Researchers from North Carolina State University and the Chinese Academy of Sciences have found an easy way to modify the molecular structure of a polymer commonly used in solar cells.... Read more »
Zhang M., Guo X., Ma W., Zhang S., Huo L., Ade H., & Hou J. (2013) An Easy and Effective Method to Modulate Molecular Energy Level of the Polymer Based on Benzodithiophene for the Application in Polymer Solar Cells. Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.). PMID: 24347435
Researchers have developed a way to microscopically view battery electrodes while they are bathed in wet electrolytes, mimicking realistic conditions inside actual batteries.... Read more »
Gu M., Parent L.R., Mehdi B.L., Unocic R.R., McDowell M.T., Sacci R.L., Xu W., Connell J.G., Xu P., Abellan P.... (2013) Demonstration of an electrochemical liquid cell for operando transmission electron microscopy observation of the lithiation/delithiation behavior of si nanowire battery anodes. Nano Letters, 13(12), 6106-12. PMID: 24224495
Hydrogen is arguably the fuel of the future. As a fuel source, is it considered “zero emission,” and as an energy carrier it combusts to produce heat and water. Pure hydrogen does not however occur naturally and must be produced … Continue reading →... Read more »
Bandyopadhyay Anindita, Stöckel Jana, Min Hongtao, Sherman Louis A., & Pakrasi Himadri B. (2010) High rates of photobiological H2 production by a cyanobacterium under aerobic conditions. Nature Communications, 1(9), 139. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1139
Buchko Garry W., & Robinson Howard. (2012) Crystal structure of cce_0566 from Cyanothece 51142, a protein associated with nitrogen fixation in the DUF269 family. FEBS Letters, 586(4), 350-355. DOI: 10.1016/j.febslet.2012.01.037
Duval S., Danyal K., Shaw S., Lytle A. K., Dean D. R., Hoffman B. M., Antony E., & Seefeldt L. C. (2013) Electron transfer precedes ATP hydrolysis during nitrogenase catalysis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(41), 16414-16419. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1311218110
You don’t need new data to produce new science. A re-analysis or re-interpretation can be just as important and original as a new set of results. I say this because there’s an interesting discussion going on over at PubPeer. In brief, British physicists Julian Stirling and colleagues have released a draft paper using reanalysis to […]The post Science Is Interpretation appeared first on Neuroskeptic.... Read more »
Julian Stirling, Ioannis Lekkas, Adam Sweetman, Predrag Djuranovic, Quanmin Guo, Josef Granwehr, Raphaël Lévy, & Philip Moriarty. (2013) Critical assessment of the evidence for striped nanoparticles. arXiv. arXiv: 1312.6812v1
A team of scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin for Materials and Energy have developed a way to produce chalcopyrite solar cells without cadmium-based buffer layer. A single layer takes on the job of what used to be two layers, doing away with the wet chemical process. Despite a much simplified production method, efficiencies of greater than 18 percent are well within reach.... Read more »
Klenk, R., Steigert, A., Rissom, T., Greiner, D., Kaufmann, C. A., Unold, T. and Lux-Steiner, M. Ch. (2013) Junction formation by Zn(O,S) sputtering yields CIGSe-based cells with efficiencies exceeding 18%. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications. DOI: 10.1002/pip.2445
Scientists are becoming ever more aware of the need to identify a fuel which will bring us out of the “oil darkness” and into the light of a renewable source of energy. Bio-butanol is not the savior, although it offers … Continue reading →... Read more »
Nielsen Jens Erik, & Borchert Torben V. (2000) Protein engineering of bacterial α-amylases. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology, 1543(2), 253-274. DOI: 10.1016/S0167-4838(00)00240-5
Wang Xiaojuan, Wang Yi, Wang Bin, Blaschek Hans, Feng Hao, & Li Zhiyi. (2013) Biobutanol production from fiber-enhanced DDGS pretreated with electrolyzed water. Renewable Energy, 16-22. DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2012.10.011
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Happy New Year! Καλή Χρονιά (in Greek).Welcome back to Questioning Answers in 2014. Let's continue our journey across the autism research landscape.Party time, excellent @ Wikipedia Holidays. Whilst never regretting the opportunity to go on holiday/vacation, I am the type of person who has a strong desire to stay connected to the (research) world. I wouldn't necessarily say that I'm a product of the age of social media, more of late convert who ran enthusiastically towards the light.A few months back however, I missed something important. It was the chance to peer review the paper by Martha Spilioti and colleagues* (open-access here) and some very interesting information following the screening of 187 children presenting