The Effect of Cadence Manipulation on Plantar Pressures... Read more »
Wellenkotter, J., Kernozek, T., Meardon, S., & Suchomel, T. (2014) The Effects of Running Cadence Manipulation on Plantar Loading in Healthy Runners. International Journal of Sports Medicine. DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1363236
It was a battle fought in the mountains of southwestern China, where patchy forests sustain the last shreds of the wild giant panda population. All at once, intruders began marching in and helping themselves to the pandas’ food. The incursion happened far from most human eyes, and the pandas that witnessed it likely didn’t know […]The post Pandas v. Horses Fight Goes to Pandas (For Now) appeared first on Inkfish.... Read more »
Hull, V., Zhang, J., Zhou, S., Huang, J., Viña, A., Liu, W., Tuanmu, M., Li, R., Liu, D., Xu, W.... (2014) Impact of Livestock on Giant Pandas and their Habitat. Journal for Nature Conservation. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnc.2014.02.003
by amikulak in Daily Observations
Almost half a century after the Fair Housing Act was passed in 1968, many American cities – including New York; Washington, DC; Chicago; and Houston – are still vastly segregated […]... Read more »
Schmid, K., Ramiah, A., & Hewstone, M. (2014) Neighborhood ethnic diversity and trust: The role of intergroup contact and perceived threat. Psychological Science. DOI: 10.1177/0956797613508956
Cowden Syndrome is one of several PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndromes caused by heterozygous germline mutations in the PTEN gene. Symptoms include learning disability, macrocephaly, skin papules on the face and mucous membranes, intestinal and colonic polyps, uterine fibroids, lipomas, and … Continue reading →... Read more »
Mester JL, Zhou M, Prescott N, & Eng C. (2012) Papillary renal cell carcinoma is associated with PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome. Urology, 79(5), 11870-7. PMID: 22381246
Shuch B, Ricketts CJ, Vocke CD, Komiya T, Middelton LA, Kauffman EC, Merino MJ, Metwalli AR, Dennis P, & Linehan WM. (2013) Germline PTEN mutation Cowden syndrome: an underappreciated form of hereditary kidney cancer. The Journal of urology, 190(6), 1990-8. PMID: 23764071
The paper by Michael Benrós and colleagues  talking about an "increased risk of subsequent autoimmune diseases in individuals with schizophrenia" caught my eye recently. Based on a trawl of the records of several thousands of people with "schizophrenia-like psychosis" or "individuals with autoimmune disease" derived from Danish nationwide registers (see here for some background), the authors were able to conclude that "Autoimmune diseases developed subsequently in 3.6% of people with schizophrenia, and 3.1% of people with autoimmune diseases had a family history of schizophrenia". By the way, this is not the first time that authors linked to this paper have published on this topic  based on similar analyses. Further coverage of this paper can also be found here.And don't forget your lute.. @ Wikipedia As far as I'm aware, I've not yet covered the issue of autoimmune conditions being correlated with a diagnosis of schizophrenia on this blog. Regular readers might already know about my interest in all things autoimmunity when it comes to autism. Be it the markers of autoimmunity (see here and see here) or the seemingly wide range of conditions correlating with the appearance of autism (see here), I certainly believe that there is more to see here from a research point of view. With the schizophrenia data in mind it appears that I should perhaps be casting the research net a little wider; perhaps even talking about some closer links?As Benrós et al note there is already some research form in the area linking schizophrenia and autoimmune conditions. Outside of the autoantibody side of things  and that very interesting link to anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis  I note some of the data available in this area to be quite nicely summarised by Davison  (open-access) specifically with the Chen paper  (open-access) in mind. Taking a few conditions noted by Chen and colleagues, I was interested to see that risk of psoriasis was elevated in cases of schizophrenia as per my interest in this skin condition with autism in mind (see here). Given my focus on / obsession with all things gluten too, the fact that a diagnosis of schizophrenia also elevated the risk of coeliac (celiac) disease similarly piqued my interest and brought back floods of memories about the late Curt Dohan and his life's work in this area (see here). In light of the not-quite-coeliac-disease-but-something-else paper on autism and gluten-related serology it also asks the question of how deep the rabbit hole might actually go?The same questions remain about this work as they do when it comes to examining any link between autism and autoimmune conditions - whether first person or familial: What are the common denominators in terms of