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  • June 24, 2015
  • 02:05 PM
  • 81 views

Oh, to have Dr. Facebook on call!

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

If it were up to Internet-savvy Americans, more of them would be emailing or sending Facebook messages to their doctors to chat about their health. That’s the result of a national survey led by Joy Lee of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in the US.... Read more »

  • June 24, 2015
  • 10:30 AM
  • 70 views

Video Tip of the Week: handy way to make citations quickly

by Mary in OpenHelix

This is not a typical tip–where we explore the features and details of bioinformatics tools. But it’s one of those handy little features that may make your life easier. It’s made mine better lately. I had been using the ScienceSeeker citation generator system for creating citations that would then aggregate to either ScienceSeeker or ResearchBlogging. But ScienceSeeker’s model recently changed. And ResearchBlogging’s support and stability is…well, uneven.... Read more »

  • June 24, 2015
  • 08:00 AM
  • 78 views

The CPU In Your Head

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

It’s hard to believe, but part of your brain – the part that controls your body systems – actually comes from your mouth! What’s more, that same part of the brain talks to cells in your lungs that can smell what you breathe in and may have something to do with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.... Read more »

Gu, X., Karp, P., Brody, S., Pierce, R., Welsh, M., Holtzman, M., & Ben-Shahar, Y. (2014) Chemosensory Functions for Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cells. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 50(3), 637-646. DOI: 10.1165/rcmb.2013-0199OC  

  • June 24, 2015
  • 04:51 AM
  • 88 views

Infant sleep duration a risk factor for autism spectrum behaviours in girls?

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

To quote from the study results published by Janet Saenz and colleagues [1] (open-access available here): "less sleep duration in infant girls across a period of 5 days was predictive of higher ASD [autism spectrum disorder] scores on the BITSEA [Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment] in toddlerhood."Based on a sample of 47 children - 29 males and 18 females - researchers initially studied sleep patterns for participants at 3-4 months of age using actigraphs to ascertain sleep duration and efficiency and determine whether there was any connection to later BITSEA scores at 18-24 months of age. They reported various results in the most part not significant across genders, sleeping patterns and the subsequent effect on scores of social-emotional problems. In the detail however, they did find a suggestion that "sleep duration was a significant predictor of autism spectrum behaviors" specifically in girls and "after controlling for sleep efficiency, a 1-min decrease in sleep duration resulted in a 0.01 point predicted increase in a child’s autism spectrum behaviors score." This, bearing in mind, that BITSEA scores for autism spectrum behaviours range between 0-17.I'm not wildly enthusiastic about the results reported by Saenz et al given the relatively small sample size and the snap analysis of two variables (sleep and reported behaviour) separated by over a years worth of development. Correlation is not necessarily causation and all that jazz. Indeed, even the authors concede that their use of a "non-clinical sample" limits the applicability of their results to "the low severity end of the diagnostic spectrums."That being said, I do wonder if these findings invite quite a bit more investigation specifically when it comes to all those resources being put into the early detection of autism as exemplified in the recent paper by Sacrey and colleagues [2]. Sleep and autism is a research topic not unfamiliar to this blog (see here) and the idea that there may be small but measurable differences in sleep parameters in cases of already diagnosed autism. I'm not aware of too much in the way of experimental research reporting on early sleep patterns as being a 'risk' factor for autism outside of results such as those reported by Humphreys et al [3]. The idea that sleep issues might become more present as a child develops is a theme explored by Sivertsen et al [4] and the behavioural 'issue' link has also been mentioned by others [5].Finally, it is worth reiterating the focus on female autism spectrum behaviours reported by Saenz et al. As per other work by the authors [6] and findings supporting: "the hypothesis that early infancy may be another critical period for the development of gender-linked behavior" based on their examination of infancy salivary testosterone levels and toddler BITSEA ratings, there may be some important lessons to be learned. Sex differences in behavioural presentation when it comes to autism (see here) is a big talking point at the moment in light of discussions about how the gender ratios for diagnosis might be skewed by either a female autism phenotype or just plain old dogma about autism being a male-dominated label. Again, I've not come across much in the way of peer-reviewed research where sleep has been examined from the perspective of risk of autism or autism linked behaviours taking into account gender differences. Hence, another potential research project presents itself and perhaps even more intriguing: could 'alteration' of early sleep patterns offset the future risk of autism?Music: Kelis - Caught Out There.----------[1] Saenz J. et al. Sleep in infancy predicts gender specific social-emotional problems in toddlers. Front Pediatr. 2015 May 11;3:42.[2] Sacrey LA. et al. Can parents' concerns predict autism spectrum disorder? A prospective study of high-risk siblings from 6 to 36 months of age. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015 Jun;54(6):470-8.[3] Humphreys JS. et al. Sleep patterns in children with autistic spectrum disorders: a prospective cohort study. Arch Dis Child. 2014 Feb;99(2):114-8.[4] Sivertsen B. et al. Sleep problems in children with autism spectrum problems: a longitudinal population-based study. Autism. 2012 Mar;16(2):139-50.[5] Schwichtenberg AJ. et al. Behavior and sleep problems in children with a family history of autism. Autism Res. 2013 Jun;6(3):169-76.[6] Saenz J. & Alexander GM. Postnatal testosterone levels and disorder relevant behavior in the second year of life. Biol Psychol. 2013 Sep;94(1):152-9.----------Saenz J, Yaugher A, & Alexander GM (2015). Sleep in infancy predicts gender specific social-emotional problems in toddlers. Frontiers in pediatrics, 3 PMID: 26029685... Read more »