with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) for the signs and symptoms of various inborn errors of metabolism.Actually it wasn't all my fault that I didn't accept this review. Granted I didn't access my email on holiday as often as I do when working, but more than that, the publishing journal seemed to expect quite a prompt reply on whether or not I was willing to review. I didn't reply in time, so I missed out. That's what happens in August, the holiday month, the time the kids are off school, y'know, the summer (at least here in my part of the World). No mind, I am happy to see that the Spilioti paper has seen the light of scientific day and hence become fodder for this blog.Anyhow, inborn errors of metabolism. I've talked about them before in relation to autism (see here and here) and how at least some of them might actually be pretty revealing when it comes to at least some autism (as per those interesting findings in relation to the branched-chain amino acids). More recently I've been reading the paper by Stockler-Ipsiroglu and colleagues** talking about outcomes with regards to a diagnosis of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency which included some chatter on autistic behaviours (or should that just be autism?) as being involved.The Spilioti paper evaluated 187 Greek children diagnosed with an autism spectrum condition on the basis of quite a few parameters. We're told that alongside taking quite a bit of information about family history and dietary habits, quite a few laboratory investigations were initiated, too numerous to all mention here. I have to say I was particularly impressed by the authors talking about a glucose loading test (with mitochondrial issues in mind) alongside serum and urine amino and organic acid screens; even looking at carnitine levels. The Greeks seem to be taking a lead in this 'look-see' approach when it comes to the autisms.Their results: well, only a small proportion of their cohort turned up an inborn error of metabolism. Two participants with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome linked to the overproduction of uric acid (see here for a post of impulsivity and uric acid). Two further participants were identified with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency (which is a very, very rare condition indeed). One child was also diagnosed with PKU (see here).Perhaps of more interest were the findings related to that glucose loading test and the suggestion that there was an increase in serum beta hydroxybutyrate (β-OH-b) in around 8% of participants. Although not an expert on this particular metabolite, I understand that elevations can indicate one or several possible scenarios (see here). The authors elaborate that some of those with elevations in β-OH-b also "manifested exacerbation of symptoms during high carbohydrate intake" which brings in an interesting dietary element. Indeed, further when a ketogenic diet (high fat, low carbohydrate intake) was initiated in [some of] those with increased β-OH-b, some interesting behavioural changes were reported; one participant was reported to show "remarkable improvement" in his CARS scores, which was followed by a cessation of medication and attendance at a "public elementary school without clinical problems". Yes, I know this was a case series (an optimal outcomer?) and not a controlled trial of the ketogenic diet where increased serum β-OH-b levels have been identified. Perhaps this is the next experimental step?Other interesting findings. Well, yes. Around 7% of participants also showed elevated levels of urinary 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3-OH-IVA). Assuming that these child participants were not smokers (see here***) we are also told that none of these 7% were also "undergoing valproate intervention" which is another potential way of elevating 3-OH-IVA (see here****). And when it came to intervening with biotin as a function of the connection between 3-OH-IVA and biotin*****, authors again reported some interesting outcomes leading to "clear therapeutic benefit" noted in CARS scores for some. Please note I'm not suggesting anything based on these findings as per my caveat about no medical or clinical advice given or intended.There is a lot more, data-wise, in the Spilioti paper which I've not been able to include in this post. As per the growing literature on autism perhaps being better defined as the 'autisms' I would echo the sentiments of Spilioti and colleagues when they say: "further consideration be given to the selected analysis of IEM [inborn errors of metabolism] in ASD". That dietary and nutritional supplementation might also be a road to improvement in the presentation of symptoms for some on the spectrum with identified metabolic parameters is also a very important consideration too.Some music to close, and for those of who watched the New Year festivities from the comfort of your own home like I did to the tune of offspring chatter of 'can I stay up late please?', Alfie and Gary sing a classic...