →
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Dr. Yung-Tai Chen MD. (2015) Diabetes: Study Compares Gliptins vs Sulfonylureas as Add-Ons to Metformin. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jonathan R. Enriquez, MD Assistant Professor of Medicine Division of Cardiology University of Missouri- Kansas City Director, Coronary Care Unit Truman Medical Center Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Enriquez: In 2009, … Continue reading →
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Jonathan R. Enriquez, MD. (2015) Electronic Health Records Linked To Only Slightly Better Medical Care. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Arielle Nagler MD Instructor, Department of Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology NYU Langone Medical Center Medical Research: What is the background for this study of acne patient who eventually require isotretinoin? Dr. Nagler: Isotretinoin is a … Continue reading →
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Arielle Nagler MD. (2015) Earlier Isotretinoin Discussion May Decrease Long-Term Antibiotic Use For Acne. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Hsien Seow, PhD Associate Professor Department of Oncology Cancer Care Ontario Research Chair in Health Services Research Associate Member, Department of Clinical Epidemiology & Biostatistics McMaster University Canadian Institutes of Health Research Young Investigator Hamilton, Ontario … Continue reading →
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Dr. Hsien Seow, PhD. (2015) End of Life Home Care Nursing Reduces Emergency Department Visits. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alex L. Gornitzky Medical Student and Theodore J. Ganley, M.D. Director of Sports Medicine, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia Associate Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery, The University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine Medical Research: What is the background for … Continue reading →
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Alex L. Gornitzky and Theodore J. Ganley, M.D. (2015) Which High School Sports Have Highest Risk of ACL Injury?. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
Among the types of development problems of childhood is developmental coordination disorder or DCD.In DCD, children show delay and subnormal performance in coordinated motor skills.This may be noted as a general tendency of clumsiness with difficulties in activities such as catching a ball, using scissors, handwriting or riding a bike.Computer games such as the Nintendo Wii platform provide a method to improve a variety of motor and coordination skills in a fun environment.A South African team recently published a study comparing children with and without DCD on motor learning using the Wii ski slalom game.In this study, the Wii ski slalom game was integrated into a school classroom setting. Children with and without DCD engaged in 20 minutes of the ski slalom game twice a week for five weeks. Performance in the game and on a motor assessment battery was assessed at baseline and at the end of the training period.The key findings from the study were:As expected children with DCD performed more poorly on the Wii ski slalom game at baselineBoth groups showed evidence of motor learning throughout the training period. The amount of improvement was not different in the DCD group compared to control childrenBoth groups improved performance on a Yoga balance skill taskSkill improvement in the DCD on the Wii game platform transferred to improvement in the standardized motor assessment batteryChildren in both groups rated the Wii ski slalom game as "super fun" or "fun"The authors conclude that video games "may have the potential to be a valuable additional tool in intervention" for children with DCD.Children with DCD show motor and balance learning with computer game interventions. Identifying these children early and intervening with enhanced coordination learning activities may significantly reduce the gap with typically development children.Readers with more interest in this topic can access the free full-text manuscript by clicking on the PMID link in the citation below.Photo of downtown Tulsa with impressionism filter is from the author's photo files.Follow the author on Twitter @WRY999Smits-Engelsman BC, Jelsma LD, Ferguson GD, & Geuze RH (2015). Motor Learning: An Analysis of 100 Trials of a Ski Slalom Game in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder. PloS one, 10 (10) PMID: 26466324... Read more »
Smits-Engelsman BC, Jelsma LD, Ferguson GD, & Geuze RH. (2015) Motor Learning: An Analysis of 100 Trials of a Ski Slalom Game in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder. PloS one, 10(10). PMID: 26466324