  • June 23, 2015
  • 02:50 PM
  • 126 views

Consciousness has less control than believed, according to new theory

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Consciousness — the internal dialogue that seems to govern one’s thoughts and actions — is far less powerful than people believe, serving as a passive conduit rather than an active force that exerts control, according to a new theory proposed by an SF State researcher.... Read more »

Morsella, E., Godwin, C., Jantz, T., Krieger, S., & Gazzaley, A. (2015) Homing in on Consciousness in the Nervous System: An Action-Based Synthesis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1-106. DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X15000643  

  • June 23, 2015
  • 12:43 PM
  • 92 views

The New Way to Track Animals Is Tagless

by Elizabeth Preston in Inkfish



There's good news for scientists who study animals that are too small to carry a GPS monitor, or that spit ID tags back out through their arms. A setup using an off-the-shelf camera can precisely capture an animal's path in three dimensions—without anyone touching the animal.

Emmanuel de Margerie, who studies animal behavior at the University of Rennes 1 in France, says there are several reasons to seek new animal-tracking technologies. To put a GPS or other kind of tag on an animal, you ... Read more »

de Margerie E, Simonneau M, Caudal JP, Houdelier C, & Lumineau S. (2015) 3D tracking of animals in the field, using rotational stereo videography. The Journal of experimental biology. PMID: 26056245  

  • June 23, 2015
  • 05:01 AM
  • 111 views

Toxoplasma seropositivity and pediatric cognitive functions

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

A brief post for you today as I keep a promise made in a previous entry to cover the paper by Angelico Mendy and colleagues [1] who concluded that: "Toxoplasma seropositivity may be associated with reading and memory impairments in school-aged children."Based on the analysis of over 1700 children/young adults aged 12-16 years old "who participated to the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey" researchers examined the possibility of a relationship between various psychometric test scores - "including math, reading, visuospatial reasoning and verbal memory" - and Toxoplasma seropositivity (that is, showing immunological evidence of either past or current infection by Toxoplasma gondii). Finding that approximately 7% of participants were seropositive for contact with the protozoan, researchers also highlighted a possible correlation between infection history and issues with both reading ability and memory capacity. This 'relationship' also appeared to be mediated by serum vitamin E levels in that: "Toxoplasma-associated memory impairment was worse in children with lower serum vitamin E concentrations." A good write-up of the study can be found here.As regular readers might know (and are probably pretty bored of hearing about) I'm really rather interested in T. gondii and in particular the growing tide of peer-reviewed research hinting at a possible link between this organism and [some] schizophrenia. Accepting there is still quite a bit more to do looking at the possibility of link between the gondii and schizophrenia - including answering important questions about whether childhood cat ownership might be a risk factor - I'd like to think that the Mendy results might have a further role to play. I'm specifically thinking about the idea that cognitive decline (if I can call it that) might be part and parcel of schizophrenia and even something that pre-dates the onset of symptoms [2]. I draw back from making too many speculations in this area bearing in mind correlation is not the same as causation and the requirement for replicative investigations but would be rather interested to see if Mendy et al will be producing any follow-up data of their participants with a view to say, the prevalence of schizophrenia as a function of T. gondii seropositivity and/or psychometric scores?Music: My Bloody Valentine - You Made Me Realise.----------[1] Mendy A. et al. Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity and cognitive functions in school-aged children. Parasitology. 2015 May 20:1-7.[2] Keefe RS. The longitudinal course of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia: an examination of data from premorbid through posttreatment phases of illness. J Clin Psychiatry. 2014;75 Suppl 2:8-13.----------Mendy A, Vieira ER, Albatineh AN, & Gasana J (2015). Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity and cognitive functions in school-aged children. Parasitology, 1-7 PMID: 25990628... Read more »

