Today we have a pretty good knowledge of the mechanisms behind chronic pain. This is a presentation of the basic understanding of how chronic pain starts, what causes it and why we most often are not able to see it on x-ray, MRI or other diagnostic procedures despite the fact that the patient are experiencing pain. We comes around allodynia, hyperalgesia, sensitization regulatory pathways and influence of sleep, depression and much more.
We also take a look on what could be wrong with “The Princess on the Pea” ….... Read more »
Kim Kristiansen. M.D. (2011) The Princess on the Pea – Mechanisms of Chronic Pain. Picture of Pain Blog. info:/http://blog.dolotest.com/2011/07/07/the-princess-on-the-pea-mechanisms-of-chronic-pain/
In addition to the "pulled from the scientific journal headlines" research discussed here, I thought it would be interesting to periodically showcase fascinating research that I read elsewhere. Awesome and interesting research about human health, disease and immunology is everywhere and sometimes, it's written about in a way that is clear, accurate and easy to understand! That last point is exactly what Escaping Anergy is all about: a place to see, interpret, discuss and most importantly-UNDERSTAND- the scientific data behind the science stories we read about, the diseases we encounter and the medicines we take! Today's topic: how the wavelength of light we see affects our immune system and cancer progression.
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Cajochen C, Frey S, Anders D, Späti J, Bues M, Pross A, Mager R, Wirz-Justice A, & Stefani O. (2011) Evening exposure to a light-emitting diodes (LED)-backlit computer screen affects circadian physiology and cognitive performance. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 110(5), 1432-8. PMID: 21415172
Jimmy Dugan firmly established that there’s no crying in baseball. But what about in public? In New York City, at some point or another you’re going to encounter a crying person—in fact, you could even be the crier. A few weeks ago, I boarded the subway for a short trip uptown. It was the middle [...]
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It turns out there is one more reason extra fat in our diet just isn’t good for you – excess fat can trigger cell suicide. Recently, Jean Schaffer’s group at Washington University have identified a very special RNA that responds to excess fat in the cell.... Read more »
Michel CI, Holley CL, Scruggs BS, Sidhu R, Brookheart RT, Listenberger LL, Behlke MA, Ory DS, & Schaffer JE. (2011) Small Nucleolar RNAs U32a, U33, and U35a Are Critical Mediators of Metabolic Stress. Cell metabolism, 14(1), 33-44. PMID: 21723502
Looking for that extra edge on the basketball court? Want to increase your free throw percentage and gain an extra step in quickness? Is it a new performance enhancing drug or training technique? No, a new study suggests it may be as easy as spending a few extra hours in bed. Cheri Mah and colleagues from Stanford University and the University of California, San Francisco recently published their research on sleep and athletic performance in the journal Sleep. They introduce the study by noting that extensive research documents the adverse effect of limited sleep. However, little research examines the effect of increased sleep on performance. Their study objective was to do just that. Members of the Stanford University mens basketball team were recruited for the study. The study took place over two seasons and included a baseline period of usual sleep patterns. Then the intervention group extended their sleep pattern with a goal of a minimum of 10 hours in bed daily. Compliance with this intervention was measured through sleep journals and actigraphy. Actigraphy is accomplished by a wrist device that is worn and measures movement. From this data the total sleep time can be estimated. Sleep journal data and activity data estimated the increase in total daily sleep time to be between 100 and 150 minutes of additional sleep during the intervention period.Athletes in the intervention groups were tested on a variety of psychometric and basketball performance skills during the baseline and intervention period. The results of the intervention were pretty impressive. Here is a summary of the improvement noted in the study:Free throw percentage increased by 11%Three point percentage increased by 14%Sprint test time decreased by 4%Other psychometric variables were improved including a reduction in time on the Psychomotor Vigilance Task, a reduction in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale score and improvement on multiple components of the Profile of Mood States including ratings of fatigue, depression and tension.The authors note the study has some significant limitations in research design. Only eleven athletes received the intervention. Subjects were not blinded as to the intervention and it is possible a some of the improvement came from an expectancy effect. Travel schedules made it difficult to assure compliance with the 10 hours in bed intervention for every day of the study.However, this study does suggest that many athletes may be performing in the context of ongoing sleep deprivation. Forcing compliance with an extended sleep duration holds promise of improving performance on the basketball court. This effect appears to occur in the context of subjective improvement in psychological function.If I were an NCAA basketball athlete, I would send a copy of this study to my coach and training staff. Athletes now have some research to support the importance of getting plenty of sleep to achieve peak performance.Photo of Oklahoma City Thunder Player Blake Griffin Shooting Free Throw Courtesy of Tim YatesMah CD, Mah KE, Kezirian EJ, & Dement WC (2011). The Effects of Sleep Extension on the Athletic Performance of Collegiate Basketball Players. Sleep, 34 (7), 943-950 PMID: 21731144... Read more »
