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  • June 1, 2015
  • 11:34 PM
  • 5 views

Poisons once used as medicines

by Rosin Cerate in Rosin Cerate

The difference between a poison and a medicine is often not clear. Side effects are essentially ways in which a medicine can harm us but it's alright because the effects usually aren't too bad and we otherwise get healed. Antibiotics often cause an upset stomach, but they also prevent us from dying of an infected paper cut. A more extreme example is cancer drugs, which are often highly toxic but are deemed necessary in order to defeat a greater evil. Even still, there are substances for which the bad effects clearly outweigh the good ones (if there are any). Many have seen use as medicines at some point in time. These are their stories.Elements that aren't essentialArsenic is one of the classic poisons, having been used since ancient times due to its high toxicity and undetectable nature (at least until certain advances in analytical chemistry were made). Not only is super deadly if you get a big dose of it, but long term exposure to small amounts can result in cancer. Interestingly, arsenic is also considered one of the world's oldest drugs, making an appearance in medical texts from ancient Greece and China (e.g. Hippocrates noted its use in the treatment of ulcers).Arsenic is pretty bad for you (Source)Fowler's solution (1% potassium arsenite) was introduced in mid 19th century for the treatment of a wide range of conditions including anemia, rheumatism, psoriasis and other skin conditions, asthma, cholera, and syphilis. This solution would sometimes be mixed with iron and be taken by the teaspoon with meals. Organic molecules that include arsenic (e.g. arsphenamine) were introduced in the 1910s as a means of treating syphilis, but were replaced by penicillin, which is considerably safer, in the 1940s. Although arsenic has otherwise been phased out of modern medicine owing to its toxicity, arsenic trioxide is currently being investigated as a means of treating a particular form of cancer known as acute promyelocytic leukemia, with acknowledged risks of organ damage and other future cancers.Mercury salts have a long history of use as medicines, but are super poisonous. The nervous system and kidneys are particularly sensitive to damage by the metal. In the past, mercury(II) oxide or mercuric amidochloride were mixed into petroleum jelly and/or lanolin to make an ointment that was applied to the skin to treat various conditions including psoriasis and infections caused by bacteria (e.g. impetigo) or fungi (e.g. ringworm). Mercury(I) chloride (aka calomel or "sweet mercury") was at one time a hugely popular laxative. It irritates the heck out of the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in diarrhea. Here's a great quote from Goodman and Gilman (1941):“Pharmacists, during their leisure moments, would prepare calomel prescriptions in large numbers in anticipation of the steady inflow of requests for the drug. Calomel was once the favorite remedy for 'biliousness'. This condition was thought to be associated with a disturbance in liver function. Calomel was believed to stimulate the liver and to empty the bowel at the same time,a combination of events formerly considered to be highly desirable. The subsequent elucidation of the toxic properties of this chemical and its lack of choleretic potency have resulted in a considerable decline in the popularity of the drug.” In addition to being a laxative, calomel is a powerful diuretic (promotes the formation of urine) (see: Guy's Hospital pill) and was for a time used to treat the infectious diseases yellow fever, typhus, and syphilis. It is also included as an analgesic in some infant teething powders that were solid in the UK up until the 1950s and are still available in parts of the world, the use of which can cause a form of mercury poisoning known as acrodynia (“pink disease”).It rubs the mercury ointment on its skin (Source)Lead, which doesn't appear to have any useful properties as a medicine whatsoever, nevertheless has historically been included in preparations applied to the skin to relieve the itching caused by poison ivy (e.g. lotion of lead and opium, lead acetate and alcohol).Lead and opium pills were also used for a time as a treatment for diarrhea, although opium can achieve this effect just fine on its own. There are several case reports from the 1970s describing patients with hepatitis (liver inflammation) who recently had obtained lead and opium pills to get high. They crushed the pills, suspended them in water, and injected them, resulting in acute lead poisoning. The amount of lead measured in their livers was up to 35 times greater than levels reported in those with a history of occupational lead exposure.Harmful hydrocarbonsBenzene, a component of crude oil, was at one time used to treat leukemia (white blood cell cancer) and polycythemia (too many red blood cells), which it accomplished by damaging the bone marrow where blood cells are produced. Unfortunately, too much benzene-induced damage can produce a steep decline in blood cell levels, resulting in severe anemia (not enough red blood cells), increased susceptibility to infections (not enough white blood cells), and bleeding issues (not enough platelets), any one of which can potentially be fatal. Just to top it all off, benzene is a carcinogen and can itself cause leukemia. Oh wait, there's more! On at least one occasion, benzene was used in combination with radium to treat polycythemia, which is perhaps the most brutal one-two punch of poisoning I've come across.2,4-Dinitrophenol is a derivative of benzene that was recognized as the cause of poisoning among munition workers during WWI. However, in the 1930s, it was introduced to great acclaim as a means of treating obesity due to its ability to increase basal metabolic rate. Among other things, 2,4-dinitrophenol disrupts ATP generation in mitochondria, causing the body to up its metabolic rate to compensate and thus burn more calories. Eventually it dawned on people that their miracle diet pill was pretty darn toxic, with adverse effects including skin lesions, nerve damage, lowered white blood cell counts, liver and kidney damage, and cataracts.I managed to dig up a paper from 1973 reporting the use of DDT, an insecticide that is banned in most countries due to its toxic effects on animals, as an antidote for folks who overdosed on barbiturates. In this trial investigation, individuals who had ingested a whole lot of pills were given a one-time dose of 5 grams of DDT in peanut oil. The authors speculated that the DDT worked because its ability to excite the nervous system counteracted the depressant effect of the barbiturates. DDT exposure has been tentatively linked to cancer and negative neurological and reproductive effects in people but more studies still apparently need to be done to confirm things.Chloroform and trichloroethylene are organic solvents that were historically used as general anesthetics to put people under for surgery. Concerns about their propensity to promote cardiac arrhythmias (potentially life-threatening heart dysfunction) and potential carcinogenicity led to a decline in their use. Here's a bit more on trichloroethylene from Goodman and Gilman (1941):“During the World War of 1914-1918, it was noted by Plessner (1915) that some workers using trichloroethylene in the airplane industry developed a peculiar bilateral loss of sensation over the distribution of the fifth cranial nerve. ... Read more »