"Oregon Killer’s Mother Wrote of Troubled Son and Gun Rights" and "The Myth of the ‘Autistic Shooter’".Those were just two of the headlines that I read recently about the tragedy that rocked the town of Roseburg in the United States and the inevitable attempts to understand such a senseless act.Accepting that our thoughts and prayers should focus on the those murdered, and the long and painful journey that now faces families and loved ones (including that of the perpetrator's family), mention of the autism spectrum as 'potentially' being part and parcel of the killer's 'profile' is something that perhaps requires some science-based discussion. I appreciate that significant emotions come into such tragic stories as per previous instances and the question of 'why', but this is a blog about science and autism. I'm gonna stick to the available peer-reviewed literature specifically on the topic of autism and offending without hopefully sounding too cold nor too dispassionate.I think it is worth going over a few things first for any newcomers straying across this post.First, a few sentences about autism and/or the autism spectrum. Clinically, autism describes a developmental disorder that variably affects communication and social interactions (social affect) among other things. Alongside a heightened risk for various comorbidity - psychological and somatic - a diagnosis on the autism spectrum is both "profound and pervasive" in terms of impact on a person's life. For some that means a lifetime of round-the-clock care; for others, sometimes wrongly labelled as 'high-functioning', it can mean struggling with even mundane daily activities, not made any easier by societal attitudes and stereotypes and often accompanied by a lack of appropriate social and healthcare support. Although not wishing to paint too bleak a picture, the increased rates of suicide ideation (see here) and even requests for euthanasia (see here) for example, can represent the extremes of the struggles faced by people on the autism spectrum. I might also add that the 'lack of social and healthcare support' sentence previously mentioned similarly extends to quite a few families caring for people with autism too.Next, although a diagnosis of autism does not provide immunity against offending behaviour, people with autism are far more likely to be a victim of crime over and above a perpetrator. Indeed, some of the traits associated with autism mean that many people on the spectrum are uniquely vulnerable to issues such as bullying (see here for the most recent research review), harassment or sometimes worse. Such traits can also lead to some people on the autism spectrum being drawn into criminality or committing criminal acts without fully comprehending the intentions of their accomplices and/or understanding the gravity of their actions. I hasten to add that such 'naivety' (if I can call it that) is likely multi-factorial in terms of the hows and whys; sometimes moderated by associated learning difficulties for example, and other times not.OK. I hope that clears up a few things. The other point I want to make is that whilst the label of autism describes some of the behaviours of a person, I personally don't subscribe to the view that autism does (or should) define a person, in the same way that the labels of depression and anxiety or even schizophrenia don't define people. In this context, the important point is that 'people commit crimes not their clinical labels'. Keep that in mind as I continue.Accepting that at the time of writing this post, we don't have all the details (or confirmation of of all the details) about whether indeed the killer "struggled with Asperger’s syndrome, an autism spectrum disorder" or not, there is some science on this topic in relation to such extreme offending behaviour.Although making uncomfortable reading, I want to start with the paper by Clare Allely and colleagues  (open-access) which garnered quite a bit of media attention when it was first published back in 2014 on the basis of a suggestion that "a significant proportion of mass or serial killers may have had neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder or head injury." Retrospectively looking at several accounts of mass or serial killers, the authors concluded that there was some evidence that "in at least some cases, neurodevelopmental problems such as ASD [autism spectrum disorder] or head injury may interact in a complex interplay with psychosocial factors to produce these very adverse outcomes." I can remember various reactions to this paper when it saw the light of day; quite a few rooted in the fear that sweeping generalisations would ensue and similar to the historical situation in schizophrenia, all autism would be generalised and equated with dangerousness.As it turns out that didn't happen. Indeed, I actually thought the Allely paper made some important points in their review. They didn't, for example, say that every serial or mass killer 'had autism', indeed not even close: "we are able to say that probably more than 10% of serial/mass killers have ASD and a similar proportion have had a head injury." With the estimated rates of autism these days (1 in 46 according to some reports), one can perhaps see how that percentage might cover at least some of what would be expected in the general population anyway.What Allely et al did observe is: (a) that "serial and mass killings are rare" and (b) that: "The gaps in our understanding about the actual mechanisms of development toward these most negative of outcomes are enormous." Further: "the great majority of those with ASD or head injury had also experienced psychosocial risk factors such as parental divorce, physical or sexual abuse, and major surgery during childhood." That last point might tie in with some of the details coming out of the Roseburg tragedy, although with the important provisos that (i) correlation is not necessarily the same as causation and that (ii) sweeping generalisation is usually the mother of all mistakes.Continuing the theme of other factors/variables occurring alongside autism as also being potentially important to instances of offending behaviour are the findings reported by Newman & Ghaziuddin . Surveying some of the