Disease is a funny old thing. We're taught from very early on that disease agents are "bad" and that, by contrast, the infected are somehow poor and unfortunate victims of nasty evil bugs. This is clearly a cultural bias, wherein we project our own concerns about getting sick onto all other animals; there's no real reason to think that a bacterium or virus has any less right to be here or any ... Read more »
Mao-Jones, J., Ritchie, K., Jones, L., & Ellner, S. (2010) How Microbial Community Composition Regulates Coral Disease Development. PLoS Biology, 8(3). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000345
by Nestor Lopez-Duran PhD in Child-Psych
The last issue of the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders included one of the largest examinations of the association between maternal infection during pregnancy and risk for autism. The study was conducted in the Denmark where researchers examined the maternal infection rates during pregnancy and autism diagnoses for all children born in Denmark between [...]... Read more »
Atladóttir, H., Thorsen, P., Østergaard, L., Schendel, D., Lemcke, S., Abdallah, M., & Parner, E. (2010) Maternal Infection Requiring Hospitalization During Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. DOI: 10.1007/s10803-010-1006-y
Say you're visiting Los Angeles and you have a sudden craving for Chinese food. Since you are only visiting, you might not be aware that nothing is open past, like, 10pm (not even coffee houses), but you get in your rental car and go driving around in search of your Chinese feast anyway. You try hitting up Panda Express, but no such luck. Of course they're closed. You try the neighborhood Chinese restaurant: closed as well. You get back in the car, and think to yourself "maybe the OTHER Panda Express will be open", but alas, it is not. You are ready to return to the hotel and just go to sleep when you think to yourself, "the MARKET is still open." And since you are a culinary genius, you know how to make a homemade version of Panda's orange chicken (I bet you want that recipe, don't you? Don't try looking it up online; you'll find some weak imitations, and I have tried them all). So you head to the market, collect your ingredients, and head back. It's late, but you're motivated enough to cook. Lucky for you, your hotel room has a kitchenette.
Now you're faced with a problem. When you set out on your orange chicken quest, you did not know where you would find those glazed pieces of chickeny goodness. You just drove around. Now you have to find your way back to the hotel, and without relying on GPS or Google Maps, or whatever. Since you're visiting, you don't know the streets at all. You do remember though that your hotel was near a really tall office building. Maybe you could try to find that building.
This is the problem facing many animals, every day. Today, we shall concern ourselves with the octopus.
Figure 1: The Great Pacific Octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini). PZ said I did not have enough squid. Perhaps this will briefly sate the Pharyngulites? Read the rest of this post... | Read the comments on this post...... Read more »
Mather, J. (1991) Navigation by spatial memory and use of visual landmarks in octopuses. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 168(4), 491-497. DOI: 10.1007/BF00199609
... Read more »
Liu, S., Costanza, R., Troy, A., D’Aagostino, J., & Mates, W. (2010) Valuing New Jersey’s Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital: A Spatially Explicit Benefit Transfer Approach. Environmental Management. DOI: 10.1007/s00267-010-9483-5
The human brain likes balance. Not simply biological and physiological homeostasis that maintains the proper functioning of the brain, but emotional, social and psychological balance. Notably, the human brain dislikes inequality when it comes to money, and rejects it at all costs, according to new research in the journal Nature.