  • June 1, 2015
  • 03:20 PM
  • 23 views

How does human behavior lead to surgical errors? Researchers count the ways

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Why are major surgical errors called “never events?” Because they shouldn’t happen — but do. Mayo Clinic researchers identified 69 never events among 1.5 million invasive procedures performed over five years and detailed why each occurred. Using a system created to investigate military plane crashes, they coded the human behaviors involved to identify any environmental, organizational, job and individual characteristics that led to the never events.... Read more »

Cornelius A. Thiels, DO, Tarun Mohan Lal, MS, Joseph M. Nienow, MBA, Kalyan S. Pasupathy, PhD, Renaldo C. Blocker, PhD, Johnathon M. Aho, MD, Timothy I. Morgenthaler, MD, Robert R. Cima, MD, Susan Hallbeck, PhD, & Juliane Bingener. (2015) Surgical never events and contributing human factors . Surgery . info:/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2015.03.053

Cima RR, Kollengode A, Clark J, Pool S, Weisbrod C, Amstutz GJ, & Deschamps C. (2011) Using a data-matrix-coded sponge counting system across a surgical practice: impact after 18 months. Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety / Joint Commission Resources, 37(2), 51-8. PMID: 21939132  

  • June 1, 2015
  • 10:49 AM
  • 29 views

The statistics are clear: a cultural shift away from religion is underway in the USA

by Tom Rees in Epiphenom

From time to time, we see surveys from the USA that suggest an increasing tide of non-affiliation to religion, especially among the young. Taken in isolation, it’s really hard to know what to make of them. Maybe, for example, what we are seeing reflects religious apathy among the young. Maybe it’s simply that people believe [Read More...]... Read more »