scientific literature on the topic of violent crime specifically in relation to Asperger syndrome, the authors concluded that some 30% of cases were accompanied by "a definite psychiatric disorder" and a further 50% had a "probable psychiatric disorder at the time of committing the crime."This research reiterates the idea that autism, some autism, offers little in the way of protection when it comes to risk of other psychopathology occurring alongside. Screening for such comorbidity should be much more of a priority than it currently is. Without hopefully shifting blame between labels - remember people commit crimes not their labels - there is a body of research emerging suggesting that issues such as psychosis for example, may show a complicated relationship with some autism. I've covered this topic a few times on this blog (see here and see here) particularly where the manifestation(s) of psychosis has led to a subsequent diagnosis on the autism spectrum. ... Read more »
Newman, S., & Ghaziuddin, M. (2008) Violent Crime in Asperger Syndrome: The Role of Psychiatric Comorbidity. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(10), 1848-1852. DOI: 10.1007/s10803-008-0580-8
King C, & Murphy GH. (2014) A systematic review of people with autism spectrum disorder and the criminal justice system. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 44(11), 2717-33. PMID: 24577785
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joshua H. West, Ph.D., MPH Department of Health Science Brigham Young University Provo, UT 84602 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. West: Americans consume too much food. Yet … Continue reading →
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Joshua H. West, Ph.D., MPH. (2015) Counting Bites Instead Of Calories Can Lead To Weight Loss. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mathew J. Reeves BVSc, PhD, FAHA Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Reeves: The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale … Continue reading →
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Mathew J. Reeves BVSc, PhD, FAHA. (2015) NIHSS Stroke Database is Incomplete and May Have Selection Bias. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Chadi El Saleeby, MD. MS. Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School Pediatric Hospital Medicine and Pediatric Infectious Disease Units Mass. General Hospital for Children Boston, MA 02114 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? … Continue reading →
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Chadi El Saleeby, MD. MS. (2015) Formal Guidelines May Improve Resident-Attending Communication in Hospital. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mirna Azar MD Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism University of Ottawa Weight Management Clinic The Ottawa Hospital Ottawa, ON, Canada Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Azar: Previous … Continue reading →
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Mirna Azar MD. (2015) Beta Blockers May Reduce Ability To Lose Weight. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Vinay Prasad, MD MPH Assistant Professor of Medicine Division of Hematology Oncology in the Knight Cancer Institute Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine Senior Scholar in the Center for Health Care Ethics Oregon Health and Sciences University … Continue reading →
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Vinay Prasad, MD MPH. (2015) Superlative Terms May Be Overused When Describing Cancer Drugs. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
Despite rhetoric that pits “anti-vaxxers” versus “pro-vaxxers,” most new parents probably qualify as vaccine-neutral–that is, they passively accept rather than actively demand vaccination. Unless there is an active threat of polio or whooping cough, they have to remind themselves that injecting their crying infant with disease antigens is a good thing.... Read more »
Miton, & Mercier. (2015) Cognitive Obstacles to Pro-Vaccination Beliefs. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. info:/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2015.08.007
The fascinating science behind some of our favorite monsters ... Read more »
Kaur S, Juneja M, Mishra D, & Jain S. (2014) Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis: A case report and review of the literature. Journal of pediatric neurosciences, 9(2), 145-7. PMID: 25250071
Ramirez-Bermudez J, Aguilar-Venegas LC, Crail-Melendez D, Espinola-Nadurille M, Nente F, & Mendez MF. (2010) Cotard syndrome in neurological and psychiatric patients. The Journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences, 22(4), 409-16. PMID: 21037126