----------* Spilioti M. et al. Evidence for Treatable Inborn Errors of Metabolism in a Cohort of 187 Greek Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Front. Hum. Neurosci. 2013; 7:858. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00858** Stockler-Ipsiroglu S. et al. Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency: Outcomes in 48 individuals and recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and monitoring. Mol Genet Metab. 2013 Nov 7. pii: S1096-7192(13)00366-1. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2013.10.018.*** Sealey WM. et al. Smoking accelerates biotin catabolism in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Oct;80(4):932-5.*... Read more »
Martha Spilioti, Athanasios Evangeliou, Despoina Tramma, Zoe Theodoridou, Spyridon Metaxas, Eleni Michailidi, Eleni Bonti, Helen Frysira, Katerina Haidopoulou, Despoina Asprangathou.... (2013) Evidence for Treatable Inborn Errors of Metabolism in a Cohort of 187 Greek Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Front. Hum. Neurosci. info:/
As part of an international research project, a team of researchers has developed a DNA clamp that can detect mutations at the DNA level with greater efficiency than methods currently in use. Their work could facilitate rapid screening of those diseases that have a genetic basis, such as cancer, and provide new tools for more advanced nanotechnology. The results of this research is published this month in the journal ACS Nano.... Read more »
Idili A, Plaxco KW, Vallée-Bélisle A, & Ricci F. (2013) Thermodynamic Basis for Engineering High-Affinity, High-Specificity Binding-Induced DNA Clamp Nanoswitches. ACS nano. PMID: 24219761
Even deadly predators crave a salad sometimes. Certain orb-weaver spiders—apparent full-time carnivores who eat by trapping prey, covering it with digestive juices, and then slurping it down like an insect smoothie—have been secretly taking their meals with a plant-based side dish. Namely, pollen.Orb weavers are a family of spiders common all across the world; they're the ones that weave the classic concentric-circle webs you see in picture books. Earlier studies have shown that those webs can collect a lot of pollen on their sticky strands, and that the spiders are willing to eat pollen in the lab. Benjamin Eggs, a graduate student at the University of Bern in Switzerland, and ecologist Dirk Sanders studied two kinds of orb weavers to see what truth there was to this rumor.For the first part of the experiment, Eggs gathered 20 young Aculepeira ceropegia spiders from outdoors in the spring and brought them into the lab. He coaxed each spider to build its nest inside a cardboard box, where he supplied it with several fruit flies per week. Eggs also sprinkled half the spiderwebs with birch pollen, as they might be in the wild.After a month, Eggs broke down the spiders' bodies and examined the carbon and nitrogen isotopes inside them. Isotopes, if it's been a while since your last chemistry class, are different forms of the same element. For example, most carbon atoms in the world have 6 protons plus 6 neutrons in their nuclei, making them carbon-12. But a small percentage of carbon atoms, called carbon-13, have an extra neutron. Animals incorporate the atoms they eat into their bodies. So by comparing the ratio of lighter to heavier isotopes in spiders' bodies to the signature ratios of their various foods, the researchers could see what the spiders were eating.In the lab, orb weavers supplied with pollen had a different isotope ratio than their neighbors who only received fruit flies. This told Eggs that his spiders were, in fact, eating the pollen. But would they do it in the wild?He returned outdoors and gathered young Araneus diadematus spiders, another orb-weaver species, from the trees. He used nets and bug vacuums to gather as many other insects from the area as possible—the spiders' potential prey. And he collected samples of pollen from neighboring trees.Eggs analyzed the carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the outdoor spiders, along with all the insects and pollen that might be on their menu. Based on those ratios, he calculated that pollen made up 25 percent of the orb weavers' diet.It's convenient for orb weavers to eat pollen, because they frequently dismantle and eat their webs in order to recycle the silk proteins. As long as they're at it, they may as well suck down the vegetables trapped there. Eggs points out, though, that the pollen grains he found in his study are too big for spiders to swallow accidentally. So his orb weavers must have deliberately eaten pollen grains by first covering them in digestive enzymes, then slurping them up.Eating pollen might be most practical in the spring, when young spiders have just hatched and built webs, but insects