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  • October 4, 2014
  • 04:57 AM
  • 119 views

The gut-brain axis and schizophrenia

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

A micropost to direct your attention to the recent paper by Katlyn Nemani and colleagues [1] titled: 'Schizophrenia and the gut-brain axis'. Mentioning words like that, I couldn't resist offering a little exposure to this review and opinion piece, drawing on what seems to be some renewed research interest in work started by pioneers such as the late Curt Dohan [2].The usual triad of gastrointestinal (GI) variables - gut barrier, gut bacteria and gut immune function - are mentioned in the article........ Read more »

Nemani, K., Ghomi, R., McCormick, B., & Fan, X. (2014) Schizophrenia and the gut–brain axis. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. DOI: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2014.08.018  

  • October 3, 2014
  • 05:24 PM
  • 127 views

The Neurobiological Basis of a Human-Pet Relationship

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

My wife adores our cats. Now, I'm not a cat person, but my wife loves them. In fact if we had children and someone held a gun to her head and said choose between the kid or the cats, there would likely be an uncomfortable amount of time before a response. The big question is, why do we love animals like we do our own children? Well a small study helps try to answer this complex question by investigating differences in how important brain structures are activated when women view images of their c........ Read more »

  • October 3, 2014
  • 08:40 AM
  • 103 views

The Friday Five for 10/3/2014

by Bill Sullivan in The 'Scope

The coolest science of the week, including the physics of space battles, leeches eating worms, and how to get others to do your bidding!... Read more »

O'Shea TJ, Cryan PM, Cunningham AA, Fooks AR, Hayman DT, Luis AD, Peel AJ, Plowright RK, & Wood JL. (2014) Bat flight and zoonotic viruses. Emerging infectious diseases, 20(5), 741-5. PMID: 24750692  

  • October 3, 2014
  • 05:10 AM
  • 114 views

S100B and schizophrenia meta-analysed

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

I don't know if it's just me but this year (2014) I seem to be covering a lot more meta-analysis papers on this blog. I assume that's because of the increasing volume of peer-reviewed research being created year-on-year leading to greater volumes of research fodder for such grand reviews. Whatever the reason(s), there are some really interesting conclusions being reached in that literature as per the meta-analysis by Aleksovska and colleagues [1] (open-access) focusing on S100B bl........ Read more »

  • October 2, 2014
  • 05:04 PM
  • 162 views

The Mysterious Origins of HIV Discovered

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

There have been a lot of theories on where HIV came from, anywhere from the mundane, it spread from other animals. To the down right crazy, the government created it to wipe out homosexuals. Well bad news for conspiracy theorists, a new study suggests that the HIV pandemic with us today is almost certain to have begun its global spread from Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).... Read more »

Nuno R. Faria1, Andrew Rambaut, Marc A. Suchard, Guy Baele, Trevor Bedford, Melissa J. Ward, Andrew J. Tatem, João D. Sousa, Nimalan Arinaminpathy, Jacques Pépin,.... (2014) The early spread and epidemic ignition of HIV-1 in human populations. Science. info:/10.1126/science.1256739

  • October 2, 2014
  • 11:01 AM
  • 129 views

Parenting: Genetics and Environmental Effects

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Effective parenting is a key element in child development.Both genetic and environmental factors appear to contribute to the cognitive, emotional and behavioral aspects of parenting.Childhood temperament also influences the process of parenting. A well-behaved, emotionally stable and loving child is obviously much easier to parent than a child with behavioral and emotional problems.Bonamy Oliver and colleagues from the United Kingdom have recently published an informative twin study of pare........ Read more »

Oliver BR, Trzaskowski M, & Plomin R. (2014) Genetics of parenting: The power of the dark side. Developmental psychology, 50(4), 1233-40. PMID: 24364831  

  • October 2, 2014
  • 08:03 AM
  • 122 views

Coeliac disease risk not affected by early feeding practices

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

I'd like to bring three papers to your attention, all united by their discussion of coeliac (celiac) disease, that most classic of autoimmune conditions in the most part managed by the use of a lifelong gluten-free diet.First up are the papers by Elena Lionetti and colleagues [1] and Sabine Vriezinga and colleagues [2] which unfortunately pour cold water on the notion that the risk of developing coeliac disease (CD) can be somehow mitigated via the use of either the early or delayed in........ Read more »

Lionetti E, Castellaneta S, Francavilla R, Pulvirenti A, Tonutti E, Amarri S, Barbato M, Barbera C, Barera G, Bellantoni A.... (2014) Introduction of Gluten, HLA Status, and the Risk of Celiac Disease in Children. The New England journal of medicine, 371(14), 1295-1303. PMID: 25271602  