Behavioral and anthropological evidence show that [...]... Read more »
Guroglu, B., van den Bos, W., Rombouts, S., & Crone, E. (2010) Unfair? It depends: Neural correlates of fairness in social context. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. DOI: 10.1093/scan/nsq013
Hare, T., Camerer, C., Knoepfle, D., O'Doherty, J., & Rangel, A. (2010) Value Computations in Ventral Medial Prefrontal Cortex during Charitable Decision Making Incorporate Input from Regions Involved in Social Cognition. Journal of Neuroscience, 30(2), 583-590. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4089-09.2010
Smith, D., Hayden, B., Truong, T., Song, A., Platt, M., & Huettel, S. (2010) Distinct Value Signals in Anterior and Posterior Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 30(7), 2490-2495. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3319-09.2010
Tricomi, E., Rangel, A., Camerer, C., & O’Doherty, J. (2010) Neural evidence for inequality-averse social preferences. Nature, 463(7284), 1089-1091. DOI: 10.1038/nature08785
Yamagishi, T., Horita, Y., Takagishi, H., Shinada, M., Tanida, S., & Cook, K. (2009) The private rejection of unfair offers and emotional commitment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(28), 11520-11523. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0900636106
In this paper, we looked at the relationship between body weight (BMI), adipokines, and insulin resistance in 1,176 South Asian, Chinese, Aboriginal, and European Canadians in the SHARE study (Study of Health Assessment and Risk in Ethnic groups).... Read more »
Mente A, Razak F, Blankenberg S, Vuksan V, Davis AD, Miller R, Teo K, Gerstein H, Sharma AM, Yusuf S.... (2010) Ethnic variation in adiponectin and leptin levels and their association with adiposity and insulin resistance. Diabetes care. PMID: 20413520
A new study looks at 26 restored river sites across Europe and finds little evidence that these projects have impacted the benthic invertebrate community - i.e. the worms, crustaceans, and other organisms that dwell on the bottom of freshwater systems...... Read more »
Jähnig, S., Brabec, K., Buffagni, A., Erba, S., Lorenz, A., Ofenböck, T., Verdonschot, P., & Hering, D. (2010) A comparative analysis of restoration measures and their effects on hydromorphology and benthic invertebrates in 26 central and southern European rivers. Journal of Applied Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01807.x
One of the arguments in the organic-can-feed-the-world oh-no-it-can’t ding dong is about the total yield of organic versus non-organic. Organic yields are generally lower. One reason might be that, with a few exceptions, mainstream commercial and public-good breeders do not regard organic agriculture as a market worth serving. The increase in yield of, say, [...]... Read more »
JONES, H., CLARKE, S., HAIGH, Z., PEARCE, H., & WOLFE, M. (2010) The effect of the year of wheat variety release on productivity and stability of performance on two organic and two non-organic farms. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 148(03), 303. DOI: 10.1017/s0021859610000146
So Sci was scrounging around the internet for blog topics recently. Every time she does this, she is of course completely overwhelmed by the piles of cool and bloggable science out there (seriously, I've got like 20 topics for the next week, of course not all will make it). But she's also surprised to see some familiar faces. A lot of times it's a familiar face related to her field and the stuff she's been recently interested in (for example, Yavin Shaham just wrote an interesting editorial on binge eating and food addiction in Nature Neuroscience which Sci might have to blog), but everyone once in a while it's something like this:
OMG! Sci knows that guy!!
So of course Sci had to go and ask if I could blog it. And of course the gracious Zen said yes!
Puri and Faulkes. "Do Decapod Crustaceans Have Nociceptors for Extreme pH?" PLoS ONE, 2010.
And first of all, I would like to introduce you to today's three species:
Louisiana red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii)
(Handsome little devil, no?)
White shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus)
(OM NOM NOM)
And the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes sp.)
(By far the coolest because they are see through).
And now, let's talk about nocioception. Read the rest of this post... | Read the comments on this post...... Read more »
Sakshi Puri, Zen Faulkes. (2010) Do Decapod Crustaceans Have Nociceptors for Extreme pH?. PLoS ONE, 5(4). info:/10.1371/journal.pone.0010244
As part of the Gates Distinguished Lecture Series editor Philip Campbell is giving a public lecture at 6.30pm tonight titled Science – facts and frictions at Emmanuel College, Cambridge. The abstract and text below reproduced from talks.cam.ac.uk: ‘Climategate’, MMR vaccine, GM crops, stem cells – these are examples of public debates in which science and [...]... Read more »
On several previous occasions on this blog I've discussed proteins that undergo significant changes in structure without drastic changes in their primary sequence or solution conditions. In some cases, a few mutations can take a protein to a novel fold, as with Philip Bryan's protein G work. In others, closely related sequences within a whole family populate different kinds of folds, as Matt Cordes illustrated for the case of Cro proteins. In addition, there are some cases such as lymphotactin, where interconversion between two very different structures takes place at equilibrium, as illustrated by Brian Volkman's research. Each time stories like this come up I have mentioned that this kind of behavior (termed "metamorphism" in a 2008 commentary by Alexey Murzin) suggests a means by which proteins could evolve from one structure to another without losing foldedness or function. Recently, a group from the Weizmann Institute published results in PNAS that speak to this possibility.