Consider today's entry as a sort of continuation of a previous post looking at the 'horror' that is a gluten-free, casein-free (GFCF) diet for autism (see here).This time around I'm bringing the paper by Salvador Marí-Bauset and colleagues  to your attention and the idea that things might not necessarily be all bad when it comes to the use of a GFCF diet in terms of nutritional quality nor anthropometric values. Indeed, subject to the correct dietetic input, that there may be some important food exchanges going on when a diet devoid of gluten and casein is instigated specifically where an autism diagnosis is mentioned.I realise that not everyone is as enthusiastic about how food might impact on behaviour and development with at least some autism in mind as I am, but science is coming around to the idea that what we eat (or not) might have some important influences on our being (see here). Appreciating that the GFCF diet is also probably not for everyone  (see here also), there continues to be some 'appetite' for such an approach for at least some autism . It is therefore important to understand a little more about what might be the positives and negatives to following such a restrictive dietary regime.Marí-Bauset et al report results for some 20 children with autism following a GFCF diet compared with 85 "on a regular diet in Valencia (Spain)." This follows a scheme of work from this authorship group looking at various aspects of nutrition when applied to autism . Upon analysing 3-day food diaries, researchers concluded that: "Those on the GFCF diet had a lower weight, body mass index, and total energy, pantothenic acid, calcium, phosphorus and sodium intake." Further however, the GFCF group had: "a higher intake of fiber, legumes, and vegetables" and something of a more favourable fat intake profile that non-GFCF dieters. That last point also ties into other work from the authors .As per the part 1 entry on the nutritional and health related aspects to a GFCF diet for autism (here it is again) there are some details in the Marí-Bauset data that perhaps require some clinical input. I'm thinking specifically about the lower calcium intake in this case, bearing in mind calcium and autism is a very complicated issue (see here) and some continued questioning about the more general link between calcium intake and bone health. The idea that those following a GFCF diet might also present with a lower weight and body mass index (BMI) is also interesting; particularly in light of quite a lot of the chatter in this area focusing on elevated weight and the health effects that can have with autism in mind (see here). I might add that I am in no way endorsing a GFCF diet (or any other diet) for weight loss or management; that's not my job.The slightly more positive idea that those following a GFCF diet might have a better intake of vegetables and legumes probably also tied into a higher intake of fibre is important. I've previously talked about where the extremes of a limited diet can lead when it comes to [some] autism (see here). Although supplementation has its place in terms of as and when specific deficiencies are present and identified (see here) I think most people would agree that consumption of foodstuffs like fruit and vegetables probably do a better job of supplying nutritional needs than a pill (most of the time). In that respect, one might assume that those on a GFCF diet with more favourable vegetable consumption profile, might be slightly less prone to certain deficiencies. As per other research in this area, we would need a little more biological testing to be sure (see here). The specific idea that fibre intake was higher for the GFCF group is also an important point if one considers fibre to be an essential component when it comes to gastrointestinal (GI) motility, again, as has been specifically mentioned with autism in mind (see here).In short, and with more research required, the horror that is a GFCF diet for autism might actually with the right clinical input, not be so horrible...Music: Lily Allen - The Fear.---------- Marí-Bauset S. et al. Nutritional Impact of a Gluten-Free Casein-Free Diet in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2015 Oct 1. Buie T. The relationship of autism and gluten. Clin Ther. 2013 May;35(5):578-83. Whiteley P. Nutritional management of (some) autism: a case for gluten- and casein-free diets? Proc Nutr Soc. 2015 Aug;74(3):202-7. Marí-Bauset S. et al. Nutritional status of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs): a case-control study. J Autism Dev Disord. 2015 Jan;45(1):203-12. Marí-Bauset S. et al. Fat intake in children with autism spectrum disorder in the Mediterranean region (Valencia, Spain). Nutr Neurosci. 2015 May 28.----------Marí-Bauset S, Llopis-González A, Zazpe I, Marí-Sanchis A, & Suárez-Varela MM (2015). Nutritional Impact of a Gluten-Free Casein-Free Diet in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of autism and developmental disorders PMID: 26428353... Read more »
Marí-Bauset S, Llopis-González A, Zazpe I, Marí-Sanchis A, & Suárez-Varela MM. (2015) Nutritional Impact of a Gluten-Free Casein-Free Diet in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. PMID: 26428353
Earlier this year, we looked at a study that suggested sexting can be healthy in a relationship, but that study primarily looked at non-married couples and the average age for the behavior was, as you may expect, young adult. Which may lead you to think that married couples don’t sext. In fact, married couples do report sexting, but it is much less common than in young adult relationships and consists more of intimate talk with their partners than sending nude or nearly nude photos via mobile phones, according to a new study.... Read more »
McDaniel, B., & Drouin, M. (2015) Sexting Among Married Couples: Who Is Doing It, and Are They More Satisfied?. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. DOI: 10.1089/cyber.2015.0334
