# Post List

## Physics posts

• April 14, 2017
• 08:58 AM
• 158 views

# Well below 1%

When a theory is too hard to solve people try to consider lower dimensional cases. This also happened for Yang-Mills theory. The four dimensional case is notoriously difficult to manage due to the large coupling and the three dimensional case has been treated both theoretically and by lattice computations. In this latter case, the ground […]... Read more »

Andreas Athenodorou, & Michael Teper. (2017) SU(N) gauge theories in 2 1 dimensions: glueball spectra and kstring tensions. J. High Energ. Phys., 15. arXiv: 1609.03873v1

Marco Frasca. (2015) Quantum Yang-Mills field theory. Eur. Phys. J. Plus (2017) 132: 38. arXiv: 1509.05292v2

• April 11, 2017
• 09:00 AM
• 205 views

# Looking for clues for past life on Mars

NASA's Curiosity Mars. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSSOn August 6, 2012, the NASA Curiosity rover landed on Mars at the base of Mount Sharp, a mountain the size of Kilimanjaro (~19,000 feet) in the middle of Gale Crater. Nina Lanza, space scientist at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, remembers the day well. As part of the team that built ChemCam, one of the ten instruments on the rover, she spent three months at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California, living on “Mars time” to follow Curiosity’s first “steps.” ChemCam stands for “chemistry camera” and comprises a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument and a Remote Micro Imager (RMI). It was built at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in collaboration with the French space agency CNES. Nina Lanza and postdoctoral fellow Patrick Gasda are two of the Los Alamos scientists who work on the instrument. “We get to shoot a laser on Mars for a living,” Lanza says, grinning.And the laser on ChemCam is extremely powerful. When focused on a target, it vaporizes a small amount of material by heating Martian rocks to a temperature that’s roughly equivalent to that of the surface of the sun. “When we fire at a nearby target,” Gasda explains, “the elements get excited and, as they come down from that excited state, they emit light.”By looking at the light emitted by the target, scientists can analyze the composition of rocks and soils on Mars. Previous Mars missions have found ice in the near-surface at high latitudes, begging the question: was there ever water on other parts of Mars at some point? And if there was—does that mean there could have been life, too?With the very first laser shots from ChemCam, the answer was a definitive yes. “ChemCam discovered that all Martian dust is hydrated,” Lanza explains. “Given how dusty Mars is, this means that water is everywhere on the planet. We also found evidence that water was flowing in Mars’s past.” “Gale Crater was filled with water,” Gasda adds. “From the sequence of sedimentary rocks we know of flowing streams in the crater that converged to a large body of still water that likely lasted for millions of years.”“Curiosity gave us a picture of Gale Crater as an extremely habitable system,” Lanza continues. “We know that on Earth systems like this, with long-lasting neutral pH waters, would definitely support life.”But how do you go about finding evidence for life? You search for clues, in other words, unique markers that identify biological activity.“A potential marker could be manganese minerals,” Lanza says. In 2016 Curiosity found rocks rich in manganese-oxides at a location called Kimberley. “Manganese deposits in the terrestrial geological record mark the shift to higher concentrations of atmospheric oxygen due to the emergence of photosynthesis. This means that there could have been more oxygen in the Martian atmosphere in the past.” Water. Oxygen. What about other building blocks of life? How do we look for those?“Nucleic and amino acids have been found in space,” Gasda tells me. “However, ribose—the ‘R’ in RNA, one of the first building blocks of life—and other sugars have never been found in space because they are too unstable. In order to have life, you need molecules that stabilize these sugars in water. Borates are particularly promising molecules for stabilizing sugars [1].”Boron is highly soluble in water. In 2013 researchers from the University of Hawaii found boron in a meteorite from Mars [2]. That’s when Gasda became interested in this quest. “Once we knew that Gale Crater had once hosted a large body of water, it was natural to search for boron in those sediments.” ChemCam did indeed find boron on Mars in 2016. Together with the manganese oxides, this is still not sufficient evidence for life on Mars, but it shows that some of the raw ingredients were present. The scientists are primed to keep looking. Curiosity has been on Mars almost five years (or 1660 sols), and its data is helping researchers fine-tune the instruments for the next Mars rover, provisionally named Mars 2020, to be launched in July 2020. “We need to look for biosignatures,” Lanza says. “And we may not find them. But if we don’t, to me, the most striking question would be: what if there were indeed all the ingredients for life on Mars, yet life never happened? What made Earth so unique that life could happen here but nowhere else?”Gasda nods. “And if we are indeed unique, shouldn’t this make us feel more special, and make us more cautious about the way we treat our planet and our biodiversity?” I mention the current political climate, with the planned budget cuts to scientific research, and the appalling denial of any intervention to curb global warming. “These cuts to basic research are disheartening,” Lanza says. “People often think of NASA research as esoteric and out of touch. And yet almost everyone has GPS technology on their smart phones today, something we owe to space research. Take the electron as another example. I’m sure people in the nineteenth century found J. J. Thomson’s research on the electron to be highly academic, with few practical applications. Yet without his discovery we wouldn’t have electricity, and our lives today would be fundamentally different.” “The best measure for progress,” Lanza concludes, “is when you can’t imagine the knowledge you are going to gain. Let the science surprise you.” Nina Lanza is a staff scientist, and Patrick Gasda is a postdoctoral research fellow, both in the Space and Remote Sensing group at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. They are both on the science team for the Curiosity Mars rover mission. The opinions expressed here are their own and not their employer’s. Both will be speaking at the March for Science in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on April 22nd. [1] Ricardo, A. (2004). Borate Minerals Stabilize Ribose Science, 303 (5655), 196-196 DOI: 10.1126/science.1092464[2] Stephenson, J., Hallis, L., Nagashima, K., & Freeland, S. (2013). Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay PLoS ONE, 8 (6) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064624... Read more »