  • June 1, 2015
  • 07:38 AM
  • 30 views

Some perfectly healthy people can't remember their own lives

by BPS Research Digest in BPS Research Digest

Psychologists in Canada think they've identified an entirely new memory syndrome in healthy people characterised by a specific inability to re-live their past. This may sound like a form of amnesia, but the three individuals currently described have no history of brain damage or illness and have experienced no known recent psychological trauma or disturbance.In light of the recent discovery that some people have an uncanny ability to recall their lives in extreme detail, known as hyperthymesia or "highly superior autobiographical memory", Daniela Palombo and her team suggest their syndrome is at the opposite extreme and they propose the label "severely deficient autobiographical memory".The researchers describe three individuals with the postulated syndrome: AA is a 52-year-old married woman; BB is a 40-year-old single man; and CC is a 49-year-old man living with his partner. All three are high functioning in their everyday lives, they have jobs, yet they also claim a life-long inability to recollect and relive past events from a first-person perspective (a condition they became fully aware of in their late teens or early adulthood). Their memory for facts and skills is completely normal. Two of the individuals had experienced depression many years earlier, but there was no evidence of this persisting.Through intense neuropsychological testing for intelligence, memory and mental performance, the three individuals mostly scored normally or higher than normal. One key exception was poor performance on the ability to draw a complex figure from memory. The researchers think this visual memory deficit could be key to understanding their lack of autobiographical memories.To test their memories of their lives, the researchers interviewed AA, BB and CC about various incidents from their pasts – a mixture of questions about generic life events and also personal incidents the participants proposed themselves after looking at their calendars or consulting loved ones.Compared to fifteen comparison participants (matched with the target participants for age and educational background), the impaired participants were able to provide significantly fewer autobiographical, first-person details from their teen and youth years. For more recent events, the impaired participants' recall appeared more normal, but the researchers think this is due to a combination of conservative scoring (when in doubt the researchers scored reminisces as autobiographical in nature), and the participants having learned compensation strategies such as studying diaries and photos and substituting their lack of autobiographical memory for memory of facts and semantic detail.From a subjective perspective, the impaired participants described their own memories of past events from both distant and more recent times as almost completely lacking a first-person perspective or involving any sense of "re-experiencing". They also struggled to imagine future events, consistent with the idea that memory and future imagination involve shared mental processes.Brain scans of the impaired participants uncovered no evidence of brain damage or illness, but when they attempted to recall autobiographical details from their pasts, there was less activity in key brain regions associated with autobiographical memory, compared with control participants. This included the medial prefrontal cortex and the precuneus and parts of the temporal lobes. The right-sided hippocampus (an important brain area for memory) was slightly smaller in the impaired participants compared with controls. Whether cause or consequence, this might be relevant to their deficits but it also argues against the new syndrome merely being an instance of "developmental amnesia", which in contrast is characterised by a drastic lack of brain volume in areas involved in memory.The researchers urge caution given their small sample, and they admit that many questions remain. Yet they state "there is no evidence to support a neurological or psychiatric explanation for our findings". If this research generates enough interest, I wonder if other healthy people will come forward and describe their own absence of autobiographical memories. This is what's happened with some other neuropsychological syndromes recently, such as "developmental prosopagnosia", which is  the term for otherwise healthy people who have a specific difficulty remembering faces.Palombo and her team say "our goal was to describe the 'severely deficient autobiographical memory' cases' cognitive syndrome and associated neuroimaging findings in as much detail as possible in order to stimulate further research on the nature of individual differences in episodic autobiographical memory...". A crucial question they note, is "whether these findings reflect an extreme on a continuum of ability in episodic autobiographical recollection, or, they may be qualitatively set apart from the normal distribution of mnemonic capacities."_________________________________ Palombo, D., Alain, C., Söderlund, H., Khuu, W., & Levine, B. (2015). Severely deficient autobiographical memory (SDAM) in healthy adults: A new mnemonic syndrome Neuropsychologia, 72, 105-118 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.04.012Post written by Christian Jarrett (@psych_writer) for the BPS Research Digest.
... Read more »