Mah CD, Mah KE, Kezirian EJ, & Dement WC. (2011) The Effects of Sleep Extension on the Athletic Performance of Collegiate Basketball Players. Sleep, 34(7), 943-950. PMID: 21731144
In my previous blog post, I discussed a paper by Ogden and Hills (1) that explores individuals’ perceived triggers of behaviour change and the factors that contribute to maintaining behaviour change over time. But a number of questions remain: are … Continue reading →... Read more »
Ogden J, Stavrinaki M, & Stubbs J. (2009) Understanding the role of life events in weight loss and weight gain. Psychology, health , 14(2), 239-49. PMID: 19235083
As regular readers are well aware, one of the major dilemmas in obesity management is the fact that virtually any attempt at weight loss is counteracted by complex mechanisms that aim to restore the body back to initial weight.
So far, no one has discovered a way to reverse or ‘reset’ this mechanism so that, once [...]... Read more »
Horvath TL, Sarman B, García-Cáceres C, Enriori PJ, Sotonyi P, Shanabrough M, Borok E, Argente J, Chowen JA, Perez-Tilve D.... (2010) Synaptic input organization of the melanocortin system predicts diet-induced hypothalamic reactive gliosis and obesity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(33), 14875-80. PMID: 20679202
Few groups are more hazardous to public health than the anti-vaccine movement – because there’s a body count affiliated with their actions. When vaccination rates drop, communicable diseases re-emerge, and people suffer. While anti-vaccine sentiment will probably persist as long as vaccines are around, we’re fortunate that vaccination rates, on balance, remain very high. In [...]... Read more »
Kennedy A, Lavail K, Nowak G, Basket M, & Landry S. (2011) Confidence about vaccines in the United States: understanding parents' perceptions. Health affairs (Project Hope), 30(6), 1151-9. PMID: 21653969
Cuteness as an evolutionary adaptation
Both Charles Darwin and Konrad Lorenz, the pioneering ethologist, wrote about the appeal of baby faces as a possible adaptive mechanism. They surmised that babies' perceived cuteness could be nature's way of ensuring the little terrors get looked after. Now a team led by Morten Kringelbach and Christine Parsons has shown that men are as motivated by baby faces as women. Kringelbach is the same researcher who a few years ago showed that looking at baby faces, as opposed to adult faces, is associated with a distinct pattern of brain activity in the orbitofrontal cortex - a kind of neural "cuteness response".
For the new study, 31 men and 37 women (average age 20 years), all with limited experience of babies, looked at photographs of the faces of 70 babies (aged 3 to 12 months), each shown for five seconds, and rated their attractiveness. These results conformed to cultural stereotypes about gender differences, with the women tending to rate the babies as more attractive than the men (no such gender difference emerged for the rating of adult faces). A desire to conform to gender roles could have played a role here. However, both men and women rated as more attractive those baby faces that most closely conformed to the cute ideal: a large rounded forehead, large low-set eyes, a short and narrow nose and a small chin.
In another part of the experiment, performed either before or after the attractiveness ratings, the participants were able to press a button repeatedly to control how long each baby face remained on the screen. This was taken as a measure of how much the participants were motivated to look at the faces. In this case the men scored just the same as the women. Moreover, for both men and women it was those faces that most closely conformed to the cute ideal that they made the effort to look at for longer.
"Our findings indicate that both men and women appraise what is colloquially described as a 'cute' unfamiliar infant positively, and they will work to see that infant for longer than an infant with less 'cute' features," the researchers said. "This is in line with previous studies showing that 'cuter' infants are rated as more friendly, cheerful, and likeable and are rated as more 'adoptable'."
Parsons, C., Young, K., Kumari, N., Stein, A., and Kringelbach, M. (2011). The Motivational Salience of Infant Faces Is Similar for Men and Women. PLoS ONE, 6 (5) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020632
This post was written by Christian Jarrett for the BPS Research Digest.