Yadid et al. are looking at a class of proteins called β-propellers. Characteristics of the sequences of these proteins, especially high homology between different blades within a protein, suggest that these proteins are "built up" by gene duplication and fusion from precursors that were either multimeric in nature or made from a smaller number of blades (or both). In particular, they worked with a protein called tachylectin-2, that binds sugars. You can see its structure at right (or examine it at the PDB). The color-coding recognizes that the N and C termini are adjacent to one another, meaning that each "blade" of the propeller actually incorporates one strand from a neighbor. The whole protein is a bit under 250 residues in size. Previously, the authors of this paper had randomly chewed up the tachylectin-2 DNA from either end, a process that one might expect would produce a bunch of useless garbage. Some of the products of this experiment, however, were functional pentamers. But, they were about 100 amino acids long, suggesting that each monomer incorporated two blades. This meant that the structure of the pentamers had to differ from that of the original protein in some key way, but the proteins could not be crystallized due to low yields and instability.
To solve this problem, Yadid et al. performed directed-evolution refinement of the sequences of two promising candidates. From the pool of proteins thus produced they were able to crystallize two, which had interesting properties. As one might expect given the known data, both these proteins formed ten-bladed propellers (the structures have PDB codes 3KIF and 3KIH) in the form of two five-bladed propellers that were linked to each other. In the case of the mutant called Lib2-D2-15, 3 of the 100-residue subunits contributed two blades to the propeller apiece, while the remaining two monomers each contributed to three blades. That doesn't add up to 10 because each of the two oddballs contributed four strands to one blade, three strands to another, and one strand to the third. That means one blade was uniquely of that monomer and the other two were shared. One of these blades was shoved into the second propeller, generating an asymmetric pentamer. Note also that the two oddballs weren't equivalent: one was arranged 4-3-1 and the other 3-1-4. The other mutant, Lib1-B7-18, was even weirder in some ways. In that mutant, four of the monomers contributed to three blades in a 1-3-4 manner. The last monomer, however, contributed to four blades, two from each propeller, with a pattern of 1-3-1-3. Because these structures cannot form unless the monomers adopt multiple structures (3 in the case of Lib2-D2-15 and 2 in the case of Lib1-B7-18), it follows that the monomers must be metamorphic.
The evolved fragments didn't have higher stability to guanidinium hydrochloride than the source fragments, suggesting that the improved expression and solubility was not due to improved stability. The authors argue that the improved expression was mostly due to a change in the isoelectric point of the mutants, which decreased towards neutral in both cases. However, the evolved fragments also were able to refold from the denatured state, which the source fragments could not do. To the authors, this suggests that the directed evolution process actually selected for metamorphism; that is, the proteins were stabilized by an increased ability to sample states that formed productive pentamers.
The observations in this study, although very interesting, do not tell us anything directly about the evolution of tachylectin-2. While it is possible that the current protein evolved from a metamorphic precursor like these fragments, there is no direct evidence that this is the case, nothing to indicate that evolution performed in reverse what Yadid et al. did here. Whether metamorphism contributed to the diversity of β-propeller folds in general, or to the evolution of this protein in particular, remains very much an open question. The metamorphism observed here may be more a consequence of a particularly robust fold tending towards its original state than evidence of hidden metamorphic potential in singular structures. As such, the article's title strikes me as overbold given the data. That said, it is certainly not implausible that odd assemblies like these pentamers played a role somewhere along the evolutionary path that created the rich library of β-propellers we have today, and this study establishes that even very strange steps along the way can occur without destroying the protein's function or certain gross features of its structure.