are still hard to find. The spiders in this study were all juveniles. Yet Eggs, who carried out this research for his undergraduate thesis, thinks there's no reason adult spiders wouldn't eat pollen too. He says, "The anatomy of araneids does not change dramatically when they reach maturity." (He adds intriguingly, "Exception: genitals.")It's even possible that other kinds of spiders nibble on pollen too. "There is evidence that other web-building spiders like the sheet weavers (Linyphiidae) also feed on pollen," Eggs says, "although they don’t eat their own web." Every diet needs a cheat day, after all.Photo by Dirk Sanders.Eggs B, & Sanders D (2013). Herbivory in spiders: the importance of pollen for orb-weavers. PloS one, 8 (11) PMID: 24312430
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Eggs B, & Sanders D. (2013) Herbivory in spiders: the importance of pollen for orb-weavers. PloS one, 8(11). PMID: 24312430
Researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), have developed a new continuous chemical process that converts algae into oil, water and usable byproducts. A biofuels company, Utah-based Genifuel Corp., has licensed the technology and is already working with an industrial partner to build a pilot plant using the technology.... Read more »
Douglas C. Elliott, Todd R. Hart, Andrew J. Schmidt, Gary G. Neuenschwander, Leslie J. Rotness, Mariefel V. Olarte, Alan H. Zacher, Karl O. Albrecht, Richard T. Hallen, Johnathan E. Holladay. (2013) Process development for hydrothermal liquefaction of algae feedstocks in a continuous-flow reactor. Algal Research. DOI: 10.1016/j.algal.2013.08.005
Scientists have discovered a diverse multitude of microbes colonizing and thriving on flecks of plastic that have polluted the oceans—a vast new human-made flotilla of microbial communities that they have dubbed the “plastisphere.”... Read more »
Zettler ER, Mincer TJ, & Amaral-Zettler LA. (2013) Life in the "plastisphere": microbial communities on plastic marine debris. Environmental science , 47(13), 7137-46. PMID: 23745679
Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory, Stony Brook University, and Syracuse University were able to improve quantum dot charge transfer properties by shrinking the core of a quantum dot. This process enhances the ability of a surrounding polymer to extract electric charges generated in the dot by the absorption of light.... Read more »
Zang H, Routh PK, Alam R, Maye MM, & Cotlet M. (2013) Core size dependent hole transfer from a photoexcited CdSe/ZnS quantum dot to a conductive polymer. Chemical communications (Cambridge, England). PMID: 24301881
Researchers at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed a method to fine-tune the diameter of silica rods by controlling their temperature as they grow. This opens the way for advances in anti-reflective solar panels, computer monitors, TV screens, eye glasses and more.... Read more »
Datskos P, & Sharma J. (2013) Synthesis of Segmented Silica Rods by Regulation of the Growth Temperature. Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English). PMID: 24272918
New collaborative work from computational biologists at MIT and experimental biologists at the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF), however, is easing that distinction by combining computational and experimental approaches to identifying biologically meaningful RNA folds.... Read more »
Silvi Rouskin, Meghan Zubradt, Stefan Washiet, Manolis Kellis, & Jonathan S. Weissman. (2013) Genome-wide probing of RNA structure reveals active unfolding of mRNA structures in vivo. Nature. DOI: 10.1038/nature12894
New findings about some ancient feces are the latest rejoinder in a five-year-long debate over one of the most important — and controversial — recent archaeological finds in the U.S.... Read more »
A. Sistiagaa, F. Berna, R. Laursen, & P. Goldberg. (2014) Steroidal biomarker analysis of a 14,000 years old putative human coprolite from Paisley Cave, Oregon. Journal of Archaeological Science. DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2013.10.016
M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Dennis L. Jenkins, Anders Götherstrom, Nuria Naveran, Juan J. Sanchez, Michael Hofreiter, Philip Francis Thomsen, Jonas Binladen, Thomas F. G. Higham, Robert M. Yohe II.... (2008) DNA from Pre-Clovis Human Coprolites in Oregon, North America. Science. DOI: 10.1126/science.1154116
Curcumin is the active compound of the popular Indian spice turmeric (also known as curry powder in western countries). From ancient times to today, turmeric has been used in Indian subcontinents to not only spice up and preserve food but also as a traditional remedy to heal many diseases. It is also used in textiles as a yellow die. Curcumin is the key ingredient in turmeric and its chemical structure is the reason for the bright yellow color of turmeric. Botanically, it is a relative of the ginger family.