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Parsons, C., Young, K., Kumari, N., Stein, A., & Kringelbach, M. (2011) The Motivational Salience of Infant Faces Is Similar for Men and Women. PLoS ONE, 6(5). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020632
A quick follow-up to my previous post on automatic metaphor recognition. The paper Automatic Metaphor Recognition Based on Semantic Relation Patterns by Tang et al. challenges the dominant selectional preferences method by substituing their own Semantic Relations Patterns. They point out the problems with Selection Preferences (unfortunately I don't think they solved the problems with their own method, more on that in a bit).Again I'll give the Ling 101, computational linguistics for dummies version (as I understand it ...): Selection Preferences assumes that words frequently co-occur with other words that are literally associated with the same semantic domain. For example,That ship has sailed the mighty ocean.That boat has sailed across lake Erie.That captain has sailed many seas.In these three sentences, the verb sailed occurs with three different subjects (ship, boat, captain) and three different objects (ocean, lake, seas), but all of them evoke the SAILING domain. So a computer could use this info to create a model of the verb sail that would match up the semantics of its expected subjects and objects, then compare them to a new sentence. If the computer encountered the new sentence 4. That student sailed through final exams.It could automatically use the model created from sentences 1-3 above to recognize that the verb sailed occurs with a subject and object not from the SAILING domain, but rather from the STUDENT domain. Then it could use a metaphor mapping component to recognize that HUMANS as MACHINES is an acceptable mapping and thus recognize that #4 might be coherent under a metaphorical interpretation.Tang et al. rightly point out that matching frequency-based selectional preferences is not the same thing as literal meaning. First, they note that some times, a metaphorical pairing is actually MORE FREQUENT than a litertal pairing. They use some Chinese examples, but I think the English translation makes the point. Take the following two uses of close:The plane is close to the tower.Opinion are close.In their corpus, Chinese uses like 'opinions are close' were more frequent, even though this is a non-literal use of close. Frequency would lead the Selectional Preference method to believe that the opinions-type use is literal simply because it is more frequent. This outcome is predicted by Lakoff & Johnson, btw, because one of the core tenants of their seminal work on metaphors was that metaphors are NOT special uses of language, but rather quite common and normal.Tang et al.'s solution is a new method they call Semantic Relation Patterns. Their explanation is brief and highly technical, making it a slog to get through, but it hinges on incorporating an existing semantic relations knowledge base, HowNet, and adding a probabalistic model. Note, I had trouble getting the HowNet website to load, but here is a PDF explanation.How Net is an on-line common-sense knowledge base unveiling inter-conceptual relations and inter-attribute relations of concepts as connoting in Chinese and English bilingual lexicons. In my quick read the two methods differed only minimally in the crucial ways (namely, they are both lexalist and local). Semantic Relation patterns are still based on lexical semantics and still derived entirely locally. I don't see how SRP would handle this metaphor from my earlier post any better than SP:Imagine a situation in a biology class where two students, Alger and Miriam, were originally going to be partners for a lab assignment. Then they got into an argument. A third student, Annette, asks Miriam:Annette: Are you still going to be lab partners with Alger?Miriam: No. That ship has sailed.In this scenario, the sentence "That ship has sailed" is entirely coherent from a selectional preferences perspective (i.e., ships really do sail). Yet it is clearly being used metaphorically (there is literally no ship). Here, the metaphor is only detectable if we link two sentences together via co-reference. The phrase "the ship" does not co-refer to a real ship in the discourse. Rather, it refers to the possible event of be-lab-partners-with-Alger. Unless we can link phrases between sentences and between types (i.e., allowing an NP to co-refer to an event), then we are not going to get a computer to recognize these types of metaphors (which I suspect are quite common).I appreciate Tang et al.'s critique of the SP method and their attempt to get beyond it, but I think their methodology fails to make the critical improvements to automatic metaphor recognition that will be crucial to creating a full scale tool that handles real world metaphor.Xuri Tang, Weiguang Qu, Xiaohe Chen, & Shiwen Yu (2010). Automatic Metaphor Recognition Based on Semantic Relation Patterns International Conference on Asian Language Processing... Read more »