Vriezinga SL, Auricchio R, Bravi E, Castillejo G, Chmielewska A, Crespo Escobar P, Kolaček S, Koletzko S, Korponay-Szabo IR, Mummert E.... (2014) Randomized Feeding Intervention in Infants at High Risk for Celiac Disease. The New England journal of medicine, 371(14), 1304-1315. PMID: 25271603  

  • October 2, 2014
  • 04:57 AM
  • 95 views

Volatile organic compounds and autism

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

As harsh as the phrase volatile organic compounds (VOCs) might appear at first glance, all this refers to is a class of compounds containing carbon which have a tendency to evaporate at room temperature assuming normal air pressure. VOCs have been associated with pollutants as per their inclusion in various literature on the topic of things like indoor air pollution (see here) and the fact that just about everything around us in the modern home or office is likely to release VOCs. Whilst not try........ Read more »

  • October 2, 2014
  • 04:52 AM
  • 100 views

JUST PUBLISHED: A Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of an Integrated Smoking Cessation Intervention among Mental Health Patients

by Mark Rubin in The University of Newcastle's School of Psychology Newsline

Depending on diagnosis and setting, between 33 and 90 per cent of people with mental illness smoke tobacco, both in Australia and worldwide. As a result, tobacco-related diseases are one of the leading causes of mortality among this population subgroup. A paucity of research to date has examined the efficacy of cessation strategies to assist people with mental illness to quit smoking. However, limited findings have suggested that aids that have been found to be effective for the general populati........ Read more »

  • October 1, 2014
  • 01:41 PM
  • 129 views

The Ever Plastic Brain and Intellectual Disabilities

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

The plasticity of the brain is always somewhat of a shock. It's near incredible what the brain can achieve, look at people who have strokes, or any other sort of brain injury and yet still somehow manage to get up and move, or perform tasks. So I guess it should be no surprise, but still amazing that studying mice with a genetic change similar to what is found in Kabuki syndrome (an inherited disease of humans) researchers report they have used an anticancer drug to improve mental function......... Read more »

Hans T. Bjornsson, Joel S. Benjamin, Li Zhang, Jacqueline Weissman, Elizabeth E. Gerber, Yi-Chun Chen, Rebecca G. Vaurio, Michelle C. Potter, Kasper D. Hansen, & Harry C. Dietz. (2014) Histone deacetylase inhibition rescues structural and functional brain deficits in a mouse model of Kabuki syndrome. Science Translational Medicine. info:/10.1126/scitranslmed.3009278

  • October 1, 2014
  • 05:11 AM
  • 101 views

Maternal complement C1q and offspring psychosis

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"In conclusion, exposure to maternal C1q activity during pregnancy may be a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia and psychosis in offspring". That was the primary observation made by Emily Severance and colleagues [1] at Johns Hopkins, extending their scientific interest in immune system involvement being potentially linked to psychiatry [2]."Serve the public trust, protect the innocent, uphold the law"I've already talked about Dr Severance's previous research forays into complement ........ Read more »

Emily G. Severance, Kristin L. Gressitt, Stephen L. Buka, Tyrone D. Cannon, & Robert H. Yolken. (2014) Maternal complement C1q and increased odds for psychosis in adult offspring. Schizophrenia Research. info:/10.1016/j.schres.2014.07.053

  • September 30, 2014
  • 06:10 PM
  • 126 views

New Immune System Discovery

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

The immune system is sort of this big enigma, we know how pieces of it work, but we don’t know it as well as we would like or we wouldn’t have autoimmunity to contend with. Well new research reveals new information about how our immune system functions, shedding light on a vital process that determines how the body’s ability to fight infection develops. Which brings us one step closer to the big picture of the immune system.... Read more »

  • September 30, 2014
  • 12:34 PM
  • 138 views

This Month in Blastocystis Research (SEP 2014)

by Christen Rune Stensvold in Blastocystis Parasite Blog

Do companion animals contribute to human Blastocystis? Do IBS patients have a higher prevalence of Blastocystis and Dientamoeba fragilis than healthy invididuals? Check out this issue of 'This Month in Blastocystis Research'.... Read more »

Krogsgaard LR, Engsbro AL, Stensvold CR, Vedel Nielsen H, & Bytzer P. (2014) The Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites is not Greater Among Individuals with IBS: a Population-Based Case-Control Study. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. PMID: 25229421  

Wang W, Cuttell L, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Inpankaew T, Owen H, & Traub RJ. (2013) Diversity of Blastocystis subtypes in dogs in different geographical settings. Parasites , 215. PMID: 23883734  