Curcumin is now getting an increasing number of popularity in Europe and America, as this powerful natural ingredient provides various medicinal and health benefits. Many of the benefits of curcumin are now evident through clinical studies. Researchers of these studies found curcumin as a natural immune system booster with numerous health benefits. And, considering the various health benefits, they also called it as the solid gold of India. Curcumin is shown to have antioxidant, anti-diabetic antiarthritic, antiamyloid, and more potently, anti-inflammatory properties.
Read on to know about established medicinal uses and health benefits of curcumin based on recent study results. ... Read more »
Wongcharoen W, Jai-Aue S, Phrommintikul A, Nawarawong W, Woragidpoonpol S, Tepsuwan T, Sukonthasarn A, Apaijai N, & Chattipakorn N. (2012) Effects of curcuminoids on frequency of acute myocardial infarction after coronary artery bypass grafting. The American journal of cardiology, 110(1), 40-4. PMID: 22481014
Chuengsamarn S, Rattanamongkolgul S, Luechapudiporn R, Phisalaphong C, & Jirawatnotai S. (2012) Curcumin extract for prevention of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes care, 35(11), 2121-7. PMID: 22773702
Kalaria RN, Maestre GE, Arizaga R, Friedland RP, Galasko D, Hall K, Luchsinger JA, Ogunniyi A, Perry EK, Potocnik F.... (2008) Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia in developing countries: prevalence, management, and risk factors. Lancet neurology, 7(9), 812-26. PMID: 18667359
New research finds that hummingbird species living at high altitudes have independently evolved hemoglobin with enhanced oxygen-binding properties so they can thrive in oxygen-poor environments. ... Read more »
McGuire Jimmy, Witt Christopher, Altshuler Douglas, & Remsen J. V. (2007) Phylogenetic Systematics and Biogeography of Hummingbirds: Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood Analyses of Partitioned Data and Selection of an Appropriate Partitioning Strategy. Systematic Biology, 56(5), 837-856. DOI: 10.1080/10635150701656360
Sekercioglu Cagan H., Schneider Stephen H., Fay John P., & Loarie Scott R. (2008) Climate Change, Elevational Range Shifts, and Bird Extinctions. Conservation Biology, 22(1), 140-150. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00852.x
Sandia National Laboratories researchers have devised a novel way to realize electrical conductivity in metal-organic framework (MOF) materials, a development that could have profound implications for the future of electronics, sensors, energy conversion and energy storage.
Further Reading... Read more »
Talin AA, Centrone A, Ford AC, Foster ME, Stavila V, Haney P, Kinney RA, Szalai V, El Gabaly F, Yoon HP.... (2013) Tunable Electrical Conductivity in Metal-Organic Framework Thin-Film Devices. Science (New York, N.Y.). PMID: 24310609
A new spectroscopic technique developed at Berkeley Lab’s Advanced Light Source could help scientists study and improve advanced materials for batteries.... Read more »
Liu X, Wang D, Liu G, Srinivasan V, Liu Z, Hussain Z, & Yang W. (2013) Distinct charge dynamics in battery electrodes revealed by in situ and operando soft X-ray spectroscopy. Nature communications, 2568. PMID: 24100759
This is a thorough review of everything stupid ever said about the warrior gene, MAOA.... Read more »
Byrd AL, & Manuck SB. (2013) MAOA, Childhood Maltreatment, and Antisocial Behavior: Meta-analysis of a Gene-Environment Interaction. Biological psychiatry. PMID: 23786983
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