A team of researchers from Belgium, Canada, and France have developed a more efficient gallium nitride (GaN)-based LED using a design inspired by the firefly. The design, fabrication, and characterization of this [...]... Read more »
Bay, A., André, N., Sarrazin, M., Belarouci, A., Aimez, V., Francis, L., & Vigneron, J. (2013) Optimal overlayer inspired by Photuris firefly improves light-extraction efficiency of existing light-emitting diodes. Optics Express, 21(S1). DOI: 10.1364/OE.21.00A179
Bay, A., Cloetens, P., Suhonen, H., & Vigneron, J. (2013) Improved light extraction in the bioluminescent lantern of a Photuris firefly (Lampyridae). Optics Express, 21(1), 764. DOI: 10.1364/OE.21.000764
What is the difference between primary, secondary and higher education?... Read more »
Martin, F. (2012) Will massive open online courses change how we teach?. Communications of the ACM, 55(8), 26. DOI: 10.1145/2240236.2240246
Dr. Terry Sanger has a series of papers that have come out in the last few years describing what he has named ‘likelihood calculus’. The goal of these papers is to develop a ‘a theory of optimal control for variable, uncertain, and noisy systems that nevertheless accomplish real-world tasks reliably.’ The idea being that successful performance can be thought of as modulating variance of movement, allocating resources to tightly control motions when required and allowing variability in task-irrelevant dimensions. To perform variability modulation, we first need a means of capturing mathematically how the features of an uncertain controller operating affect variability in system movement. Defining terms quickly, the features of a controller are the different components that produce signals resulting in movement, variability is taken here to be the trial-to-trial variation in movements, and uncertainty means that the available sensory feedback does not uniquely determine the true state of the world, where uncertainty can arise from noise on sensory feedback signals, unmodeled dynamics, and/or quantitization of sensory feedback. To capture all this uncertainty and variability, probability theory will naturally be employed. In this post I will review the paper ‘Controlling variability’ (2010) by Dr. Sanger, which sets up the framework for describing the time course of uncertainty during movement.... Read more »
Think Quick Response (QR) codes are just for advertising products or transferring addresses and contact information between smartphones? Well, it turns out they can also be used to prevent drug [...]... Read more »
Han, S., Bae, H., Kim, J., Shin, S., Choi, S., Lee, S., Kwon, S., & Park, W. (2012) Lithographically Encoded Polymer Microtaggant Using High-Capacity and Error-Correctable QR Code for Anti-Counterfeiting of Drugs. Advanced Materials, 24(44), 5924-5929. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201486
Why are efficient and affordable solar cells so highly coveted? Volume. The amount of solar energy lighting up Earth’s land mass every year is nearly 3,000 times the total amount of annual human energy use. But to compete with energy from fossil fuels, photovoltaic devices must convert sunlight to electricity with a certain measure of [...]... Read more »
Collins, B., Li, Z., Tumbleston, J., Gann, E., McNeill, C., & Ade, H. (2012) Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition and Nanoscale Size Distribution Explains Performance in PTB7:PC BM Solar Cells . Advanced Energy Materials. DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200377
I often ask others if they would live in space or on another planet if given the opportunity. More often than not, the answer is in the affirmative. But what if you were given the chance and actually wanted to go, but were declined because you weren’t selected by a computer algorithm as one of [...]... Read more »
Saaty, T., & Sagir, M. (2012) Global awareness, future city design and decision making. Journal of Systems Science and Systems Engineering, 21(3), 337-355. DOI: 10.1007/s11518-012-5196-z
As promised, here are my favorite posts from each month.January: The Human Neuron" not so special after all?Butti C, Santos M, Uppal N, & Hof PR (2011). Von Economo neurons: Clinical and evolutionary perspectives. Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior PMID: 22130090February: If you give a mouse a placebo...Wise RA, Wang B, & You ZB (2008). Cocaine serves as a peripheral interoceptive conditioned stimulus for central glutamate and dopamine release. PloS one, 3 (8) PMID: 18682722 March: Plant neurons: Sensation and Action in the Venus FlytrapBenolken RM, & Jacobson SL (1970). Response properties of a sensory hair excised from Venus's flytrap. The Journal of general physiology, 56 (1), 64-82 PMID: 5514161Volkov AG, Adesina T, & Jovanov E (2007). Closing of venus flytrap by electrical stimulation of motor cells. Plant signaling & behavior, 2 (3), 139-45 PMID: 19516982 Forterre Y, Skotheim JM, Dumais J, & Mahadevan L (2005). How the Venus flytrap snaps. Nature, 433 (7024), 421-5 PMID: 15674293... Read more »