  • June 1, 2015
  • 07:02 AM
  • 16 views

Simple Jury Persuasion: Who is more likely to be convinced of the highly unusual?

by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room

This is a new and somewhat unusual perspective on persuasion. If you have an unusual explanation for your client’s behavior or motivations—is there a way to know which potential juror might be more predisposed to accept that unusual explanation? According to today’s research…maybe so. Researchers in France wanted to know if non-reflective thinkers (those who […]

Related posts:
Simple Jury Persuasion: Educating jurors about science may have no effect
Simple Jury Persuasion: “Hey, look over here for a second!” 
Simple Jury Persuasion: Are those folks in the jury box thinkers or feelers?


... Read more »

  • June 1, 2015
  • 04:50 AM
  • 18 views

The physical maltreatment of children with autism

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

As dramatic as the title of this post might seem, it is taken from the title of the paper by Guiqin Duan and colleagues [1] who reported that: "CPM [child physical maltreatment] is widespread in families of children with autism in Central China and more knowledge should be provided to parents of children with autism."Given the subject matter of the Duan paper I will at this point affirm that this is a blog about science (peer-reviewed science in the most part) and my discussions on this topic are directed at the science. I am not trying to stigmatise, generalise or any other -ise the quite uncomfortable and potentially emotive topic of child maltreatment with autism in mind.Based on an analysis of 180 reports from parents of children with autism, including assessment of the severity of offspring autism (based on CARS scores) and data on "parental CPM during the past 3 months", researchers built up a picture of how prevalent CPM might be and how age and severity of autism in offspring might 'intersect' with such practices. By saying that last sentence I am in no way trying to excuse CPM on the basis of autism presentation.Results: "CPM was self-reported by 88% of the parents of children with autism." Most of these reports were described as minor although about a third of such reports fell into the 'severe' categorisation but were "unlikely to have caused injury." An analysis of CARS scores and age suggested that there may be more to see when it came to these correlates and the use of severe CPM is perhaps in line with the findings reported by Andrea Roberts and colleagues [2] following on from the idea that those with "high levels of autistic traits may be targeted for abuse."As I initially indicated, the issue of maltreatment is generally an uncomfortable topic to discuss particularly when linked to the word 'child'. Add also the label of autism into the mix and this turns into a potentially very emotive issue especially in light of some of the extreme examples of where child maltreatment and autism have been reported with the most saddest of outcomes (see here). An additional side to this issue is also the strong requirement not to further stigmatise parents of children with autism with findings such as those from Duan et al accepting that no asymptomatic control group was included in their study. As per other discussions on intimate partner abuse and risk of offspring autism (see here) based on other research from Roberts et al [3], there is a balance to be struck between recognition of an issue whilst at the same time not over-generalising said issue to an entire group or population of people.Insofar as what could be potentially done to minimise CPM and it's impact I don't want to adopt the 'holier than thou' position on this. Parenting, whilst rewarding, is a difficult business. Without making light of the topic, have a look at comedian Michael McIntyre's routine: 'parents with no kids don't know' on just how stressful parenting can become. The evidence on parenting a child with autism suggests that there are additional stress and strains that can accompany those of parenting in general (see here) that might also need to be considered.Help, support and education are perhaps some of the most important tools that can be utilised. Within those concepts I'm talking about the rise and rise of parent education (without being condescending) on the ways and means that strategies could be adopted in times when the risk of CPM is high. I'd also like to think that important services such as respite care can be utilised as and when required so that parenting can go back to being parenting and not just coping / getting by as a scenario that can build up over time. All of these concepts are set against a backdrop of differing national policies on what is and is not socially acceptable when it comes to the use of smacking (spanking) for example as one facet of CPM.The bottom line is that no child should be exposed to physical maltreatment. Over and above however just finger pointing, the provision of help, support and services where and when required to aid the parenting journey need to be more fully incorporated into action plans to reduce the likelihood of CPM occurring when autism is diagnosed.----------[1] Duan G. et al. Physical maltreatment of children with autism in Henan province in China: A cross-sectional study. Child Abuse Negl. 2015 May 6. pii: S0145-2134(15)00116-7.[2] Roberts AL. et al. Association of autistic traits in adulthood with childhood abuse, interpersonal victimization, and posttraumatic stress. Child Abuse Negl. 2015 May 5. pii: S0145-2134(15)00128-3.[3] Roberts AL. et al. Maternal exposure to intimate partner abuse before birth is associated with autism spectrum disorder in offspring. Autism. 2015 Feb 6. pii: 1362361314566049.----------Duan, G., Chen, J., Zhang, W., Yu, B., Jin, Y., Wang, Y., & Yao, M. (2015). Physical maltreatment of children with autism in Henan province in China: A cross-sectional study Child Abuse & Neglect DOI: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.03.018... Read more »