genes and biochemistry? Are there shared susceptibility factors evident in schizophrenia and selected autoimmune diseases including infection? But also I'm getting pretty interested in some new areas of potential overlap such as any effects from those very old HERVs (human endogenous retroviruses) and whether through expression of HERV proteins, for whatever reason(s), they are participating in a series of events heading towards autoimmunity? Well, it's not as if HERVs haven't been mentioned with schizophrenia  or autoimmune diseases in mind  but I'll wait and see how this pans out.Fantastic Mr Fox y'say.... Will you join me? (whistle/click)---------- Benrós ME. et al. A Nationwide Study on the Risk of Autoimmune Diseases in Individuals With a Personal or a Family History of Schizophrenia and Related Psychosis. Am J Psychiatry 2014;171:218-226. Eaton WW. et al. Association of schizophrenia and autoimmune diseases: linkage of Danish national registers. Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Mar;163(3):521-8. Ezeoke A. et al. A systematic, quantitative review of blood autoantibodies in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2013 Oct;150(1):245-51.  Pollak TA. et al. Prevalence of anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antibodies in patients with schizophrenia and related psychoses: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychol Med. 2013 Dec 13:1-13. Davison K. Autoimmunity in psychiatry. Br J Psychiatry. 2012 May;200(5):353-5. Chen SJ. et al. Prevalence of autoimmune diseases in in-patients with schizophrenia: nationwide population-based study. Br J Psychiatry. 2012 May;200(5):374-80. Frank O. et al. Human endogenous retrovirus expression profiles in samples from brains of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. J Virol. 2005 Sep;79(17):10890-901. Brodziak A. et al. The role of human endogenous retroviruses in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Med Sci Monit. 2012 Jun;18(6):RA80-8.----------Benrós ME, Pedersen MG, Rasmussen H, Eaton WW, Nordentoft M, & Mortensen PB (2013). A Nationwide Study on the Risk of Autoimmune Diseases in Individuals With a Personal or a Family History of Schizophrenia and Related Psychosis. The American journal of psychiatry PMID: 24129899... Read more »
Benrós ME, Pedersen MG, Rasmussen H, Eaton WW, Nordentoft M, & Mortensen PB. (2013) A Nationwide Study on the Risk of Autoimmune Diseases in Individuals With a Personal or a Family History of Schizophrenia and Related Psychosis. The American journal of psychiatry. PMID: 24129899
Engineering artificial teeth without current complications.... Read more »
Bullock, M. (2013) Principles and practice of single implant and restoration. BDJ, 215(2), 100-100. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2013.733
Patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) often develop cognitive deficits. The symptoms are very similar to Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia. New research focuses on this link. ... Read more »
Pandharipande PP1, Girard TD, Jackson JC, Morandi A, Thompson JL, Pun BT, Brummel NE, Hughes CG, Vasilevskis EE, Shintani AK, Moons KG, Geevarghese SK, Canonico A, Hopkins RO, Bernard GR, Dittus RS, Ely EW; BRAIN-ICU Study Investigators. (2014) Long-Term Cognitive Impairment after Critical Illness. New England Journal of Medicine, 370(2), 184-186. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc1313886
Bohannon, R., Maljanian, R., & Ferullo, J. (2013) Mortality and readmission of the elderly one year after hospitalization for pneumonia. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 16(1), 22-25. DOI: 10.1007/BF03324527
For years, sports commentators who spew evidence-free clichés about the keys to athletic victory have monopolized our airwaves. But recently a technique some of them view as akin to witchcraft, but that’s more commonly known as “statistical analysis,” has begun to bring an end to their reign of terror. The latest volley in this ongoing […]... Read more »
Pitts, J. (2014) Determinants of Success in the National Football League's Postseason: How Important Is Previous Playoff Experience?. Journal of Sports Economics. DOI: 10.1177/1527002514525409
Giraffe weevilKingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ArthropodaClass: InsectaOrder: ColeopteraFamily: AttelabidaeGenus: TrachelophorusSpecies: Trachelophorus giraffaConservation Status: Not assessedCommon Name: Giraffe weevil, leaf-rolling weevils (used for all Attelabidae species)The giraffe weevil is a weevil species endemic to the forests of Madagascar. It was discovered in 2008, hence little is known about it. As you have probably guessed, its named this way due to having an extended neck, much like giraffes do.Giraffe weevil DescriptionThe giraffe weevil is sexually dimorphic, meaning that there is a great phenotypic difference between males and females of the same species. Specifically, males have a neck that is 2 to 3 times longer than their female