Butti C, Santos M, Uppal N, & Hof PR. (2011) Von Economo neurons: Clinical and evolutionary perspectives. Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior. PMID: 22130090
Benolken RM, & Jacobson SL. (1970) Response properties of a sensory hair excised from Venus's flytrap. The Journal of general physiology, 56(1), 64-82. PMID: 5514161
Volkov AG, Adesina T, & Jovanov E. (2007) Closing of venus flytrap by electrical stimulation of motor cells. Plant signaling , 2(3), 139-45. PMID: 19516982
Kindt M, Soeter M, & Vervliet B. (2009) Beyond extinction: erasing human fear responses and preventing the return of fear. Nature neuroscience, 12(3), 256-8. PMID: 19219038
Kim IJ, Zhang Y, Yamagata M, Meister M, & Sanes JR. (2008) Molecular identification of a retinal cell type that responds to upward motion. Nature, 452(7186), 478-82. PMID: 18368118
Kay JN, De la Huerta I, Kim IJ, Zhang Y, Yamagata M, Chu MW, Meister M, & Sanes JR. (2011) Retinal ganglion cells with distinct directional preferences differ in molecular identity, structure, and central projections. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 31(21), 7753-62. PMID: 21613488
Kraskov A, Dancause N, Quallo MM, Shepherd S, & Lemon RN. (2009) Corticospinal neurons in macaque ventral premotor cortex with mirror properties: a potential mechanism for action suppression?. Neuron, 64(6), 922-30. PMID: 20064397
Blackiston DJ, Silva Casey E, & Weiss MR. (2008) Retention of memory through metamorphosis: can a moth remember what it learned as a caterpillar?. PloS one, 3(3). PMID: 18320055
Marx M, Günter RH, Hucko W, Radnikow G, & Feldmeyer D. (2012) Improved biocytin labeling and neuronal 3D reconstruction. Nature protocols, 7(2), 394-407. PMID: 22301777
Triana-Del Rio R, Montero-Domínguez F, Cibrian-Llanderal T, Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran MB, Garcia LI, Manzo J, Hernandez ME, & Coria-Avila GA. (2011) Same-sex cohabitation under the effects of quinpirole induces a conditioned socio-sexual partner preference in males, but not in female rats. Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior, 99(4), 604-13. PMID: 21704064
Labour MN, Banc A, Tourrette A, Cunin F, Verdier JM, Devoisselle JM, Marcilhac A, & Belamie E. (2012) Thick collagen-based 3D matrices including growth factors to induce neurite outgrowth. Acta biomaterialia, 8(9), 3302-12. PMID: 22617741
Fu M, Yu X, Lu J, & Zuo Y. (2012) Repetitive motor learning induces coordinated formation of clustered dendritic spines in vivo. Nature, 483(7387), 92-5. PMID: 22343892
A look at the new fun approach and interest taken in science and how this is being marketed and aimed at young people. ... Read more »
E Markham. (2013) Sweet Science. Blogspot. info:/
Choosing a single telecommunications protocol has always been difficult for engineers on Earth, so it’s especially difficult for those who want to communicate with beings from another star system. While it’s nice to imagine that extraterrestrial beings would be able to interface with whatever protocol humans decide to encode a message in, that’s not a [...]... Read more »
Atri, D., DeMarines, J., & Haqq-Misra, J. (2011) A protocol for messaging to extraterrestrial intelligence. Space Policy, 27(3), 165-169. DOI: 10.1016/j.spacepol.2011.01.001
Edmondson, W. (2010) Targets and SETI: Shared motivations, life signatures and asymmetric SETI. Acta Astronautica, 67(11-12), 1410-1418. DOI: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2010.01.017
As you get ready to celebrate the New Year, you’ve likely come across articles about different food ‘cures’ that can prevent or reduce alcohol hangovers. Aside from anecdotic ‘evidence’ that [...]... Read more »
B.-Y. KIM, Z.-G. CUI, S.-R. LEE, S.-J. KIM, H.-K. KANG, Y.-K. LEE, & D.-B. PARK. (2009) Effects of Asparagus ofﬁcinalis Extracts on Liver Cell Toxicity and Ethanol Metabolism. JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE. info:/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01263.x
Wind power is free, which is why German engineers have been experimenting with a device they termed SkySails. They’ve proved that inflatable kites can actually haul freighters across the ocean. This mirrors research conducted over 20 years ago by a Japanese firm. Those who say that sails aren’t a new emerging technology should be careful, [...]... Read more »