  • June 1, 2015
  • 04:20 AM
  • 3 views

How to live with a killer. Part I: Watch for AT-ATs

by Humeandroid in The Art of World-Making

The idea of the “selfish gene,” made famous by Richard Dawkins nearly 40 years ago, was instantaneously controversial. It invigorated a sometimes-rancorous discussion of the focus of natural selection, with Dawkins and others arguing that the gene is the thing on which natural selection ultimately acts. The debate is ongoing and always entertaining. I think […]... Read more »

  • May 31, 2015
  • 09:33 PM
  • 38 views

Capgras for Cats and Canaries

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

Capgras syndrome is the delusion that a familiar person has been replaced by a nearly identical duplicate. The imposter is usually a loved one or a person otherwise close to the patient.Originally thought to be a manifestation of schizophrenia and other psychotic illnesses, the syndrome is most often seen in individuals with dementia (Josephs, 2007). It can also result from acquired damage to a secondary (dorsal) face recognition system important for connecting the received images with an affective tone (Ellis & Young, 1990).1 Because of this, the delusion crosses the border between psychiatry and neurology.The porous etiology of Capgras syndrome raises the question of how phenomenologically similar delusional belief systems can be constructed from such different underlying neural malfunctions. This is not a problem for Freudian types, who promote psychodynamic explanations (e.g., psychic conflict, regression, etc.). For example, Koritar and Steiner (1988) maintain that “Capgras' Syndrome represents a nonspecific symptom of regression to an early developmental stage characterized by archaic modes of thought, resulting from a relative activation of primitive brain centres.”The psychodynamic view was nicely dismissed by de Pauw (1994), who states:While often ill-founded and convoluted, these formulations have, until recently, dominated many theoretical approaches to the phenomenon. Generally post hoc and teleological in nature, they postulate motives that are not introspectable and defence mechanisms that cannot be observed, measured or refuted. While psychosocial factors can and often do play a part in the development, content and course of the Capgras delusion in individual patients it remains to be proven that such factors are necessary and sufficient to account for delusional misidentification in general and the Capgras delusion in particular.Canary CapgrasAlthough psychodynamic explanations were sometimes applied 2 to cases of Capgras syndrome for animals,3 other clinicians report that the delusional misindentification of pets can be ameliorated by pharmacological treatment of the underlying psychotic disorder. Rösler et al. (2001) presented the case of “a socially isolated woman who felt her canary was replaced by a duplicate”:Mrs. G., a 67-year-old woman, was admitted for the first time to a psychiatric hospital for late paraphrenia. ... She had been a widow for 11 years, had no children, and lived on her own with very few social contacts. Furthermore, she suffered from concerns that her canary was alone at home. She was delighted with the suggestion that the bird be transferred to the ward. However, during the first two days she repeatedly asserted that the canary in the cage was not her canary and reported that the bird looked exactly like her canary, but was in fact a duplicate. There were otherwise no misidentifications of persons or objects.Earlier, Somerfield (1999) had reported a case of parrot Capgras, also in an elderly woman with a late-onset delusional disorder:I would like to report an unusual case of a 91-year-old woman with a 10-year history of late paraphrenia (LP) and episodes of Capgras syndrome involving her parrot. She was a widow of 22 years, nulliparous, with profound deafness and a fiercely independent character.  