counterparts. The extended neck is an adaptation that is used for intraspecific combat and nest building.Males have a length of almost an inch (2.5 cm), making them one of the longest Attelabidae species.Most of their body is black, except for their distinctive red elytra that cover their wings. The species is capable of flight.Giraffe weevil DietThey are herbivore insects, with adults feeding on a tree that is commonly known as the "giraffe beetle tree"(Dichaetanthera arborea). They spend most of their lives on these small trees, venturing far from them only on rare occasions.They are peaceful insects, showing no aggression towards other species.Video showing a Giraffe WeevilGiraffe weevil ReproductionMales use their long necks to fight with other males to win the right to mate with a nearby female. They use them as a weapon to push and wrestle with the opponent. The winner then mates with the female. The female then secures a leaf - from Dichaetanthera arborea - and uses it to build a cigar-like nest. To do so, she will fold and curl it multiple times. Then, she lays a single egg inside the leaf. Finally, she snips the leaf from the plant, which falls to the forest floor. The leaf will provides sustenance to the newly-hatched larvae during its first days of life.This leaf-rolling behaviour is not unique to the giraffe weevil, its something all Attelabidae species do and this is why they are commonly known as the leaf-rolling weevils.It is rare for males to kill each other during courtship. Most of the times, the loser simply retreats.Video showing the reproduction habits of the Giraffe Weevil Conservation StatusDue to its recent discovery, the species conservation status has yet to be assessed. However, their population is believed to be healthy and not threatened by human activity.They have no known predators, although it is suspected that the eggs may be occasionally eaten by smaller bugs.Giraffe weevil Interesting Facts- Despite their somewhat frightening appearance, they are not dangerous to humans- Lasiorynchus barbicornis is an unrelated species from New Zealand that is also called Giraffe weevilThe unrelated Lasiorynchus barbicornisReferences & Further Reading- Legalov, A. A. (2004). New data of the leaf-rolling weevils (Coleoptera: Rhynchitidae, Attelabidae) of the world fauna with description of 35 new taxons. Baltic Journal of Coleopterology- Kobayashi, C., Okuyama, Y., Kawazoe, K., & Kato, M. (2012). The evolutionary history of maternal plant-manipulation and larval feeding behaviours in attelabid weevils (Coleoptera; Curculionoidea) Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 64 (2), 318-330 DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2012.04.006- http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2213331/No-latest-sci-fi-monster-hit-screens--incredible-giraffe-weevil-surreal-echo-bigger-namesake.html- Giraffe Weevil Youtube Search... Read more »
Kobayashi, C., Okuyama, Y., Kawazoe, K., & Kato, M. (2012) The evolutionary history of maternal plant-manipulation and larval feeding behaviours in attelabid weevils (Coleoptera; Curculionoidea). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 64(2), 318-330. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2012.04.006
Study shows that sex-priming substantially influences gender-based self-perception... Read more »
Hundhammer, T., & Mussweiler, T. (2012) How sex puts you in gendered shoes: Sexuality-priming leads to gender-based self-perception and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103(1), 176-193. DOI: 10.1037/a0028121
Scientists analysing songbird DNA discovered that the spotted wren-babbler is neither a wren nor a wren-babbler, nor even a babbler. Instead, it represents an old evolutionary family that has no close living relatives. ... Read more »
Alström Per, Hooper Daniel M. , Liu Yang, Olsson Urban, Mohan Dhananjai , Gelang Magnus , Hung Le Manh, Zhao Jian , Lei Fumin, & Price Trevor D. (2014) Discovery of a relict lineage and monotypic family of passerine birds. Biology Letters, 10(3). DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2013.1067
A mathematical proof of existence of a stochastic process involving fractional exponents seemed out of question after some mathematicians claimed this cannot not exist. This observation is strongly linked to the current definition and may undergo revision if nature does not agree with it. Stochastic process are very easy to simulate on a computer. Very […]... Read more »
Farina, A., Frasca, M., & Sedehi, M. (2013) Solving Schrödinger equation via Tartaglia/Pascal triangle: a possible link between stochastic processing and quantum mechanics. Signal, Image and Video Processing, 8(1), 27-37. DOI: 10.1007/s11760-013-0473-y
Marco Frasca, & Alfonso Farina. (2014) Numerical proof of existence of fractional Wiener processes. arXiv. arXiv: 1403.1075v1