Yadid, I., Kirshenbaum, N., Sharon, M., Dym, O., & Tawfik, D. (2010). "Metamorphic proteins mediate evolutionary transitions of structure." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107 (16), 7287-7292 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0912616107... Read more »
Yadid, I., Kirshenbaum, N., Sharon, M., Dym, O., & Tawfik, D. (2010) Metamorphic proteins mediate evolutionary transitions of structure. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(16), 7287-7292. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0912616107
This week’s ResearchBlogCast featured the paper “Decline in top predator body size and changing climate alter trophic structure in an oceanic ecosystem”, originally discussed at Fish Schooled (Prey populations explode as predators get smaller). In both the podcast and the blogpost, the authors argue that prey abundance booms despite predator biomass remaining constant [...]... Read more »
Shackell, N., Frank, K., Fisher, J., Petrie, B., & Leggett, W. (2009) Decline in top predator body size and changing climate alter trophic structure in an oceanic ecosystem. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 277(1686), 1353-1360. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2009.1020
Jorgensen, C., Enberg, K., Dunlop, E., Arlinghaus, R., Boukal, D., Brander, K., Ernande, B., Gardmark, A., Johnston, F., Matsumura, S.... (2007) Ecology: Managing Evolving Fish Stocks. Science, 318(5854), 1247-1248. DOI: 10.1126/science.1148089
McCLENACHAN, L. (2009) Documenting Loss of Large Trophy Fish from the Florida Keys with Historical Photographs. Conservation Biology, 23(3), 636-643. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.01152.x
A number of researchers are very interested in exploring differences in life span between species as a way to better understand the biology of aging; this is another branch of the mainstream interest in uncovering ways to manipulate genes and metabolism to slow aging. Amongst these scientists is Joao de Magalhaes, who runs the excellent senescence.info websites, including the GenAge and AnAge databases. You should certainly browse through the materials there if you haven't already done so. You might recall that de Magalhaes was also amongst those attempting to raise funds for genetic sequencing of long-lived mammals - again with the aim of learning more about the roots of longevity by way of comparison between species with very different life spans. There is a good set of data showing a strong correlation between mammalian life span and the composition of mitochondrial DNA - implying that the mitochondrial free radical theory of aging in fact describes the dominant process of degenerative aging in mammals. This fits in with the clear importance of autophagy, as autophagy is the process by which damaged mitochondria are recycled before they can cause more harm to a cell and the surrounding tissue. Here, however, let me...... Read more »
Finch CE, Morgan TE, Longo VD, & de Magalhaes JP. (2010) Cell resilience in species lifespans: a link to inflammation?. Aging cell. PMID: 20415721
If no tools to aid examination are available, finger comparison is the most sensitive test and finger counting is the more specific test. ... Read more »
Kerr NM, Chew SS, Eady EK, Gamble GD, & Danesh-Meyer HV. (2010) Diagnostic accuracy of confrontation visual field tests. Neurology, 74(15), 1184-90. PMID: 20385890
Recently a paper about the software MANTiS called my attention, and I’ve been trying to write about it for a while. This announcement at the EvolDir list seemed like the perfect opportunity. I must warn you though that I’ve never used the software and I don’t have any intimacy with the underlying databases, but the [...]... Read more »
Milinkovitch, M., Helaers, R., & Tzika, A. (2009) Historical Constraints on Vertebrate Genome Evolution. Genome Biology and Evolution, 13-18. DOI: 10.1093/gbe/evp052
Tzika, A., Helaers, R., Van de Peer, Y., & Milinkovitch, M. (2007) MANTIS: a phylogenetic framework for multi-species genome comparisons. Bioinformatics, 24(2), 151-157. DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btm567
In the May issue of the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs is an article titled "Parental R-Rated Movie Restriction and Early-Onset Alcohol Use." (1) Without reading the study, one can guess the reported result : the more R-rated movies that youths watch, the higher the frequency of early-onset alcohol use. This study was funded by the National Cancer Institute and National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Remember what the Last Psychiatrist says: What do researchers want to be true?First comes the filter that will aid our interpretation of the results:"TODAY’S YOUTH HAVE UNPRECEDENTED ACCESS to entertainment media (Roberts et al., 2005), and longitudinal research has linked various forms of entertainment media with aggressive behavior (Bushman and Anderson, 2001), sexual behavior (Collins et al., 2004), and tobacco use (Sargent, 2005). Indeed, the available research evidence has led the National Cancer Institute (2008) to declare a causal relation between exposure to movie smoking and youth smoking initiation."In words of Mr. Mackey, "Mm..R-rated movies are bad...mmkay." The study was done by survey. 