Ricardo, A. (2004) Borate Minerals Stabilize Ribose. Science, 303(5655), 196-196. DOI: 10.1126/science.1092464

Stephenson, J., Hallis, L., Nagashima, K., & Freeland, S. (2013) Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay. PLoS ONE, 8(6). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064624

• April 11, 2017
• 06:34 AM
• 199 views

# How Electron Beams Produce Continuous Coherent Plasma Emission by H. Che, M. Goldstein, P. Diamond, and R. Sagdeev

It is commonly accepted that energetic electron beams can produce drift frequency radio emission or Type III bursts since Ginzburg and Zhelezniakov first proposed the idea in 1958. However, the electron two-stream instability time (see reference 2) in the corona is fraction of a second, while the duration of coronal Type III bursts lasts several orders of magnitude longer. This problem is called the “Sturrock Dilemma” and remains a subject [...]... Read more »

• April 3, 2017
• 09:00 AM
• 181 views

# "Science is Under Attack." A Climate Scientist's Call to Action for the Future of our Planet.

• March 28, 2017
• 08:04 AM
• 183 views

# Radio Diagnostics of Electron Acceleration Sites During the Eruption of a Flux Rope in the Solar Corona by Eoin Carley et al.*

Flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are thought to result from magnetic energy release in the solar corona, often involving the destabilisation of a twisted magnetic structure known as a flux rope (Chen et al. 2011, Webb et al. 2012). This activity may be accompanied by the acceleration of electrons (Kahler 2007, Lin et al. 2011). However, there is ongoing debate on exactly where, when and how this particle acceleration occurs [...]... Read more »

• March 14, 2017
• 08:05 AM
• 236 views

# Solar Science with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array — A New View of Our Sun by S. Wedemeyer

The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), which consists of 66 antennas placed on the Chajnantor plateau in the Chilean Andes, has already produced impressive results for a large range of astronomical objects. Regular observations of the Sun have been carried out for the first time in December 2016 and exciting results can be expected soon. ALMA combines high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution with the diagnostic advantages of radiation at [...]... Read more »

Wedemeyer, S., Bastian, T., Brajša, R., Hudson, H., Fleishman, G., Loukitcheva, M., Fleck, B., Kontar, E., De Pontieu, B., Yagoubov, P.... (2015) Solar Science with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array—A New View of Our Sun. Space Science Reviews, 200(1-4), 1-73. DOI: 10.1007/s11214-015-0229-9

• March 14, 2017
• 07:08 AM
• 47 views

# Nonlinear effects in shallow water waves

I recently googled for something related to the shape of waves and came across a photo of a wave that caught my eye, and it took me to a journey that lead to the article “nonlinear shallow ocean wave soliton interactions on flat beaches” by Ablowitz and Baldwin (2012). What’s discussed in that article is that while…... Read more »