"Children with ADHD [attention-deficit hyperactivity] had more ASD [autism spectrum disorder] symptoms than non-ADHD controls."So said the findings from Jessica Leigh Green and colleagues  following their investigation of over 300 6-10 year olds looking at the prevalence of autistic symptoms "in a community-based sample of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and non-ADHD controls." Conners 3 and the DISC-IV represented the analytical starting point pertinent to a diagnosis of ADHD, with autistic symptoms assessed via the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ).As per the starting sentence, those diagnosed with ADHD (n=164) tended to present with quite a few more autistic traits than those without ADHD (n=198) and, importantly: "Greater ADHD symptom severity was associated with greater ASD symptom severity." Boys with ADHD also tended to fare worse than girls with ADHD when it came to the presentation of autistic symptoms. Ergo, yet again (see here) there seems to be something of an important 'connection' between autism and ADHD.I don't think many people with some knowledge and interest in the intersection between autism and ADHD will be surprised by the Green results added to other recent findings . As per the Gillberg concept of ESSENCE (see here) the fuzziness of child behaviour when it comes to identifiying psychopathology almost implies that there will be overlap in the presentation of specific labels. That specific interventions put forward for some autism might also be affecting ADHD-type symptoms more strongly than core autistic traits (see here) offers even more evidence for a connection between diagnoses/symptoms.More research is of course implied in such findings, including that into what other symptoms might overlap the conditions  (yes, I'm talking about you motor issues) and the hows and whys of ASD + ADHD translating into a greater risk for future adverse outcomes as per other research in this area (see here). Whether too other factors such as poverty might also affect an autism-ADHD combination type (see here) also requires further study. Realisation that autism nor ADHD seemingly exist in a diagnostic vacuum is an important point raised from this and related work as we move further into the idea of comorbidity clusters (see here).Music: Foxes - Holding onto Heaven.---------- Green JL. et al. Autism spectrum disorder symptoms in children with ADHD: A community-based study. Res Dev Disabil. 2015 Sep 30;47:175-184. Miodovnik A. et al. Timing of the Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder. Pediatrics. 2015 Oct;136(4):e830-7. Biscaldi M. et al. Identification of neuromotor deficits common to autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and imitation deficits specific to autism spectrum disorder. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015 Aug 2.----------Green JL, Rinehart N, Anderson V, Nicholson JM, Jongeling B, & Sciberras E (2015). Autism spectrum disorder symptoms in children with ADHD: A community-based study. Research in developmental disabilities, 47, 175-184 PMID: 26433184... Read more »
Green JL, Rinehart N, Anderson V, Nicholson JM, Jongeling B, & Sciberras E. (2015) Autism spectrum disorder symptoms in children with ADHD: A community-based study. Research in developmental disabilities, 175-184. PMID: 26433184
When you think parasites you probably don’t think of anything helpful. However, this isn’t the case and certain parasites inadvertently help the host by helping themselves. In fact, researchers have discovered how intestinal worm infections cross-talk with gut bacteria to help the immune system.... Read more »
Zaiss MM,, Rapin A,, Lebon L,, Kumar Dubey L,, Mosconi I,, Sarter L,, Piersigilli A,, Menin L,, Walker AW,, Rougemont J,.... (2015) The intestinal microbiota contributes to the ability of helminths to modulate allergic inflammation. Immunity. info:/
This month I have been focusing on research advances in neuropsychology in neuroscience medicine.My daily feed screener picked up a report of a screening tool for Lewy Body Dementia (LBD) today.LBD is often confused with Alzheimer's disease. Distinguishing the two is important for management and selection of appropriate drug treatment.This research is not published in a free full-text manuscript format but there is a link to the scale for readers with more interest.The research study examined the validity of a newly developed scale called the Lewy Body Composite Risk Score or LBCRS.This score is calculated from a ten-item yes-no questionnaire that includes questions on the presence or absence of:Movement initiation difficultyMuscular rigidityPostural instability with frequent fallsTremor at restExcessive daytime sleepinessIllogical, incoherent thoughtStaring or blank look spellsVisual hallucinationsActing out dreamsOrthostatic hypotension/autonomic insufficiencyUsing a cutoff score of 3 positive responses yielded a high discrimination of LBD from Alzheimer's disease in a group of 256 patients.The link to the scale and administration directions can be found here.Accurate tools for identifying LBD are needed and this scale may be helpful for clinicians. It will be interesting to follow to see if this study can be replicated in another sample.Figure of brain basal ganglia commonly affected in LBD is an iPad screenshot from the app 3D Brain from the author's files.Follow the author on Twitter WRY999Galvin JE (2015). IMPROVING THE CLINICAL DETECTION OF LEWY BODY DEMENTIA WITH THE LEWY BODY COMPOSITE RISK SCORE. Alzheimer's & dementia (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 1 (3), 316-324 PMID: 26405688... Read more »
Galvin JE. (2015) IMPROVING THE CLINICAL DETECTION OF LEWY BODY DEMENTIA WITH THE LEWY BODY COMPOSITE RISK SCORE. Alzheimer's , 1(3), 316-324. PMID: 26405688
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