Wawrzyniak I, Poirier P, Viscogliosi E, Dionigia M, Texier C, Delbac F, & Alaoui HE. (2013) Blastocystis, an unrecognized parasite: an overview of pathogenesis and diagnosis. Therapeutic advances in infectious disease, 1(5), 167-78. PMID: 25165551  

  • September 30, 2014
  • 09:28 AM
  • 116 views

The Playing Ground Part One

by Rodney Steadman in Gravity's Pull

How parent and peer support in preadolescent and adolescent girls influences their engagement in physical activity across ages nine to 15 years.... Read more »

  • September 30, 2014
  • 08:21 AM
  • 18 views

Heart Changes One Year Post-Kidney Donation

by Cristy at Living Donor 101 in Living Donors Are People Too

Unfortunately, I can’t get access to the entire article ($$$) so this is from the abstract. 38 living kidney donors were included in the study.   “The mean serum interleukin-6 levels, both at 3 months and 12 months, were significantly increased as compared to the baseline (P=0.007 and P<0.001, respectively).”   Interleukin-6 stimulates inflammatory and …
Continue reading »
The post Heart Changes One Year Post-Kidney Donation appeared first on Living Do........ Read more »

Yilmaz BA, Caliskan Y, Yilmaz A, Ozkok A, Bilge AK, Deniz G, Sariyar M, & Yildiz A. (2014) Cardiovascular-Renal Changes After Kidney Donation: One-Year Follow-Up Study. Transplantation. PMID: 25226174  

  • September 30, 2014
  • 05:06 AM
  • 121 views

Autoimmune thyroiditis and depressive disorder

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Our study demonstrates a strong association between anti-TPO levels, which are considered to be of diagnostic value for autoimmune thyroiditis... with uni- or bipolar depression.""Beware the bad cat bearing a grudge"So said the study published by Detlef Degner and colleagues [1]. Anti-TPO antibodies by the way, refers to anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies which, as the name suggests, are antibodies against thyroid peroxidase, an important step in the production of thyroid hormone........ Read more »

Degner D, Haust M, Meller J, Rüther E, & Reulbach U. (2014) Association between autoimmune thyroiditis and depressive disorder in psychiatric outpatients. European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience. PMID: 25193677  

  • September 29, 2014
  • 06:07 PM
  • 149 views

Cat and Dogs: seeking solutions with sniffing canines and science

by Cobb & Hecht in Do You Believe In Dog?

Hi Mia and Julie,  First of all, I LOVE your blog! After meeting at SPARCS this past summer (summer for us in North America.. I take it summer is just beginning in Australia!), I’ve followed it closely.  You do amazing things for the promotion of  canine science. Serious love. A bit of background for the readers: I’m currently doing my PhD at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia in Canada, under the supervision of Dr. Simon Gadbois. Dr. Gadbois........ Read more »

  • September 29, 2014
  • 05:12 PM
  • 130 views

New Protein Implicated in Alzheimer’s

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

Alzheimer's prevention has made some strides in recent years. We've even identified some new causes, and in some cases we can do both. In fact, researchers have now shown that low levels of the protein progranulin in the brain can increase the formation of amyloid-beta plaques (a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease). These plaques can cause neuroinflammation, and worsen memory deficits in a mouse model of this condition. Conversely, by using a gene therapy approach to elevate progranulin levels, sci........ Read more »

Minami, S., Min, S., Krabbe, G., Wang, C., Zhou, Y., Asgarov, R., Li, Y., Martens, L., Elia, L., Ward, M.... (2014) Progranulin protects against amyloid β deposition and toxicity in Alzheimer's disease mouse models. Nature Medicine. DOI: 10.1038/nm.3672  

  • September 29, 2014
  • 10:32 AM
  • 130 views

Family Attachment and the Brain Cingulate Cortex

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Healthy family attachment provides a key element for social support and successful interpersonal relationships.Several brain regions as well as hormonal factors appear to modulate positive emotional responses to family members.I have previously reviewed several studies involving the prosocial effects of the hormone oxytocin and the related hormone vasopressin.Nicolas Rusch from the Department of Psychiatry at Ulm University in Germany along with colleagues in Brazil and London recently published........ Read more »

  • September 29, 2014
  • 04:35 AM
  • 130 views

Term vs. preterm birth and the presentation of autism

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

The paper by Katherine Bowers and colleagues [1] continues the interest in the concept of 'the autisms' with their observations on the presentation of autism (and its comorbidities) when looking at those "born preterm versus those born at term".We'd better get back, 'cause it'll be dark soon, and they mostly come at night... mostlyBased on an analysis of quite a healthy participant number heading up to 900 "males and females with autism spectrum disorder", authors reported on several phenotypic ........ Read more »

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