Mark J. Ablowitz, & Douglas E. Baldwin. (2012) Nonlinear shallow ocean wave soliton interactions on flat beaches. Physical Review E, vol. 86(3), pp. 036305 (2012). arXiv: 1208.2904v1

• February 28, 2017
• 07:03 AM
• 204 views

# Quasi-periodic acceleration of electrons in the flare on 2012 July 19 by Jing Huang et al.*

We study the quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) of nonthermal emission in an M7.7 class flare on 2012 July 19 with spatially resolved observations at microwave and HXR bands and with spectral observations at decimetric, metric waves. Microwave emission at 17 GHz of two footpoints, HXR emission at 20–50 keV of the north footpoint and loop top, and type III bursts at 0.7–3 GHz show prominent in-phase oscillations at 270$\,$s. Through the [...]... Read more »

Huang, J., Kontar, E., Nakariakov, V., & Gao, G. (2016) QUASI-PERIODIC ACCELERATION OF ELECTRONS IN THE FLARE ON 2012 JULY 19. The Astrophysical Journal, 831(2), 119. DOI: 10.3847/0004-637X/831/2/119

• February 24, 2017
• 11:06 AM
• 287 views

# What if black holes were not... holes? A Los Alamos physicist explains his alternative theory behind these mysterious objects.

Mazur, P., & Mottola, E. (2004) Gravitational vacuum condensate stars. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101(26), 9545-9550. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0402717101

Emil Mottola. (2010) New Horizons in Gravity: The Trace Anomaly, Dark Energy and Condensate Stars. Acta Physica Polonica B (2010) Vol.41, iss.9, p.2031-2162. arXiv: 1008.5006v1

• February 20, 2017
• 02:30 PM
• 149 views

# This Squid Gives Better Side-Eye Than You

Yes, this cephalopod is looking at you funny. It's a kind of cockeyed squid—an animal that looks like some jokester misassembled a Mr. Potato Head. One of the cockeyed squid's eyes is big, bulging and yellow. The other is flat and beady. After studying more than 25 years' worth of undersea video footage, scientists think they know why.

The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) in California has been dropping robotic submarines into the ocean for decades. The footage from those ... Read more »

• February 14, 2017
• 07:02 AM
• 352 views

# Large-scale simulations of Langmuir Wave Distributions Induced by Electron Beams by H. Reid and E. Kontar

Langmuir waves that generate type III radio bursts are excited by high-energy electron beams streaming out from the corona through interplanetary space. Despite a smooth temporal distribution of electrons, the Langmuir waves are measured to occur in discrete clumps, commonly attributed to the turbulent nature of the solar wind electron density (e.g. Smith and Sime 1979, Melrose et al 1986). But how do fluctuations in the background plasma shape the [...]... Read more »

• January 31, 2017
• 07:06 AM
• 568 views

# Emission of radiation by plasmas with counter-streaming electron beams by L. F. Ziebell et al.*

The phenomena of emission of radiation by the Sun, which are known as type II and type III solar radio bursts, have been known and investigated for more than sixty years. The bursts of radiation occur at a frequency corresponding to the plasma frequency at the source region, and harmonics [...]... Read more »

Ziebell, L., Petruzzellis, L., Yoon, P., Gaelzer, R., & Pavan, J. (2016) PLASMA EMISSION BY COUNTER-STREAMING ELECTRON BEAMS. The Astrophysical Journal, 818(1), 61. DOI: 10.3847/0004-637X/818/1/61

• January 17, 2017
• 07:03 AM
• 359 views

# Simultaneous near-Sun observations of a moving type IV radio burst and the associated white-light CME by K. Hariharan et al.*

Quasi-continuum radio emissions of duration ~10-60 min that occur along with flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the solar atmosphere are termed as type IV bursts. The bursts are non-thermal in nature and can be classified into two categories, i.e. moving type IV (type IVm) bursts and stationary type [...]... Read more »

