Tiger Woods Practices at 2010 PGA ChampionshipThere has been quite a bit of news coverage of the recent release of a study of the effects of a healthy lifestyle.This study led by Peter Elwood examined the rates of chronic diseases and dementia in a cohort of 2,235 men assessed in 1979 in the city of Caerphilly, United Kingdom.The authors identified five healthy lifestyle variables in the original assessment including smoking status, BMI, fruit and vegetable consumption, regular exercise and reas........ Read more »
Peter Elwood, Julieta Galante, Janet Pickering,Stephen Palmer,Antony Bayer,Yoav Ben-Shlomo,Marcus Longley,John Gallacher. (2013) Healthy Lifestyles Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases and Dementia: Evidence from the Caerphilly Cohort Study. PLOS One. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081877
Gut inflammation and autism.Laughing or smirking? Wikipedia Words which still have the ability to furrow brows and precipitate eye rolling. Whatever your views on this topic, whether based on science or politics or both, there is no getting away from the evidence suggestive that in SOME cases of autism, issues with that deepest, darkest realm - the gut - do seem to be present.Whether based on the presence of functional bowel issues (see here and here) or something rather more fundamental (s........ Read more »
de Theije CG, Koelink PJ, Korte-Bouws GA, Silva SL, Mechiel Korte S, Olivier B, Garssen J, & Kraneveld AD. (2013) Intestinal inflammation in a murine model of autism spectrum disorders. Brain Behav Immun. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2013.12.004
This image was provided by the CDC and the Partnership, Inc. Available at Wikimedia Commons.Studies of the spread of infectious diseases have shown that behavior plays a strong role in which individuals are more likely to be infected and which ones aren't. For example, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are more commonly diagnosed in people that have more sexual partners. But despite our understanding of how diseases are spread among people, we know very little about the spread of diseases amo........ Read more »
Dizney L, & Dearing MD. (2013) The role of behavioural heterogeneity on infection patterns: implications for pathogen transmission. Animal behaviour, 86(5). PMID: 24319292
The hormonal mayhem, reduced fertility and hot flushes experienced by a woman in the run up to menopause may owe much to warfare between her own genes, according to a team of scientists working in the United Kingdom and Japan.... Read more »
Francisco Úbeda, Hisashi Ohtsuki, & Andy Gardner. (2013) Ecology drives intragenomic conflict over menopause. Ecology Letters. DOI: 10.1111/ele.12208
Investigators have found that they can use PET plastic bottles as raw-material to manufacture a biomaterial, which will disrupt fungi cells’ outer membrane. Therefore, it prevents the fungi’s cell division and ultimately, it causes the fungi’s death.... Read more »
Fukushima K, Liu S, Wu H, Engler AC, Coady DJ, Maune H, Pitera J, Nelson A, Wiradharma N, Venkataraman S.... (2013) Supramolecular high-aspect ratio assemblies with strong antifungal activity. Nature communications, 2861. PMID: 24316819
Air pollution.I'm pretty sure most people are aware of all the talk about air pollution these days and how the human body is not particularly fond of air pollution in terms of potential adverse health outcomes (assuming that is, you leave things like selenium out of the equation). If you happen to live in China, I'm sure your mind was put at ease when reading about 'The Five Surprising Gains from the Smog'... or maybe not.Most people generally find it easier to accept that air pollution might sh........ Read more »
Volk HE, Kerin T, Lurmann F, Hertz-Picciotto I, McConnell R, & Campbell DB. (2013) Autism Spectrum Disorder: Interaction of Air Pollution with the MET Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Gene. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.). PMID: 24240654
Standardised methods and broadly accepeted reference data are the bread and butter of molecular epidemiological studies of infectious organisms. This post highlights some of the issues related to molecular epidemiology terminology and draws parallels between research in Blastocystis and Cryptosporidium.... Read more »
Alfellani MA, Taner-Mulla D, Jacob AS, Imeede CA, Yoshikawa H, Stensvold CR, & Clark CG. (2013) Genetic diversity of blastocystis in livestock and zoo animals. Protist, 164(4), 497-509. PMID: 23770574
Šlapeta J. (2013) Cryptosporidiosis and Cryptosporidium species in animals and humans: a thirty colour rainbow?. International journal for parasitology, 43(12-13), 957-70. PMID: 23973380
Kotloff KL, Nataro JP, Blackwelder WC, Nasrin D, Farag TH, Panchalingam S, Wu Y, Sow SO, Sur D, Breiman RF.... (2013) Burden and aetiology of diarrhoeal disease in infants and young children in developing countries (the Global Enteric Multicenter Study, GEMS): a prospective, case-control study. Lancet, 382(9888), 209-22. PMID: 23680352