The psychotic symptoms were usually well controlled by haloperidol 0.5 mg orally. However, she was periodically non-compliant with medication, resulting in deterioration of her mental state, refusal of food and her barricading herself in her room to stop her parrot being stolen. At times she accused others of “swapping” the parrot and said the bird was an identical imposter. There was no misidentifcation of people or objects. Her symptoms would attenuate rapidly with reinstatement of haloperidol.Both of these patients believed their beloved pet birds had been replaced by impostors, but neither of them misidentified any human beings. Clearly, this form of Capgras syndrome is different from what can happen after acquired damage to the affective face identification system (Ellis & Young, 1990). Is there an isolated case of sudden onset Capgras for animals that does not encompass person identification as well? I couldn't find one.A Common Explanation?Despite these differences, Ellis and Lewis (2001) suggested that “It seems parsimonious to seek a common explanation for the delusion, regardless of its aetiology.” I'm not so sure. If that's true, then haloperidol should effectively treat all instances of Capgras syndrome, including those that arise after a stroke. And there's evidence suggesting that antipsychotics would be ineffective in such patients.Are there systematic differences in the symptoms shown by Capgras patients with varying etiologies? Josephs (2007) reviewed 47 patient records and found no major differences between the delusions in patients with neurodegenerative vs. non-neurodegenerative disorders. In all 47 cases, the delusion involved a spouse, child, or other relative. {There were no cases involving animals or objects.}The factors that differed were age of onset (older in dementia patients) and other reported symptoms (e.g., visual hallucinations 4 in all patients with Lewy body dementia, LBD). In this series, 81% of patients had a neurodegenerative disease, and only 4% had schizophrenia [perhaps the Capgras delusion was under-reported in the context of wide-ranging delusions?]. Other cases were due to methamphetamine abuse (4%) or sudden onset brain injury, e.g. hemorrhage (11%).Interestingly, Josephs puts forth dopamine dysfunction as a unifying theme, in line with Ellis and Lewis's general suggestion of a common explanation. The pathology in dementia with Lewy bodies includes degeneration of neurons containing dopamine and acetylcholine. The cognitive/behavioral symptoms of LBD overlap with those seen in Parkinson's dementia, which also involves degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. But dopamine-blocking antipsychotics like haloperidol should not be used in treating LBD. So from a circuit perspective, using “dopamine dysregulation” as a parsimonious explanation isn't really an explanation. And this conception doesn't fit with the neuropsychological model (shown at the bottom of the page).I'm not a fan of parsimony in matters of brain function and dysfunction. We don't know why one person thinks her canary has been replaced by an impostor, another thinks her husband has been replaced by a woman, while a third is convinced there are six copies of his wife floating around.5 I don't expect there to be a unifying explanation. The ... Read more »

Ellis, H., & Young, A. (1990) Accounting for delusional misidentifications. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 157(2), 239-248. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.157.2.239  

Rösler, A., Holder, G., & Seifritz, E. (2001) Canary Capgras. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 13(3), 429-429. DOI: 10.1176/jnp.13.3.429  