• January 3, 2017
• 07:01 AM
• 376 views

# Observation of quasi-periodic solar radio bursts associated with propagating fast-mode waves by C. R. Goddard et al.*

Flaring activity on the Sun triggers waves and oscillations in the solar corona. The study of these waves and oscillations allows comparisons to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory and modelling to be made, and seismological inversions based on this comparison allow local plasma parameters to be measured indirectly (e.g. De Moortel & [...]... Read more »

• December 30, 2016
• 12:20 PM
• 376 views

# Yang-Mills theory paper gets published!

Exact solutions of quantum field theories are very rare and, normally, refer to toy models and pathological cases. Quite recently, I put on arxiv a pair of papers presenting exact solutions both of the Higgs sector of the Standard Model and the Yang-Mills theory made just of gluons. The former appeared a few month ago […]... Read more »

Marco Frasca. (2015) A theorem on the Higgs sector of the Standard Model. Eur. Phys. J. Plus (2016) 131: 199. arXiv: 1504.02299v3

Marco Frasca. (2015) Quantum Yang-Mills field theory. arXiv. arXiv: 1509.05292v1

Carl M. Bender, Kimball A. Milton, & Van M. Savage. (1999) Solution of Schwinger-Dyson Equations for ${\cal PT}$-Symmetric Quantum Field Theory. Phys.Rev.D62:085001,2000. arXiv: hep-th/9907045v1

• December 27, 2016
• 02:04 PM
• 589 views

# Why we have not met Aliens yet?

A huge of number of people keeps on thinking about the existence of some other intelligent beings in the universe but still we have not met any aliens. Why?

Earth is rare

Earth is special planet

One of the reasons that we have not met aliens is that Earth is rare and there is nothing just like Earth in the universe. In this regard, Paleontologist Peter Ward and astronomer Donald Brownlee presented the Rare Earth Hypothesis about 17 years ago.

According to the Rare Earth Hypothesis, the planets having Earth-like complex (animal) life, according to our knowledge, are very rare in the universe. Moreover, the chains of events that occurred on this planet and that were important for the development of life are so complex that they would not occur anywhere in the universe; thereby, making it highly improbable to meet aliens from other planets.

Picture showing wreckage

Every intelligent life may face some disasters after reaching a sufficiently advanced technology

Even though some alien life exists in the universe, Great Filter Theory suggests that it is probably difficult for the alien or intelligent life in the universe to reach such a technologically advancing stage that they start long-distance space travel or communication.

On the Earth, we know that some natural disasters often occur taking the life many years back; thereby, causing the people to start the life from somewhat beginning. For example, our advancements in nuclear technology could take us to nuclear war finally leading to mass destruction, and loss of advanced technology and many important human beings, i.e. great filter. Similar events, i.e. cataclysmic natural disasters, could also occur on other planets having some alien lives causing them to start their life from zero, and finally, making it almost impossible for them to go somewhere in the universe.

Another similar concept is that of the Medea Hypothesis, noted by paleontologist Peter Ward that suggests the concept of self-destruction. This hypothesis shows that the internal suicidal clock of living beings runs out before making any connection with aliens.

Technology at small scale

Why move outward when inward has much to give?

John Smart’s Transcension Hypothesis suggests that intelligent life in our universe started advancements in an inward direction rather than an outward direction in space. This concept can be compared to the miniaturization concept such as that of computers. Initially, computers were large in size but with the passage of time, their size decreased but power increased. Similarly, intelligent alien life progresses towards more denser and efficient use of space, time, energy, and matter, i.e. STEM. Eventually, the intelligent life in space started living in a black hole that is outside of this space-time continuum. Smart and other such researchers are of opinion that black holes are ideal for computation, energy generation, time travel, and more such processes for any kind of intelligent living beings.

Best place

Perhaps Earth is not a super-habitable place…

Science fiction often shows that intelligent alien life was searching for fuel or some other things such as food etc and they found Earth, but reality could be very different from that. May be Earth is not a super-habitable place in the universe. It is quite possible that if aliens are more intelligent than human beings they would not require the resources of Earth. They may think that the Earth and the living beings on this planet are of no use in regards to their highly advanced technologies. Moreover, if we leave the concept of super-habitable worlds, there are more than 8 billion Earth like planets in the universe, and intelligent aliens could go there, if they want.