M. Canale, L. Fagiano, M. Milanese, & V. Razza. (2010) Control of tethered airfoils for sustainable marine transportation IEEE Conference on Control Applications - CCA. IEEE Conference on Control Applications - CCA , 1904-1909. DOI: 10.1109/CCA.2010.5611085
And now, the next step in neuron building! You can see all the previous steps and shortcuts here. Step 4 is adding intrinsic channels to your neuron.Potassium Channel (source)Pretty much all neurons need sodium and potassium channels so they can fire action potentials, but other channels such as calcium channels are also commonly seen in computational models. To add these channels you have to extract the parameters from known data. This means extracting Boltzmann curves and time constant information so you can tell the channel which voltages activate it and inactivate it and how fast to open and close. Activation (Boltzmann) curve for fast sodium channelThis step is tricky and can take a long time, but there is some software that can help. The Enguage Digitizer is one tool I could not live without. Enguage is basically a tool that allows you to manually trace curves from published figures to get the curve data as an excel or .csv file. First you add axis points using the button at the top that has red plus signs on it. You tell the software what values each of the 3 corners of the graph are. Then you click the blue plus signs button and start to trace your graph, like so:using Enguage digitizer to extract channel dataThen you export the data as whichever type of file you want. Pretty nice!I like to have the data this way because then I can overlay this figure trace with any other trace I want and can manually fit an equation to it.Channels are a hugely important part of a computational model. A recent paper from Eve Marder's lab shows that even with a very simple morphological model (just a soma), interesting electrical characteristics can be seen simply by manipulating the channels. Kispersky et al., 2012 from Figure 1Kispersky et al., (2012) introduce an interesting paradox. They show that when you increase the sodium channel conductance you see more action potentials with low current injections (like 200pA). This is expected because the sodium channel is what causes the upswing of the action potential and more sodium is thought to mean more excitability. However, the authors find that when a high current injection is given (like 10nA), the increased sodium channel conductance actually decreases the firing rate. This is counter-intuitive because it goes against the more sodium=more excitability rule.This is a pretty cool finding published in the Journal of Neuroscience using only a simple one-compartment model. The finding is based entirely on channel manipulation, and demonstrates how important these intrinsic channels are to any computational model. © TheCellularScaleKispersky TJ, Caplan JS, & Marder E (2012). Increase in sodium conductance decreases firing rate and gain in model neurons. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 32 (32), 10995-1004 PMID: 22875933... Read more »
Kispersky TJ, Caplan JS, & Marder E. (2012) Increase in sodium conductance decreases firing rate and gain in model neurons. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 32(32), 10995-1004. PMID: 22875933
A neurobiology team at the University of Pittsburgh has given a Jan Scheuermann the power to do something that a degenerative disease had taken away. Thanks to a brain-computer interface and a robotic arm she affectionately calls “Hector,” Jan is now able to feed herself, despite her paralysis.... Read more »
Collinger, J., Wodlinger, B., Downey, J., Wang, W., Tyler-Kabara, E., Weber, D., McMorland, A., Velliste, M., Boninger, M., & Schwartz, A. (2012) High-performance neuroprosthetic control by an individual with tetraplegia. The Lancet. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61816-9
You can usually tell when a material is about to fail, you might see sagging, cracks, dents, holes, etc. But sometimes materials can fail suddenly—without warning— this known as catastrophic [...]... Read more »
Jin, X., Götz, M., Wille, S., Mishra, Y., Adelung, R., & Zollfrank, C. (2012) A Novel Concept for Self-Reporting Materials: Stress Sensitive Photoluminescence in ZnO Tetrapod Filled Elastomers. Advanced Materials. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203849
The race is on to create a biofuel that sucks carbon out of the sky and locks it away where it can’t warm the planet
THE green sludge burbles away quietly in its tangle of tubes in the Spanish desert. Soaking up sunshine and carbon dioxide from a nearby factory, it grows quickly. Every day, workers skim off some sludge and take it away to be transformed into oil. People do in a single day what it took geology 400 million years to accomplish.