Children aren't as gullible as you might think. Early in life they display a discernment that psychologists call "epistemic vigilance". They are more likely to trust information from experts compared with novices, from kind people rather than meanies, and from those they are familiar with, as opposed to strangers. Now a study shows that even by age three, children are sceptical about circular arguments; in some cases even more than adults.Hugo Mercier and his team presented 84 children aged 3 to 5 (and a control group of adults) with three illustrated vignettes in which a girl was looking for her dog. For each story, one character advised the girl of the dog's whereabouts with an argument based on what they'd seen: "The dog went this way because I've seen him go in this direction," (this is known as an "argument from perception" and it was spoken in a neutral voice played through speakers). A second character said the dog had gone in the other direction and gave a circular argument, "The dog went this way because he went in this direction" (also heard through speakers).Children from age three and up, and the adults, more often chose to believe the character who based their testimony on what they'd seen rather than on a circular argument. This supports the idea that children from three and upwards have epistemic vigilance. "These results point to the existence of basic skills of argument evaluation that children would possess from at least three years of age onwards," the researchers said.A developmental trend was for the older children to grow more consistent in their preferences. That is, as the children got older, they more often favoured either the argument from perception on every occasion, or (in a minority of cases) they favoured the circular argument on every occasion. Focusing on just those participants who always made the same choice, an intriguing pattern emerged. A minority of the four- and five-year-olds, and adults, always favoured the circular arguments, but none of the three-year-olds showed this pattern. In a sense then, some older children, and adults, were less sophisticated in their judgment of arguments than the three-year-olds.How could this be? Mercier and his team think that as they get older, some children and adults become dependent on a rule of thumb that mistakes circular arguments for a sign of dominance or authority. When a person says that "the dog went this way because he went in this direction" this is interpreted as equivalent to an authoritative person saying, "this is the case because I say so."To test this idea, the same children were tested on a similar task to before, but this time one character used a circular argument for a cat's location, while the other character provided no argument (i.e. they just said "The cat went this way"). Preference for circular arguments would be evidence that they are interpreted as having value beyond no argument at all. In this case, three-year-olds were equally likely to trust either form of advice, while a large number of four- and five-year-olds consistently chose to trust the circular arguments. That is, older children, but not the three-year-olds, saw more value in a circular argument than in no argument at all.Many children display a distrust of circular arguments from a very early age. However, the findings also reveal an intriguing developmental trend, in which a minority of slightly older children begin to be seduced by circular arguments (a weakness that also persists in a minority of adults). This is likely due to them interpreting such arguments as a sign of authority. Such an inference requires a complexity of social thinking that is beyond three-year-olds. Ironically, this means that three-year-olds end up being more canny in their distrust of circular arguments than even some adults._________________________________ Mercier H, Bernard S, and Clément F (2014). Early sensitivity to arguments: How preschoolers weight circular arguments. Journal of experimental child psychology PMID: 24485755 --Further reading--Young children trust kindness over expertiseLying is common at age two, becomes the norm by threeKids experience schadenfreude by age four, maybe earlierPost written by Christian Jarrett (@psych_writer) for the BPS Research Digest.
... Read more »
Mercier H, Bernard S, & Clément F. (2014) Early sensitivity to arguments: How preschoolers weight circular arguments. Journal of experimental child psychology. PMID: 24485755
I have an awkward relationship with mathematical oncology, mostly because oncology has an awkward relationship with math. Although I was vaguely familiar that evolutionary game theory (EGT) could be used in cancer research, mostly through Axelrod et al. (2006), I never planned to work on cancer. I wasn’t eager to enter the field because I […]... Read more »
National Eating Disorder Awareness Week came and went (in the US, anyway). Posters were shared, liked, and tweeted. Pretty (but often misguided) infographics made the rounds on the internet. Local ED groups visited schools and college campuses to educate students about eating disorders. To, you know, increase awareness.