Stensvold CR, Suresh GK, Tan KS, Thompson RC, Traub RJ, Viscogliosi E, Yoshikawa H, & Clark CG. (2007) Terminology for Blastocystis subtypes--a consensus. Trends in parasitology, 23(3), 93-6. PMID: 17241816
Xiao L, Ryan UM, Fayer R, Bowman DD, & Zhang L. (2012) Cryptosporidium tyzzeri and Cryptosporidium pestis: which name is valid?. Experimental parasitology, 130(3), 308-9. PMID: 22230707
Striepen B. (2013) Parasitic infections: Time to tackle cryptosporidiosis. Nature, 503(7475), 189-91. PMID: 24236315
Myself (Miles Bore), Don Munro and David Powis have spent the last 15 years developing and testing personality questionnaires and ability tests for use in the selection of medical students. While much of the focus of our research has been the use of these tests in Australia and the UK, we have also had opportunities to trial the tests in countries where English is not the first language such as Sweden, Israel, Japan, Taiwan, Nepal and Fiji. Recently we were approached by Saharnaz Nedjat from Teh........ Read more »
Nedjat, S., Bore, M., Majdzadeh, R., Rashidian, A., Munro, D., Powis, D., Karbakhsh, M., . (2013) Comparing the cognitive, personality and moral characteristics of high school and graduate medical entrants to the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Iran. Medical Teacher, 35(12), 1632-1637. DOI: 10.3109/0142159X.2013.826791
The relationship between football-related head injury and brain disorders is an important research topic.Case reports of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) continue to emerge among retired NFL football players.In a previous post, I have summarized a Mayo Clinic study finding limited evidence for increased brain injury in a cohort of high school football players.In another related post, I summarized research demonstrating college football players with sport-related head trauma had evidence of........ Read more »
Hazrati LN, Tartaglia MC, Diamandis P, Davis KD, Green RE, Wennberg R, Wong JC, Ezerins L, & Tator CH. (2013) Absence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy in retired football players with multiple concussions and neurological symptomatology. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 222. PMID: 23745112
I'd like to begin with a quote from the paper by Hedvall and colleagues* who reported findings based on a study of developmental trajectory for 208 preschoolers diagnosed with an autism spectrum condition: "Changes in developmental profiles during preschool years are common in children with ASD".Seasons: Autumn @ Wikipedia Their naturalistic study suggested that the very early years of autism, at least some autism, and its presentation are characterised by "considerable chang........ Read more »
Hedvall A, Westerlund J, Fernell E, Holm A, Gillberg C, & Billstedt E. (2013) Autism and developmental profiles in preschoolers: stability and change over time. Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992). PMID: 24237479
Researchers have found that meditation can change our body at molecular level resulting in useful gene expression changes.
Gene expression refers to the process of getting information from a gene used in the synthesis of a functional gene product such as proteins.
Researchers have found that eight hours of mindfulness/calmness of mind practice, i.e. meditation, results in a r........ Read more »
Perla Kaliman et al. (2013) Rapid changes in histone deacetylases and inflammatory gene expression in expert meditators. Psychoneuroendocrinology. DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2013.11.004
Caffeine and Coffee have been used by athletes to improve athletic performance and to make training easier. Research is also indicating that coffee may also reduce risk of cognitive declineThe post Coffee Study: Its not just the caffeine that makes you smart and athletic appeared first on WODMasters.... Read more »
Cropley V, Croft R, Silber B, Neale C, Scholey A, Stough C, & Schmitt J. (2012) Does coffee enriched with chlorogenic acids improve mood and cognition after acute administration in healthy elderly? A pilot study. Psychopharmacology, 219(3), 737-49. PMID: 21773723
Cho ES, Jang YJ, Hwang MK, Kang NJ, Lee KW, & Lee HJ. (2009) Attenuation of oxidative neuronal cell death by coffee phenolic phytochemicals. Mutation research, 661(1-2), 18-24. PMID: 19028509
Shukitt-Hale B, Miller MG, Chu YF, Lyle BJ, & Joseph JA. (2013) Coffee, but not caffeine, has positive effects on cognition and psychomotor behavior in aging. Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands), 35(6), 2183-92. PMID: 23344884
Many of the biological processes within our bodies such as neurological activity and hormone production exhibit circadian rhythm. That is to say they cycle on a 24 hour basis. The synchronization of these biological clocks was thought to be under the master control of the “suprachiasmatic nucleus” located within the hypothalamus of the brain (physiological jargon with no importance regarding what I have to say). However, it has recently been shown that other tissues – including........ Read more »