Indeed, this is no ordinary oil. It belongs to a magical class of “carbon negative” fuels, ones that take carbon out of the atmosphere and lock it away for good. The basic idea is fairly simple. You grow plants, in this case algae, which naturally draw CO2 from the atmosphere. After you extract the oil, you’re left with a residue that holds a substantial portion of the carbon. This residue is the key to carbon negativity. If you can store the carbon where it won’t decompose and return to the air, more CO2 is taken out of the atmosphere than the fuel emits.
Such carbon negative fuels are no accounting sleight of hand – they could be the most realistic short-term solution we have to curb climate change. And although it is still early days, companies like General Electric, BP and Google are putting their money behind the idea.... Read more »
Bob Holmes. (2012) Biofuel that's better than carbon neutral. New Scientist. info:/
The number and types of medical apps for physicians and other medical providers is rapidly increasing. Smart phone apps (i.e. iPhone and Android apps) have the potential to allow physicians real time access to medical records, treatment guidelines and medical reference information. As these apps increase in number and type, it will be important to understand the facilitators and barriers to implementation in the medical setting. Additionally, research will be needed to document whether physician apps actually improve the quality of care. What seems in theory to be important, may fall short in actual clinical practice settings.A recent survey of medical student and junior physician use of smartphone apps in the UK has recently been published in the journal BioMed Central. Karl Frederick Braekken Payne and colleagues surveyed 257 medical students and 131 junior physicians about their ownership and use of smartphones and smartphone apps.Seventy nine percent of the UK medical students surveyed owned a smartphone with the iPhone being the most common type (3:1 over the an Android smartphone). Among junior physicians surveyed, 75% owned a smart phone again with the iPhone owning a significant 4:1 advantage. The following key findings were documented in the study:Medical students used their smartphones for both medical school education and clinical rotation functionsThe majority of users had relatively few medical related apps (1-5 apps) on their smartphonesThe majority of junior resident physicians used their medical related smartphone apps 20 minutes per day or lessMedical students were more likely to use their smartphone apps more than 20 minutes per day in clinical rotationsThe attached chart shows they types of medical related smartphone apps that were used often, very often or constantly in the medical student and junior physician groups.The medical student group tended to more frequently use drug reference, disease management and procedure/case documentation apps compared to the junior physician group.The junior physician group tended to use medical calculator/clinical score apps more frequently. It is unclear whether these trends represent true cohort differences between medical students and junior physicians or a tendency with increased skill level to become less reliant on smartphone app use.One of the barriers to smartphone and smartphone app use in the study was cost. Medical students and junior physician noted device cost and app cost were barriers to medical related smartphone app implementation.The survey also showed that medical students and junior physicians at times did not use available apps in the presence of patients or medical supervisors. One concern was that smartphone app use could be misinterpreted as just checking personal email or web-surfing.There would seem to be an important opportunity to grow the use of smartphones for documentation of educational experiences. Medical students and junior physicians are increasingly required to document the number and type of procedure experiences during training. The smartphone (with central backup) would seem to be an important tool for this process.The research study authors conclude that their survey showed "junior doctors and medical students are overwhelmingly enthusiastic and endorse organisational associated apps that help their learning activities". Clearly there are also barriers that need to be overcome.It will be important that medical related app development be paired with research studies of their implementation and value of such devices in the medical care setting.Readers with more interest in the details of this survey can access the free article by clicking on the PMID link below.Top figure is an iPod screen shot of the medical related drug reference app Epocrates from the author's files.The figure is an original figure for this post produced from data provided in the manuscript.Payne KF, Wharrad H, & Watts K (2012). Smartphone and medical related App use among medical students and junior doctors in the United Kingdom (UK): a regional survey. BMC medical informatics and decision making, 12 PMID: 23110712... Read more »
Payne KF, Wharrad H, & Watts K. (2012) Smartphone and medical related App use among medical students and junior doctors in the United Kingdom (UK): a regional survey. BMC medical informatics and decision making, 121. PMID: 23110712
Recently, scientists from MIT published a research paper in the journal Nature in which they showed their work of “Extremely metal-poor gas at a redshift of 7”. They utilized infrared spectrometer, which they placed onto the Magellan Telescope, a massive ground-based telescope in Chile. They calculated the elements and based on the observations about the heavy elements they believe that the earliest stars might have been formed 750 million years after the formation of Universe.