3,577 youths where chosen out of 4,655 (grades 5-8) because they reported to never have drunken alcohol without the knowledge of their parents. Also at baseline assessment the youths rated how restrictive their parents were in allowing them to view R-rate movies. Statistics 101: Very boring, but very important to interpret these results.This study is correlational. This results are known as the standardized coefficient. This can vary from +1 (indicating a perfect positive relationship), to zero (indicating no relationship), all the way down to -1 (indicating a perfect negative relationship, that is, when the frequency of a factor goes up, the other factor goes down). As a rule of thumb, standardized coefficients between .00 and .30 are considered weak, between .30 and .70 are moderate, and between .70 and 1.00 are considered strong.The primary meaning of standardized coefficients lies in the amount of variation in one variable that is accounted for by the variable with which it is correlated. To obtain this information, you square the standardized coefficient (e.g., .30 x.30). This number is called the coefficient of determination. Then you multiply the coefficient by determination 100. This proportion of variance indicates the percentage of variance. The coefficient of determination is the primary information measure. Correlation coefficients of .30 account for about 10 percent of the variance (.30x.30 =.90x100= 9%). Here are the results as reported in the abstract, that is, the information they want you to know:"The sample included 2,406 baseline never-drinkers who were surveyed at follow-up, of whom 14.8% had initiated alcohol use. At baseline, 20% reported never being allowed to watch R movies, and 21% reported being allowed all the time. Adolescents allowed to watch R-rated movies had higher rates of alcohol initiation (2.9% initiation among never allowed, 12.5% once in a while, 18.8% sometimes, and 24.4% all the time). Controlling for sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and authoritative parenting style, the adjusted odds ratios for initiating alcohol use were 3.0 (95% CI [1.7-5.1]) for those once in a while allowed, 3.3 [1.9, 5.6] for those sometimes allowed, and 3.5 [2.0, 6.0] for those always allowed to watch R-rated movies. Alcohol initiation was more likely if R-rated movie restriction relaxed over time; tightening of restriction had a protective effect (p < .001)."With odds-ratios, 1.0 represent the prevalence of something (e.g., drinking behavior) that already exists in the population. Anything above that represents an increase in prevalence. For example, in the study, it's reported that youths who have peers who drink have an OR of 5.7, meaning that there is over a 400% increase in the incidence of early on-set drinking when one's peers start drinking early (peer pressure). Kids allowed to view R-rated content once in a while showed a 200% increase, those allowed sometimes saw a 230% increase, and those allowed all the time saw a 250% increase.While these numbers are quite high, this tells us nothing about the relationship strength. Remember multiple variables can lead to this result. Here is a graph of the correlation coefficients:Exposure to R-rate movies has a standardized coefficient of 0.10. This relationship is weak. Using the formula above, the amount of variance in behavior attributed to viewing R-rated content is only 1%. So why are youths, who are exposed to R-rated content, 2 times more likely to try alcohol at an earlier age?Here is how the authors explain it: "Youth who say that their parents allow them to watch R movies see more are movies and, therefore, more depictions of alcohol use...thus, the mechanism could be social influence via modeling of positive depictions of alcohol use."Wrong!Exposure to R-rated movies various with onset of early alcohol use by 1%. That means 99% of the variance is explained by other reasons (e.g., peer pressure!) While it is true that this tiny relationship is statistically significant, it has no practical significance what so ever. But who cares about the actual science, politicians and other nanny state advocates have their sound bite, "The research to date suggests that keeping kids from R-rated movies can help keep them from drinking, smoking and doing a lot of other things that parents don't want them to do, Sargent said." (2)If only it were that simple.Tanski SE, Cin SD, Stoolmiller M, & Sargent JD (2010). Parental R-rated movie restriction and early-onset alcohol use. Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs, 71 (3), 452-9 PMID: 20409440... Read more »
Tanski SE, Cin SD, Stoolmiller M, & Sargent JD. (2010) Parental R-rated movie restriction and early-onset alcohol use. Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs, 71(3), 452-9. PMID: 20409440
Can this little blue pill make you more satisfied in your relationship? The answer is not as straightforward as you might think. Find out more.... Read more »