Xuri Tang, Weiguang Qu, Xiaohe Chen, & Shiwen Yu. (2010) Automatic Metaphor Recognition Based on Semantic Relation Patterns. International Conference on Asian Language Processing. info:/
Totally tubular! If Bill and Ted had an excellent adventure in the human body, you can be certain that they’d learn about the most excellent tube structures throughout the body. From the veins that carry our blood to the branching tubules in our lungs, tubes are very important structures. A recent paper looks at the role of adhesion proteins during tubule formation.During development, dramatic rearrangements of epithelial sheets results in the formation of branched tubules, as seen in kidney, lung, and mammary gland tissue. As one might expect, these rearrangements require coordination of several cellular events such as cell division, migration, polarization, and adhesion. A recent paper describes the role of two adhesion proteins, E-cadherin and cadherin-6, in tubule formation. Jia and colleagues found that cadherin-6 is important in inhibiting tubule formation, while E-cadherin is important in the formation of a tubule’s lumen (its inside cavity). Images above show the use of cell cysts as a model for epithelial tubule and lumen formation, with fluorescent tags showing a lateral marker (blue) and lumen-facing apical markers (green and red). Samples of control cysts, cysts without cadherin-6, E-cadherin, or both are shown (moving left to right). Although the mutant cysts appear abnormal, polarization was not disrupted in cysts without either cadherin (although multiple lumens are visible in cysts lacking E-cadherin). The polarization of cysts lacking both cadherins, however, was completely disrupted.Jia, L., Liu, F., Hansen, S., ter Beest, M., & Zegers, M. (2011). Distinct roles of cadherin-6 and E-cadherin in tubulogenesis and lumen formation Molecular Biology of the Cell, 22 (12), 2031-2041 DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E11-01-0038... Read more »
Jia, L., Liu, F., Hansen, S., ter Beest, M., & Zegers, M. (2011) Distinct roles of cadherin-6 and E-cadherin in tubulogenesis and lumen formation. Molecular Biology of the Cell, 22(12), 2031-2041. DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E11-01-0038
The Pith: When it comes to the final outcome of a largely biologically specified trait like human height it looks as if it isn’t just the genes your parents give you that matters. Rather, the relationship of their genes also counts. The more dissimilar they are genetically, the taller you are likely to be (all things equal).
Dienekes points me to an interesting new paper in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Isolation by distance between spouses and its effect on children’s growth in height. The results are rather straightforward: the greater the distance between the origin of one’s parents, the taller one is likely to be, especially in the case of males. These findings were robust even after controlling for confounds such as socioeconomic status. Their explanation? Heterosis, whether through heterozygote advantage or the masking of recessive deleterious alleles.
The paper is short and sweet, but first one has to keep in mind the long history of this sort of research in the murky domain of human quantitative genetics. This is not a straight-forward molecular genetic paper where there’s a laser-like focus on one locus, and the mechanistic issues are ...... Read more »
Sławomir Kozieł, Dariusz P. Danel, & Monika Zaręba. (2011) Isolation by distance between spouses and its effect on children's growth in height. American journal of physical anthropology. info:/10.1002/ajpa.21482
A Guide to Improving the Care of Patients with Fragility Fractures From Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation The post World War II Baby Boom generation will reach 65 years old this year. The Baby Boomers encompass an estimated 78 million Americans and are expected to live longer and healthier than preceding generations, due to their [...]... Read more »
Bukata, S., DiGiovanni, B., Friedman, S., Hoyen, H., Kates, A., Kates, S., Mears, S., Mendelson, D., Serna, F., Sieber, F.... (2011) A Guide to Improving the Care of Patients With Fragility Fractures. Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery , 2(1), 5-37. DOI: 10.1177/2151458510397504
Some animals - such as dolphins and whales - are able to "sleep with half their brain". One side of the brain goes into sleep-mode activity while the other remains awake.But a remarkable new study has revealed that something similar may happen in humans as well - every night.The research used a combination of scalp EEG, and electrodes planted inside the brain, to record brain activity from 5 people undergoing surgery to help cure severe epilepsy. The subjects were then allowed to go to sleep for the night, while recording took place.As expected, after falling asleep, the EEG showed delta wave activity - strong, slow waves of electrical activity (0.5 to 4 Hz) which are typical of deep, dreamless "slow wave sleep".However, the electrodes inside the brain told a different