“The first stars will form in different spots in the universe … it’s not like they flashed on at the same time,” Robert Simcoe, an associate professor of physics at MIT, said in a statement. “But this is the time that it starts getting interesting.”
In another study published recently in the journal Science, researchers were able to study the light from the stars that are just 0.6 billion years old.
Mark A. Holland, who is BS, Engineering Physics at Universitry of Maine, Orono, ME, and worked in BAE Systems, The MITRE Corporation and Operations Research, Inc., and one of the respected readers of SayPeople.com, has commented and pointed to another time of the earliest formation of stars that is very much less than the present finding. He said,
I thought the Hubble Space Telescope had detected a galaxy (UDFj-39546284) with a red-shift of about 10 back in 2009 or 2010. That would mean that not only had stars formed, but entire galaxies had organized by about 480 million years after the Big Bang. When the James Webb Space Telescope comes on-line, we will be able to look a lot further back in time, and I expect we will find that stars were shining even then. There is a good summary article on the discovery of UDFj-39546284 on the Space Telescope website (http://www.spacetelescope.org/news/heic1103/). Cornell University’s website also has the abstract of a paper by R. J. Bouwens (Leiden), P. A. Oesch (UCSC), et. al. on the work performed to confirm the Hubble Ultra Deep Field — Infrared (HUDF-IR) observations (see http://arxiv.org/abs/1211.3105).
Another interesting point is the most distant object recently found by NASA using Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes. That is the most distant galaxy ever found and it is named is MACS0647-JD. This galaxy is found to be the youngest object found in the universe i.e. it’s age is thought to be about 420 million years. This finding can show that the earliest stars were there after 420 million years of the formation of the universe.
In another interesting research, scientists have proposed a mechanism through which they simulated “the distribution of the first stars at redshift 20 (cosmic age of around 180 million years)”. They have based their research on the moving speed of the stars and the influence of the radiation from the earliest stars on the older stars.
Visbal, E., Barkana, R., Fialkov, A., Tseliakhovich, D., & Hirata, C. (2012). The signature of the first stars in atomic hydrogen at redshift 20 Nature DOI: 10.1038/nature11177
Pletsch, H., Guillemot, L., Fehrmann, H., Allen, B., Kramer, M., Aulbert, C., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., de Angelis, A., Atwood, W., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Borgland, A., Bottacini, E., Brandt, T., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G., Cameron, R., Caraveo, P., Casandjian, J., Cecchi, C., Celik, O., Charles, E., Chaves, R., Cheung, C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., D'Ammando, F., Dermer, C., Digel, S., Drell, P., Drlica-Wagner, A., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Favuzzi, C., Ferrara, E., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I., Grondin, M., Grove, J., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A., den Hartog, P., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Hill, A., Hou, X., Hughes, R., Johannesson, G., Jackson, M., Jogler, T., Johnson, A., Johnson, W., Kataoka, J., Kerr, M., Knodlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M., Lubrano, P., Massaro, F., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M., McEnery, J., Mehault, J., Michelson, P., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I., Murgia, S., Nakamori, T., Nemmen, R., Nuss, E., Ohno, M., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., de Palma, F., Paneque, D., Perkins, J., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T., Raino, S., Rando, R., Ray, P., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Romani, R., Romoli, C., Sanchez, D., Parkinson, P., Schulz, A., Sgro, C., do Couto e Silva, E., Siskind, E., Smith, D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Suson, D., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J., Thayer, J., Thompson, D., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Troja, E., Usher, T., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Waite, A., Winer, B., Wood, K., Wood, M., Yang, Z., & Zimmer, S. (2012). Binary Millisecond Pulsar Discovery via Gamma-Ray Pulsations Science, 338 (6112), 1314-1317 DOI: 10.1126/science.1229054