Aubin, S., Heiman, J., Berger, R., Murallo, A., & Yung-Wen, L. (2009) Comparing Sildenafil Alone Vs. Sildenafil Plus Brief Couple Sex Therapy on Erectile Dysfunction and Couples' Sexual and Marital Quality of Life: A Pilot Study. Journal of Sex , 35(2), 122-143. DOI: 10.1080/00926230802712319
Heiman JR, Talley DR, Bailen JL, Oskin TA, Rosenberg SJ, Pace CR, Creanga DL, & Bavendam T. (2007) Sexual function and satisfaction in heterosexual couples when men are administered sildenafil citrate (Viagra) for erectile dysfunction: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology, 114(4), 437-47. PMID: 17284249
Hundertmark J, Esterman A, Ben-Tovim D, Austin MA, & Dougherty M. (2007) The South Australian couples sildenafil study: double-blind, parallel-group randomized controlled study to examine the psychological and relationship consequences of sildenafil use in couples. The journal of sexual medicine, 4(4 Pt 2), 1126-35. PMID: 17627725
Take a bunch of unmarried students of diverse backgrounds at a university in the south-west of the USA. Now which of them, do you suppose, has the raunchiest sex lives? Christians? Jews? The nonreligious? Or atheists, perhaps?Well, the answer is... all of them!Cindy Meston (at the University of Texas) and colleagues interviewed over 1,000 students in their survey of sexual behaviours, and found almost no difference between the different faith groups in what was reported. Virtually all of them reported in engaging in some form of premarital sex.Women (although not men) who were Jewish or fundamentalist Christians did report a somewhat lower incidence of sexual intercourse - but apart from that pretty much anything goes.No differences in the types of sexual activities (it was quite a, erm, exhaustive survey), in the number of partners (both in the past and the number anticipated in the next 5 years), or in the age at which they lost their virginity. If anything, Christian women lost their virginity slightly earlier than atheists.What's more, there was no difference in the level of infidelity between atheists and the non-religious - more evidence that religious identification is a poor guide to honesty.In a separate study, they looked at the frequency and types of sexual fantasies. Here there was a clear difference. Atheist and especially agnostic women (but again, not men) fantasise more often and more widely (gender bending, masochism, sadism, gender bending - you name it!).Oddly enough, the only men to confess to having taken part in homosexual intercourse were Christian (just under 10% of Christian men) - although in the second study there was no hint of increased gender-bending fantasies. Make of that what you will.So far this has all been about self-reported identification. Are you Christian, Jewish, Spiritualist, Non-religious, atheist, or agnostic? But what about intensity of beliefs?Meston and colleagues also measured beliefs using some fairly standard scales - spiritual beliefs, paranormal/new age beliefs, fundamentalist beliefs, and intrinsic religiosity (how central religious belief is to your life).When you look at beliefs, rather than identification, some rather starker differences emerge.Broadly speaking, compared with non-believers, any form of traditional religious belief has a deadening effect on sexual activity (both the act and also fantasies, especially for women). However, paranormal and new age beliefs were linked to an increase in all kinds of sexual activity.For men, the effect was much less. Indeed, fundamentalist Christian men actually reported more sexual partners in the past year than their non-religious counterparts! A case of get religion and get laid? Or just down to the fact that here is a relative shortage of evangelical men?So, among these students, it seems that religious affiliation is a poor guide to sexual behaviour and fantasies, but that women (and also some men) with strong religious beliefs try to avoid even thinking about it.But that's students! What about older folk? Well, Mark Regnerus (also at the University of Texas - it seems to be a hotbed of sex research) and colleagues have just published a study into the sex lives of older Americans.It turns out that among oldies, too, there is very little relationship between religion and either sexual frequency or sexual satisfaction. Just as with the youngsters, however, unmarried women who were also religious were also less likely to have had sex.But religion had no effect on male sexual activity. Makes you wonder why religion is so popular among women in the US, and yet shunned by men!Farmer, M., Trapnell, P., & Meston, C. (2008). The Relation Between Sexual Behavior and Religiosity Subtypes: A Test of the Secularization Hypothesis Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38 (5), 852-865 DOI: 10.1007/s10508-008-9407-0Ahrold, T., Farmer, M., Trapnell, P., & Meston, C. (2010). The Relationship Among Sexual Attitudes, Sexual Fantasy, and Religiosity Archives of Sexual Behavior DOI: 10.1007/s10508-010-9621-4McFarland, M., Uecker, J., & Regnerus, M. (2010). The Role of Religion in Shaping Sexual Frequency and Satisfaction: Evidence from Married and Unmarried Older Adults Journal of Sex Research, 1-12 DOI: 10.1080/00224491003739993 This article by Tom Rees was first published on Epiphenom. It is licensed under Creative Commons.