story. While they recorded delta waves most of the time, they also showed that there were episodes, lasting from a few seconds to up to 2 minutes, in which the motor cortex suddenly went into "waking mode". Delta waves disappeared, and were replaced with fast, unpredictable activity.This image shows one episode, lasting just 5 seconds. The hotter the color, the more activity in a particular frequency. The higher the band, the higher the frequency. This shows a clear burst of high frequency activity in the motor cortex. The other parts of the brain showed the opposite effect - even stronger slow wave activity - at the same time.Another area, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, also showed this phenomenon occasionally, but it was much less common than in the motor cortex.There's a few caveats. These patients had severe epilepsy, and they were taking anti-convulsant drugs. This wouldn't obviously create the effects seen here, but we can't rule it out. Still, these results are intriguing.They challenge the view of slow wave sleep as a "whole brain" phenomenom. We've known for a while that this isn't true of animals and in certain sleep disorders, but this is first demonstration in healthy humans.It may help to explain the mysterious fact that, although slow wave sleep is often referred to as "dreamless", there are consistent reports that people woken up from this phase of sleep do report dreaming (or at least thinking) about things.While episodic arousal of the motor cortex probably wouldn't explain this per se, if the same thing happens in the visual cortex or other sensory areas, it might create dreams.Nobili L, Ferrara M, Moroni F, De Gennaro L, Russo GL, Campus C, Cardinale F, & De Carli F (2011). Dissociated wake-like and sleep-like electro-cortical activity during sleep. NeuroImage PMID: 21718789... Read more »
Nobili L, Ferrara M, Moroni F, De Gennaro L, Russo GL, Campus C, Cardinale F, & De Carli F. (2011) Dissociated wake-like and sleep-like electro-cortical activity during sleep. NeuroImage. PMID: 21718789
After we go through a painful experience – a conflict with a friend, a break-up, a loss, we face a conundrum. On the one hand, reflection on the experience is essential. It allows us to gain insight, to understand the experience in new and important ways, to get over it. Yet, what once was healthy reflection can often turn into rumination – a toxic preoccupation with the experience that fosters negative emotion. In fact, rumination is believed to contribute to depressive episodes (e.g. Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991). The question thus remains - how can we reflect on negative memories from the past, without ruminating about them?
My (awesome) advisor at UC Berkeley, Ozlem Ayduk, tackled this question with Ethan Kross, her collaborator at the University of Michigan. In their research Ayduk and Kross contrast thinking about painful memories of this nature, from either a first- or a third-person perspective. When we think about the event from a first-person perspective, we put ourselves right back in our own shoes, and relive the event as if it was happening to us all over again. Ayduk and Kross hypothesized that this “self-immersed” perspective increases negative emotion and the likelihood of ruminating. Alternatively, when we think about an event from a third-person perspective, we see everything unfold from afar; as if we are a fly on the wall or a distant observer of what’s happening. Ayduk and Kross hypothesized that this “self-distanced” perspective, allows an individual to gain insight or meaning without reliving the negative emotions they experienced when the event first occurred. Thinking about the meaning of the event rather than rehashing the details of what they experienced or felt at the time allows for reflection without rumination.
Read More->... Read more »
Kross E, Ayduk O, & Mischel W. (2005) When asking "why" does not hurt. Distinguishing rumination from reflective processing of negative emotions. Psychological science, 16(9), 709-15. PMID: 16137257
Ayduk, �., & Kross, E. (2008) Enhancing the Pace of Recovery: Self-Distanced Analysis of Negative Experiences Reduces Blood Pressure Reactivity. Psychological Science, 19(3), 229-231. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02073.x
Ayduk O, & Kross E. (2010) From a distance: implications of spontaneous self-distancing for adaptive self-reflection. Journal of personality and social psychology, 98(5), 809-29. PMID: 20438226
As I post this, the 2011 Wallow Fire in the the Apache National Forest in eastern Arizona and western New Mexico (pictured in part 1) has become the largest wildfire in Arizona's history (~540,000 acres) and is finally under a significant level of containment. The Wallow Fire was started, it seems, by people; it was fueled, however, by an ongoing southwestern drought and nearly a century of forest and wildlands mismanagement that have left massive quantities of vulnerable tinder in place. Wildfire policy in the U.S. grew from federal response to the three-million-acre Great Fire of 1910 in the northwestern states, the subject of The Big Burn by Timothy Egan (another book on my reading list). A strict policy of fire suppression, established by Congress in the aftermath of that event, has been managed by a hobbled and underfunded U.S. Forest Service with little regard for changing priorities, climatic conditions and improved ecological science over the past century.... Read more »