The thing is, awareness is not always a good thing. For one, as Carrie over at ED Bites mentioned, there’s a whole lot of misinformation masquerading as fact. And two, awareness campaigns, even when the information in them is correct, may have unintended consequences, like, for example, increasing stigma or self-stigma.
Moreover, not all approaches to increasing awareness or decreasing stigma are equally effective, and the effectiveness of a particular approach may differ depending on the population studied.
So, what about the effectiveness of EDAW? In 2012, Kathleen Tillman and colleagues published a study looking at the impact of a “campus-wide, week-long series of psycho-educational and awareness program designed for National Eating Disorders Awareness Week.”
In particular, they assessed individuals’ willingness to seek help, their levels …
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Park, S., McSweeney, J., & Yun, G. (2009) Intervention of Eating Disorder Symptomatology Using Educational Communication Messages. Communication Research, 36(5), 677-697. DOI: 10.1177/0093650209338910
Ridolfi, D.R., & Vander Wal, J.S. (2008) Eating disorders awareness week: the effectiveness of a one-time body image dissatisfaction prevention session. Eating disorders, 16(5), 428-43. PMID: 18821366
Tillman, K.S., Arbaugh, T. Jr., & Balaban, M.S. (2012) Campus programming for National Eating Disorders Awareness Week: An investigation of stigma, help-seeking, and resource knowledge. Eating Behaviors, 13(3), 281-4. PMID: 22664413
Hi Julie,Right off the bat I need to say YES YES YES! Your last post about aggression and what we can learn from and about it WITHOUT the need to experience it was spot on. Are you THIS attached to your dog? (source)You’re also right that my head is filled with glorious meta-analysis results right now, as well as perceptions and other measures (#allthemeasures!) as I start preparing my abstracts for submission to be part of the Canine Science Forum. One of the small but quirky things I’ve noticed in the results of the perceived welfare of dogs survey, is that people seem to think their own pet dog has a much higher level of welfare than everyone else’s pet dog. Why would we think we take better care of our own dogs than anyone else? Now, this could be to do with the self-selected convenience sample of people who took the online questionnaire. Perhaps the 2,146 people who were interested and motivated enough to take the time to do the survey really are the very top of the pile of all dog owners, but I found it interesting all the same. It got me thinking about our relationships with dogs (Ha! What’s new, right?!). I also happened to have a chat with Hal Herzog (while recording an upcoming episode of Human Animal Science) and, amongst many other things, we talked about how animals and pets aren’t universally beneficial for all people. Some people don’t even like their dogs. We know from extensive research into human psychology that our attitudes are major predictors of our behaviour. So are people who really love their animals more likely to take better care of them? (The answer is no, not always). Why is it that even people like us, who really find dogs fascinating and work with them daily, can feel more of a 'connection' with one individual dog, but not so much another?Definitely attached to dog (source)When faced with a question like this, how do we measure these differences scientifically? We can look at (usually self-reported by the human) measures, such as time per day spent in the company, or interacting/sharing activities with pet dogs. This is valuable, but does not necessarily indicate emotional closeness of a person to their dog.Lucky for me, plenty of psychologists, including earlier members of the Anthrozoology Research Group have tackled this and worked hard to create scales that measure the human-animal bond. The Monash Dog-Owner Relationship Scale, or MDORS as it’s more affectionately known is a great example. MDORS is a series of questions that form a psychometrically sound and validated scale. This scale was developed with the assistance of over 1,000 participants and comprises 28 items (statements that you agree/disagree with on a 5 point likert-style scale) across three subscales: Dog–Owner Interaction (e.g. “How often do you play games with your dog”), Perceived Emotional Closeness (e.g. “I wish my dog and I never had to be apart”), and Perceived Costs (e.g. "It is annoying that I sometimes have to change my plans because of my dog"). A scale like this can be used not just to assess how attached people are to their pet dogs, but also to explore how these attachments might vary between dogs, and with different groups of people (e.g. from different countries, with different cultural, work experience or education backgrounds, etc.), making it a very powerful tool for researchers. (excerpt from ... Read more »
Dwyer Fleur, Bennett Pauleen C., & Coleman Grahame J. (2006) Development of the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS). Anthrozoos: A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People , 19(3), 243-256. DOI: 10.2752/089279306785415592