Virtual Reality

Perhaps we are living in an artificial universe

Planetarium Hypothesis by Stephen Baxter suggests that we are perhaps living in an “artificial universe” or “virtual reality ‘planetarium’” that is giving us an illusion of empty universe. Supporters of this idea are also of opinion that we are living in a computer simulation that has been designed by some advanced aliens who are able to work on matter and energy on large scale. This is also showing that the intelligent life has not designed the program in such a way that we would be able to find any aliens in the universe.

Perhaps Earth is far far away from other inhabitable planets

Perhaps Earth is at a very large distance from other inhabited planets

Alien life might exist in the universe but still we have not met them, and one of the important reasons is that the Earth is at a very large distance away from them. In this case, Percolation theory suggests that some areas in the universe show large clustered growth, whereas some areas of growth have outlier positions. Other intelligent beings in the universe are perhaps living in that large clustered growth, and the Earth is in the outlier position.

Perhaps aliens have some unknown signals

We are unable to understand their signals

It is quite possible that alien life exists and they are also sending signals to us, but due to the difference in nature of signals we are unable to understand their signals. Perhaps, aliens have completely different senses as compared to human beings. Perhaps they are using the communication methods that are highly advanced in comparison to our communication methods.

As Lord Rees, cosmologist and astrophysicist, noted, “They could be staring us in the face, and we just don’t recognize them. The problem is that we’re looking for something very much like us, assuming that they at least have something like the same mathematics and technology. I suspect there could be life and intelligence out there in forms we can’t conceive.”

Via: John Smart, Montana State University, Robin Hanson, Planetarium Hypothesis, Percolation theory, Medea Hypothesis, ListVerse, Heller, R., & Armstrong, J. (2014). Superhabitable Worlds Astrobiology, 14 (1), 50-66 DOI: 10.1089/ast.2013.1088... Read more »

Heller, R., & Armstrong, J. (2014) Superhabitable Worlds. Astrobiology, 14(1), 50-66. DOI: 10.1089/ast.2013.1088

• December 20, 2016
• 07:02 AM
• 446 views

# Diagnosing the Source Region of a Solar Burst on 26 September 2011 by Using Microwave Type-III Pairs by Tan B. L. et al.*

Accelerated electron beams are believed to be responsible for both hard X-ray (HXR) and strong coherent radio emission during solar flares. However, so far the location of the electron acceleration and its physical parameters are poorly known. The solar microwave Type-III pair burst is possibly the most sensitive signature of [...]... Read more »

• December 13, 2016
• 08:23 AM
• 486 views

# Acceleration of electrons in the solar wind by Langmuir waves produced by a decay cascade by Catherine Krafft and Alexander Volokitin

It was recently reported that a significant part of the Langmuir waveforms observed by the STEREO satellite (Graham and Cairns, 2013) during type III solar radio bursts are likely consistent with the occurrence of electrostatic decay instabilities, when a Langmuir wave $$\mathcal{L}$$ resonantly interacts with another Langmuir wave $$\mathcal{L}^{\prime}$$ and [...]... Read more »

• December 9, 2016
• 07:18 PM
• 474 views

# The Most Interesting Stellar System Of All?

Researchers at the Carnegie Institution of Washington re-examined the Kepler data and determined that it had also been steadily dimming over the course of those four years, on top of its sporadic dips in brightness. For 1,000 days, the rate of dimming observed was constant; then, for 200 days after, its dimming rate suddenly increased by some order of magnitude; finally, for the remaining 200 days, its brightness had remained largely unchanged.... Read more »

Boyajian, T., LaCourse, D., Rappaport, S., & et al. (2016) Planet Hunters IX. KIC 8462852 – where's the flux?. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 457(4), 3988-4004. DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw218

Montet, B., & Simon, J. (2016) KIC 8462852 FADED THROUGHOUT THE MISSION . The Astrophysical Journal, 830(2). DOI: 10.3847/2041-8205/830/2/L39

• December 6, 2016
• 02:29 PM
• 521 views

Does non-ionizing radiation pose a health risk? Everyone knows that ionizing radiation, like gamma rays, can cause cancer by damaging DNA. But the scientific consensus is that there is no such risk from non-ionizing radiation such as radiowaves or Wi-Fi.

Yet according to a remarkable new paper from Magda Havas, the risk is real: it's called When theory and observation collide: Can non-ionizing radiation cause cancer?