... Read more »
Farmer, M., Trapnell, P., & Meston, C. (2008) The Relation Between Sexual Behavior and Religiosity Subtypes: A Test of the Secularization Hypothesis. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38(5), 852-865. DOI: 10.1007/s10508-008-9407-0
Ahrold, T., Farmer, M., Trapnell, P., & Meston, C. (2010) The Relationship Among Sexual Attitudes, Sexual Fantasy, and Religiosity. Archives of Sexual Behavior. DOI: 10.1007/s10508-010-9621-4
McFarland, M., Uecker, J., & Regnerus, M. (2010) The Role of Religion in Shaping Sexual Frequency and Satisfaction: Evidence from Married and Unmarried Older Adults. Journal of Sex Research, 1-12. DOI: 10.1080/00224491003739993
L. lactis, a microbe crucial to cheese production, was recently nominated to become Wisconsin's state microbe. In addition to cheese production, it also is used for vaccine delivery, particularly to prevent strep throat.... Read more »
Mannam, P., Jones, K., & Geller, B. (2004) Mucosal Vaccine Made from Live, Recombinant Lactococcus lactis Protects Mice against Pharyngeal Infection with Streptococcus pyogenes. Infection and Immunity, 72(6), 3444-3450. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.72.6.3444-3450.2004
Villena, J., Medina, M., Raya, R., & Alvarez, S. (2008) Oral immunization with recombinant Lactococcus lactis confers protection against respiratory pneumococcal infection. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 54(10), 845-853. DOI: 10.1139/W08-077
Xin, K. (2003) Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of orally administered recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing surface-bound HIV Env. Blood, 102(1), 223-228. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2003-01-0110
Huibregtse, I., Marietta, E., Rashtak, S., Koning, F., Rottiers, P., David, C., van Deventer, S., & Murray, J. (2009) Induction of Antigen-Specific Tolerance by Oral Administration of Lactococcus lactis Delivered Immunodominant DQ8-Restricted Gliadin Peptide in Sensitized Nonobese Diabetic Ab Dq8 Transgenic Mice. The Journal of Immunology, 183(4), 2390-2396. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.0802891
If you’ve read the sleep hygiene information I posted yesterday, you’ll read that it’s not a good idea to stay in bed if you’re not asleep. Here’s another version. Beds are for sleep and sex, not for being awake – because our brains are very good at learning to put two and two together to [...]... Read more »
Tang NK. (2009) Cognitive-behavioral therapy for sleep abnormalities of chronic pain patients. Current rheumatology reports, 11(6), 451-60. PMID: 19922736
Spielman AJ, Saskin P, & Thorpy MJ. (1987) Treatment of chronic insomnia by restriction of time in bed. Sleep, 10(1), 45-56. PMID: 3563247
Do you write about peer-reviewed research in your blog? Use ResearchBlogging.org to make it easy for your readers — and others from around the world — to find your serious posts about academic research.
If you don't have a blog, you can still use our site to learn about fascinating developments in cutting-edge research from around the world.
Research Blogging is powered by SMG Technology.
To learn more, visit seedmediagroup.com.