  • May 31, 2015
  • 04:26 PM
  • 14 views

Weight Reduction Lowers Risk of Atrial Fibrillation

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Christopher X Wong MBBS MSc PhD Clinical Research Fellow | Clinical Trial Service Unit, Oxford Clinical Senior Lecturer | Centre for Heart Rhythm Disorders, Adelaide Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford Roosevelt Drive, Oxford Medical Research: … Continue reading →
The post Weight Reduction Lowers Risk of Atrial Fibrillation appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
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MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Christopher X Wong MBBS MSc PhD, Clinical Research Fellow | Clinical Trial Service Unit, Oxford, Clinical Senior Lecturer | Centre for Heart Rhythm Disorders, Adelaide, Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford, & Roosevelt Drive, Oxford. (2015) Weight Reduction Lowers Risk of Atrial Fibrillation. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • May 31, 2015
  • 04:19 PM
  • 14 views

New Technology May Allow Urine Sampling Rather Than Blood Testing

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: R. Kenneth Marcus, FRSC & FAAAS Professor of Chemistry Clemson University Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Prof. Marcus: We had previously shown that chromatographic columns formed from aligned … Continue reading →
The post New Technology May Allow Urine Sampling Rather Than Blood Testing appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
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MedicalResearch.com Interview with: R. Kenneth Marcus, FRSC , Professor of Chemistry, & Clemson University. (2015) New Technology May Allow Urine Sampling Rather Than Blood Testing. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • May 31, 2015
  • 03:59 PM
  • 13 views

Indoor Air Purifiers Reduce Cardiopulmonary Effects Of Severe Air Pollution

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Renjie Chen PhD and Dr. Haidong Kan, PhD School of Public Health, Key Lab of Public Health Safety of the Ministry of Education, Fudan University, Shanghai, China MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What … Continue reading →
The post Indoor Air Purifiers Reduce Cardiopulmonary Effects Of Severe Air Pollution appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
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Dr. Renjie Chen PhD and Dr. Haidong Kan, PhD School of Public Health, Key Lab of Public Health Safety of the Ministry of Education, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. (2015) Indoor Air Purifiers Reduce Cardiopulmonary Effects Of Severe Air Pollution. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • May 31, 2015
  • 03:44 PM
  • 14 views

Genes Associated With High Triglycerides May Be Protective Against Diabetes

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yann Klimentidis Ph.D. Assistant Professor Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health University of Arizona Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Klimentidis: Previous studies have hinted at … Continue reading →
The post Genes Associated With High Triglycerides May Be Protective Against Diabetes appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
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MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yann Klimentidis Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, & University of Arizona. (2015) Genes Associated With High Triglycerides May Be Protective Against Diabetes. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • May 31, 2015
  • 03:23 PM
  • 12 views

Taking A Little More Tissue After Breast Cancer Removal May Save Reduce Need For Further Surgery

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Anees B. Chagpar, MD, MSc, MPH, MA, MBA, FRCS(C), FACS, Associate Professor, Department of Surgery Director, The Breast Center — Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven, Assistant Director — Global Oncology, Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center Program Director, … Continue reading →
The post Taking A Little More Tissue After Breast Cancer Removal May Save Reduce Need For Further Surgery appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
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MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Anees B. Chagpar, MD, MSc, MPH, MA, MBA, FRCS(C), FACS, Associate Professor, Department of Surgery, Director, The Breast Center -- Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven, Assistant Director -- Global Oncology, Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center, Program Director, Yale Interdisciplinary Breast Fellowship, Yale University School of Medicine Breast Centerm, & New Haven, CT,. (2015) Taking A Little More Tissue After Breast Cancer Removal May Save Reduce Need For Further Surgery. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • May 31, 2015
  • 03:05 PM
  • 35 views

A patient’s budding cortex — in a dish?