Zhang X, Dube TJ, & Esser KA. (2009) Working around the clock: circadian rhythms and skeletal muscle. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 107(5), 1647-54. PMID: 19696362
The accumbens is historically classified as a reward center. But recent research in animal models shows that it also regulates sleep-This is no surprise, right? Don't you have to hypothetically be awake in order to partake in something pleasurable?... Read more »
Qiu MH, Liu W, Qu WM, Urade Y, Lu J, & Huang ZL. (2012) The role of nucleus accumbens core/shell in sleep-wake regulation and their involvement in modafinil-induced arousal. PloS one, 7(9). PMID: 23029032
In 2008, Google entered the flu monitoring game by launching Google Flu Trends. Now, a team of Italian researchers report that Twitter could be used in an even more reliable way. ... Read more »
Gesualdo F, Stilo G, Agricola E, Gonfiantini MV, Pandolfi E, Velardi P . (2013) Influenza-like illness surveillance on Twitter through automated learning of naïve language. PLoS ONE . DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082489
So, leaky gut, the gut microbiota and the immune system in relation to autism then? Maybe not so 'on the fringe' as you might have thought.Readers are asked to consider this entry an extension of the post I published last year (see here) talking about some very interesting research coming out of the laboratory of Prof. Paul Patterson at CalTech. If you need any sort of background, Prof. Patterson and his team have for quite a while been investigating the concept of maternal immune activation (MI........ Read more »
Elaine Y. Hsiao, Sara W. McBride, Sophia Hsien, Gil Sharon, Embriette R. Hyde, Tyler McCue, Julian A. Codelli, Janet Chow, Sarah E. Reisman, Joseph F. Petrosino.... (2013) Microbiota Modulate Behavioral and Physiological Abnormalities Associated with Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Cell. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.11.024
Several years ago I published a research study that showing testosterone augmentation improved metabolic syndrome and insulin sensitivity in men with type 2 diabetes.Testosterone appears to influence weight including abdominal fat deposition. The mechanism for this relationship is unclear. Additionally, the relationship between testosterone and diabetes risk is unclear.A recent study from Taiwan has provided some additional insight into the role of low testosterone and diabetes risk.Ho and colle........ Read more »
Chen-Hsun Ho,1,2 Hong-Jeng Yu,2 Chih-Yuan Wang,3 Fu-Shan Jaw,4 Ju-Ton Hsieh,2 Wan-Chung Liao,5 Yeong-Shiau Pu,2 and Shih-Ping Liu2,*. (2013) Prediabetes Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Testosterone Deficiency, Independent of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome. PLoS One. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074173
December’s big orthodontic research update: Part 1 Records and canines Today it did not get properly light in Manchester, North of England and I have spent some time reading recent publications. This is a busy time for publishing trials and systematic reviews and I have decided to divide this up into two blogs. The first […]The post December’s Big Orthodontic Research Update: Part 1. Diagnostic records and methods of canine exposure appeared first on Kevin O........ Read more »
Robine J. Rischen,, K. Hero Breuning,, Ewald M. Bronkhorst,, & Anne Marie Kuijpers-Jagtman. (2013) Records Needed for Orthodontic Diagnosis and Treatment Planning: A Systematic Review. Plos One. DOI: 0.1371/journal.pone.0074186
Dalia Smailiene,, Aiste Kavaliauskiene,, Ingrida Pacauskiene,, Egle Zasciurinskiene, & Krister Bjerklin. (2013) Palatally impacted maxillary canines: choice of surgical-orthodontic treatment method does not influence post-treatment periodontal status. A controlled prospective study. European Journal of Orthodontics, 803. DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjs102
Researchers have reported that vitamin D supplementation for 3 years or more significantly decreases all-cause mortality in female patients with vitamin D insufficiency.
Vitamin DVitamin D:
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that occurs in fish-liver oils and is often added to milk. They are essential for the formation of bones and teeth. Lack of vitamin D causes rickets. Vitamin D deficiency below baseline levels ........ Read more »
Yayuan Zheng et al. (2013) Meta-Analysis of Long-Term Vitamin D Supplementation on Overall Mortality. PLoS ONE. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082109
A couple of days ago, Elizabeth Grice (my research advisor) and I had a review published in this month's issue of Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine...... Read more »
Hannigan GD, Grice EA. (2013) Microbial Ecology of the Skin in the Era of Metagenomics and Molecular Microbiology. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. DOI: 10.1101/cshperspect.a015362
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