Archer John, & Ireland Jane L. (2011) The Development and Factor Structure of a Questionnaire Measure of the Strength of Attachment to Pet Dogs. Anthrozoos: A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People , 24(3), 249-261. DOI: 10.2752/175303711X13045914865060
Handlin Linda, Nilsson Anne, Ejdebäck Mikael, Hydbring-Sandberg Eva, & Uvnäs-Moberg Kerstin. (2012) Associations between the Psychological Characteristics of the Human–Dog Relationship and Oxytocin and Cortisol Levels. Anthrozoos: A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People , 25(2), 215-228. DOI: 10.2752/175303712X13316289505468
Physicists at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) envision a device that would harvest energy from Earth’s infrared emissions into outer space.... Read more »
Byrnes, S., Blanchard, R., & Capasso, F. (2014) Harvesting renewable energy from Earth's mid-infrared emissions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1402036111
by amikulak in Daily Observations
A boost to income can increase happiness to a certain degree, but research suggests how you spend your money may be equally important as the amount you have. According to […]... Read more »
Dunn, E., Aknin, L., & Norton, M. (2014) Prosocial spending and happiness: Using money to benefit others pays off. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23(1), 41-47. DOI: 10.1177/0963721413512503
We’ve written several articles on the apparent benefits of a higher protein diet for the older athlete. Loss of muscle mass starts fairly early and loss of strength is often apparent by middle age. We do not know how much protein intake is ideal for humans. High protein diets for older people have been geared […]The post High protein diet is protective for older people, but may be unhealthy for others appeared first on WODMasters.... Read more »
Levine, M., Suarez, J., Brandhorst, S., Balasubramanian, P., Cheng, C., Madia, F., Fontana, L., Mirisola, M., Guevara-Aguirre, J., Wan, J.... (2014) Low Protein Intake Is Associated with a Major Reduction in IGF-1, Cancer, and Overall Mortality in the 65 and Younger but Not Older Population. Cell Metabolism, 19(3), 407-417. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2014.02.006
Gregorio L, Brindisi J, Kleppinger A, Sullivan R, Mangano KM, Bihuniak JD, Kenny AM, Kerstetter JE, & Insogna KL. (2014) Adequate Dietary Protein is Associated with Better Physical Performance among Post-Menopausal Women 60-90 Years. The journal of nutrition, health , 18(2), 155-60. PMID: 24522467
Beasley JM, Wertheim BC, LaCroix AZ, Prentice RL, Neuhouser ML, Tinker LF, Kritchevsky S, Shikany JM, Eaton C, Chen Z.... (2013) Biomarker-calibrated protein intake and physical function in the Women's Health Initiative. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 61(11), 1863-71. PMID: 24219187
It is common knowledge that vegetarianism is more common with women. Hank Rothgerber reveals some of the underlying factors in these gender differences.Rothberger studued undergraduates and found that assertive defenses of meat eating were more common in males and associated with feelings of masculinity. Specifically more masculine indivduals were were likely to use justifications such as that eating meat is healthy, justified by religion and allowed by animals' lower status. More feminine individuals tends to have strategies of avoidance such as not thinking to much about where meat comes from.It is interesting to see that part of the masculine strategy that seems out of character is the denial of animal suffering in meat production. This strikes me as more a strategy pf avoidance--assuming lack of suffering rather than really trying to assess the degree of suffering that may or may not occur. This both masculine and feminine strategies can be said to embrace a degree of denial and dissociation for the animal. Overall masculine individuals are more unapologetic meat eaters but also apparently less interested in the welfare aspects of how meat is produced, or as Rothberger phrased it "hostile to animal welfare".The author goes on to present various pro-vegetarian arguments phrased in a more masculine way (e.g. rational, non-conformist) but they do not look at how being in denial about animal welfare issues--whether one eats meet or not--is not a macho orientation but a weak 'head in the sand' position in contrast to either fixing the problems or changing which food products to support (within or beyond the meat category).Rothgerber, H. (2013). Real men don’t eat (vegetable) quiche: Masculinity and the justification of meat consumption. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 14 (4), 363-375 DOI: 10.1037/a0030379... Read more »
Rothgerber, H. (2013) Real men don’t eat (vegetable) quiche: Masculinity and the justification of meat consumption. Psychology of Men , 14(4), 363-375. DOI: 10.1037/a0030379
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