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

A patient tormented by suicidal thoughts gives his psychiatrist a few strands of his hair. She derives stem cells from them to grow budding brain tissue harboring the secrets of his unique illness in a petri dish. She uses the information to genetically engineer a personalized treatment to correct his brain circuit functioning. Just Sci-fi? Yes, but…... Read more »

Paşca, A., Sloan, S., Clarke, L., Tian, Y., Makinson, C., Huber, N., Kim, C., Park, J., O'Rourke, N., Nguyen, K.... (2015) Functional cortical neurons and astrocytes from human pluripotent stem cells in 3D culture. Nature Methods. DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.3415  

  • May 31, 2015
  • 02:28 PM
  • 14 views

Immunotherapy Shows Promise In Advanced Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tanguy Seiwert, MD Assistant Professor, Dept. of Medicine Associate Director, Head and Neck Cancer Program Section of Hematology/Oncology Fellow, Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology Speciality Chief Editor Frontiers in Head and Neck Cancer University of Chicago Chicago, … Continue reading →
The post Immunotherapy Shows Promise In Advanced Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
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MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tanguy Seiwert, MD Assistant Professor, Dept. of Medicine, Associate Director, Head and Neck Cancer Program, Section of Hematology/Oncology, Fellow, Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology, Speciality Chief Editor, Frontiers in Head and Neck Cancer, & University of Chicago Chicago, IL 60637. (2015) Immunotherapy Shows Promise In Advanced Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • May 31, 2015
  • 02:19 PM
  • 31 views

How racial stereotypes impact the way we communicate

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Racial stereotypes and expectations can impact the way we communicate and understand others, according to new research. The new study highlights how non-verbal “social cues” – such as photographs of Chinese Canadians – can affect how we comprehend speech.... Read more »

Babel, M., & Russell, J. (2015) Expectations and speech intelligibility. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 137(5), 2823-2833. DOI: 10.1121/1.4919317  

  • May 31, 2015
  • 12:03 PM
  • 25 views

Shots Fired in the Battle Over the Cinmar Biface . . . But Does it Actually Matter to the Solutrean Hypothesis?

by Andrew White in AndyWhiteAnthropology

The Cinmar biface featured on the cover of Stanford and Bradley's (2013) book. Image source: http://smithsonianscience.si.edu/2012/01/new-book-across-atlantic-ice-the-origin-of-americas-clovis-culture/This week, Darrin Lowery responded to questions raised about the circumstances of the discovery of the Cinmar biface, a bi-pointed stone tool that resembles, at least superficially, artifacts made and used by the Solutrean peoples of Upper Paleolithic Europe.  The point was reportedly dredged [...] ... Read more »

  • May 31, 2015
  • 08:39 AM
  • 36 views

The Search For Reward Prediction Errors in the Brain

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover

A new paper examines how the brain keeps track of positive and negative outcomes: No unified reward prediction error in local field potentials from the human nucleus accumbens



The authors, London-based neuroscientists Max-Philipp Stenner and colleagues, recorded electrical local field potentials (LFP) using electrodes implanted into the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in six patients. The patients all suffered from epilepsy and the electrodes were being implanted to treat the disease. The author... Read more »

  • May 30, 2015
  • 11:12 PM
  • 13 views

SIDS: Sudden Infant Death Risk Doubles At High Altitudes

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David Katz, MD Divisions of Cardiology, and Neonatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine Aurora, Colorado Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Katz: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) … Continue reading →
The post SIDS: Sudden Infant Death Risk Doubles At High Altitudes appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
... Read more »

David Katz, MD, Divisions of Cardiology, and Neonatology,, University of Colorado School of Medicine, & Aurora, Colorado. (2015) SIDS: Sudden Infant Death Risk Doubles At High Altitudes. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • May 30, 2015
  • 10:50 PM
  • 16 views

Young and Female Low Socioeconomic African Americans At Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Samson Y. Gebreab, Ph.D., M.Sc. Lead Study Author and Research Scientist National Human Genome Research Institute Bethesda, Maryland Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Gebreab: It is well known that African Americans … Continue reading →
The post Young and Female Low Socioeconomic African Americans At Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Disease appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
... Read more »

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Samson Y. Gebreab, Ph.D., M.Sc. (2015) Young and Female Low Socioeconomic African Americans At Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Disease. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

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