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Allafort, A., Schady, P., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Blandford, R., Bloom, E., Borgland, A., Bottacini, E., Bouvier, A., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G., Cameron, R., Caraveo, P., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chaves, R., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., D'Ammando, F., de Palma, F., Dermer, C., Digel, S., do Couto e Silva, E., Dominguez, A., Drell, P., Drlica-Wagner, A., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S., Focke, W., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I., Grove, J., Guiriec, S., Gustafsson, M., Hadasch, D., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Jackson, M., Jogler, T., Kataoka, J., Knodlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M., Lubrano, P., Mazziotta, M., McEnery, J., Mehault, J., Michelson, P., Mizuno, T., Monte, C., Monzani, M., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I., Murgia, S., Tramacere, A., Nuss, E., Greiner, J., Ohno, M., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J., Paneque, D., Perkins, J., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T., Raino, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reyes, L., Ritz, S., Rau, A., Romoli, C., Roth, M., Sanchez-Conde, M., Sanchez, D., Scargle, J., Sgro, C., Siskind, E., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stawarz, L., Suson, D., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J., Thompson, D., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Torres, D., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Usher, T., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Waite, A., Winer, B., Wood, K., & Wood, M. (2012). The Imprint of the Extragalactic Background Light in the Gamma-Ray Spectra of Blazars Science, 338 (6111), 1190-1192 DOI: 10.1126/science.1227160
Simcoe, R., Sullivan, P., Cooksey, K., Kao, M., Matejek, M., & Burgasser, A. (2012). Extremely metal-poor gas at a redshift of 7 Nature, 492 (7427), 79-82 DOI: 10.1038/nature11612... Read more »
Visbal, E., Barkana, R., Fialkov, A., Tseliakhovich, D., & Hirata, C. (2012) The signature of the first stars in atomic hydrogen at redshift 20. Nature. DOI: 10.1038/nature11177
Pletsch, H., Guillemot, L., Fehrmann, H., Allen, B., Kramer, M., Aulbert, C., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., de Angelis, A., Atwood, W.... (2012) Binary Millisecond Pulsar Discovery via Gamma-Ray Pulsations. Science, 338(6112), 1314-1317. DOI: 10.1126/science.1229054
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Allafort, A., Schady, P., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Blandford, R.... (2012) The Imprint of the Extragalactic Background Light in the Gamma-Ray Spectra of Blazars. Science, 338(6111), 1190-1192. DOI: 10.1126/science.1227160
The United States could eliminate the need for crude oil by using a combination of coal, natural gas and non-food crops to make synthetic fuel, a team of Princeton researchers has found.
Besides economic and national security benefits, the plan has potential environmental advantages. Because plants absorb carbon dioxide to grow, the United States could cut vehicle greenhouse emissions by as much as 50 percent in the next several decades using non-food crops to create liquid fuels, the researchers said.
Synthetic fuels would be an easy fit for the transportation system because they could be used directly in automobile engines and are almost identical to fuels refined from crude oil. That sets them apart from currently available biofuels, such as ethanol, which have to be mixed with gas or require special engines.... Read more »
John Sullivan. (2012) Synthetic fuels could eliminate entire U.S. need for crude oil, create 'new economy'. Princeton University Office of Engineering Communications. info:/
If the idea that matter can be organized in a way that’s similar to binary code seems implausible, get ready for a shock: It can. An MIT team has created a milli-motein — a tiny device made of millimeter-sized components with a motorized design inspired by proteins. Milli-moteins can naturally fold themselves into almost any shape imaginable.... Read more »
Peter Suciu. (2012) MIT's Milli-Motein: Things Just Got a Lot More Interesting. TechNewsWorld. info:/
I’ve previously discussed how to sort CTCs, and the standards used to characterize device performance. Today, I’ll explain what some of the most common evaluation metrics are, and place them in context of eventual clinical/industrial application.... Read more »
Marrinucci Dena, Bethel Kelly, Lazar Daniel, Fisher Jennifer, Huynh Edward, Clark Peter, Bruce Richard, Nieva Jorge, & Kuhn Peter. (2010) Cytomorphology of circulating colorectal tumor cells:a small case series. Journal of oncology. PMID: 20111743
Kirby Brian J, Jodari Mona, Loftus Matthew S, Gakhar Gunjan, Pratt Erica D, Chanel-Vos Chantal, Gleghorn Jason P, Santana Steven M, Liu He, & Smith James P. (2012) Functional characterization of circulating tumor cells with a prostate-cancer-specific microfluidic device. PloS one. PMID: 22558290
Do you write about peer-reviewed research in your blog? Use ResearchBlogging.org to make it easy for your readers — and others from around the world — to find your serious posts about academic research.
If you don't have a blog, you can still use our site to learn about fascinating developments in cutting-edge research from around the world.
Research Blogging is powered by SMG Technology.
To learn more, visit seedmediagroup.com.