SISK, T., PRATHER, J., HAMPTON, H., AUMACK, E., XU, Y., & DICKSON, B. (2006) Participatory landscape analysis to guide restoration of ponderosa pine ecosystems in the American Southwest. Landscape and Urban Planning, 78(4), 300-310. DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2005.10.003
Noss, R., Beier, P., Wallace Covington, W., Edward Grumbine, R., Lindenmayer, D., Prather, J., Schmiegelow, F., Sisk, T., & Vosick, D. (2006) Recommendations for Integrating Restoration Ecology and Conservation Biology in Ponderosa Pine Forests of the Southwestern United States. Restoration Ecology, 14(1), 4-10. DOI: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2006.00099.x
Whenever I hear a reference to cancer, my first thought is always, “Which cancer?” In research science, cancer is often thought of as many distinct diseases — breast cancer is distinct from skin cancer, mutation X is distinct from mutation Y, the cells in one part of a tumor are distinct from the cells in another part. However, there are certainly many shared characteristics of all cancers, stemming from the fact that all cancers have uncontrolled cell growth. This means that a lot of DNA needs to be made and packaged into the new cells in a short amount of time. In this paper, the researchers suggest that early on in a cancer, there aren’t enough DNA building blocks to support the rate of DNA synthesis. When this happens, the genome (total genetic material) can become unstable and develop mutations that further deregulate the cancer.
This research suggests that a new way to prevent precancerous cells from developing could be to increase the amount of available DNA building blocks so that the DNA could be synthesized properly and with fewer additional mutations.... Read more »
Bester AC, Roniger M, Oren YS, Im MM, Sarni D, Chaoat M, Bensimon A, Zamir G, Shewach DS, & Kerem B. (2011) Nucleotide deficiency promotes genomic instability in early stages of cancer development. Cell, 145(3), 435-46. PMID: 21529715
Bathymetric map, click for GEBCO high resolution image The deep benthos is simultaneously the largest and least explored ecosystem on the planet. Covering nearly 60% of the Earth’s surface, it supports an almost unimaginable reservoir of biodiversity, rivaling all terrestrial habitats combined. Its microbial and metabolic diversity have revolutionized our view of [...]... Read more »
George A. Wolff, David S. M. Billett, Brian J. Bett, Jens Holtvoeth, Tania Fitz, George-Balfour, Elizabeth H. Fisher, Ian Cross, Roger Shannon, Ian Salter.... (2011) The Effects of Natural Iron Fertilisation on Deep-Sea Ecology: The Crozet Plateau, Southern Indian Ocean. PLoS One. info:/
What is this all about?
See Part 1
See Kate's response, Part 2
See Denise's response, Part 3
In addressing the question ‘Do we have Freewill?’ we all took a fairly softly-softly approach. I will certainly admit to this; being the first to post I just wanted to test the waters, see what would fly.
While my position of ‘I’m not really sure’ still holds I am going to ta; (read more)
Source: Psycasm - Discipline: Psychology... Read more »
Aarts, H., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2000) Habits as knowledge structures: Automaticity in goal-directed behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(1), 53-63. DOI: 10.1037//0022-35126.96.36.199
Harris, J., Bargh, J., & Brownell, K. (2009) Priming effects of television food advertising on eating behavior. Health Psychology, 28(4), 404-413. DOI: 10.1037/a0014399
Zhong CB, & Liljenquist K. (2006) Washing away your sins: threatened morality and physical cleansing. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5792), 1451-2. PMID: 16960010
Elliot, A., & Niesta, D. (2008) Romantic red: Red enhances men's attraction to women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(5), 1150-1164. DOI: 10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.520
Midwestern researchers used a Drosophila model of study to investigate the positive benefits of sleep and the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on biological enrichment at the behavioral and neurobiological level, providing further evidence of its need (value). ... Read more »
Donlea JM, Thimgan MS, Suzuki Y, Gottschalk L, & Shaw PJ. (2011) Inducing sleep by remote control facilitates memory consolidation in Drosophila. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6037), 1571-6. PMID: 21700877
Bushey D, Tononi G, & Cirelli C. (2011) Sleep and synaptic homeostasis: structural evidence in Drosophila. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6037), 1576-81. PMID: 21700878
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