  • June 22, 2015
  • 05:09 PM
  • 90 views

Researchers find mechanisms that initiate labor

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have identified two proteins in a fetus’ lungs responsible for initiating the labor process, providing potential new targets for preventing preterm birth. Previous studies have suggested that signals from the fetus initiate the birth process, but the precise molecular mechanisms that lead to labor remained unclear.... Read more »

Gao, L., Rabbitt, E., Condon, J., Renthal, N., Johnston, J., Mitsche, M., Chambon, P., Xu, J., O’Malley, B., & Mendelson, C. (2015) Steroid receptor coactivators 1 and 2 mediate fetal-to-maternal signaling that initiates parturition. Journal of Clinical Investigation. DOI: 10.1172/JCI78544  

  • June 22, 2015
  • 04:06 PM
  • 120 views

Manning up: men may overcompensate when their masculinity is threatened

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

From the old Charles Atlas ads showing a scrawny male having sand kicked in his face to sitcom clichés of henpecked husbands, men have long faced pressure to live up to ideals of masculinity. Societal norms dictating that men should be masculine are powerful. And new research finds that men who believe they fall short of those ideals might be prompted to reassert their masculinity in small but significant ways.... Read more »

  • June 22, 2015
  • 09:37 AM
  • 79 views

Could combining drugs with different targets increase resistance?

by socgenmicro in Microbe Post

Bacterial and viral infections are often treated using multiple drugs at once. This is thought to have many advantages, including a lower risk of drug resistance. But according to a new study in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences … Continue reading →... Read more »

Moreno-Gamez, S., Hill, A., Rosenbloom, D., Petrov, D., Nowak, M., & Pennings, P. (2015) Imperfect drug penetration leads to spatial monotherapy and rapid evolution of multidrug resistance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(22). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1424184112  

  • June 22, 2015
  • 02:54 AM
  • 117 views

Office workers of the world stand up!

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

A quote to begin: "for those occupations which are predominantly desk based, workers should aim to initially progress towards accumulating 2 h/day of standing and light activity (light walking) during working hours, eventually progressing to a total accumulation of 4 h/day (prorated to part-time hours)."That was the recommendation made in the consensus statement published by John Buckley and colleagues [1] aiming to: "provide guidance for employers and staff working in office environments to combat the potential ills of long periods of seated office work."Co-commissioned by Public Health England, the body charged with protecting and improving the nation's health "and to address health inequalities" in England, the statement from Buckley et al has already garnered some significant press attention (see here for example). The move comes after quite a bit of peer-reviewed evidence has suggested that frequent and prolonged sitting is perhaps not the best activity for humankind (see here) and office workers chained to their desks from 9 to 5 might actually be a risk group for various adverse health outcomes as a result of their occupational inactivity.As well as championing the health benefits of walking (which is always a good thing on this blog) the authors are also suggesting that far greater use could be made of sit-stand desks [2] and the use of "standing-based work". I might add that there are various other ways and means that office inactivity has been tackled in the peer-reviewed literature [3] and innovation leads the way as per the smart chair.Appreciating the concerns of business about a possible reduction in productivity as a result of workers taking regular exercise breaks and the musings of others, I'm personally very happy to see the document from Buckley et al. If one assumes that this guidance builds on other occupational health advice such as smoking bans in public places including the workplace and other 'elf and safety laws, one can see how healthier workers in the long-term will be more productive workers as a function of less days lost to ill-health for example. That also aspects of psychological health may benefit too from a bout or two of regular workplace activity / exercise, and one gets the feeling that this might turn out to be something rather important. Indeed, Finland has taken a lead on this...Music: REM - Stand.----------[1] Buckley JP. et al. The sedentary office: a growing case for change towards better health and productivity. Expert statement commissioned by Public Health England and the Active Working Community Interest Company. Br J Sports Med. 2015. June 1.[2] Dutta N. et al. Using sit-stand workstations to decrease sedentary time in office workers: a randomized crossover trial. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014 Jun 25;11(7):6653-65.[3] Parry S. et al. Participatory workplace interventions can reduce sedentary time for office workers--a randomised controlled trial. PLoS One. 2013 Nov 12;8(11):e78957.----------John P Buckley, Alan Hedge, Thomas Yates, Robert J Copeland, Michael Loosemore, Mark Hamer, Gavin Bradley, & David W Dunstan (2015). The sedentary office: a growing case for change towards better health and productivity. Expert statement commissioned by Public Health England and the Active Working Community Interest Company British Journal of Sports Medicine : 10.1136/bjsports-2015-094618... Read more »

John P Buckley, Alan Hedge, Thomas Yates, Robert J Copeland, Michael Loosemore, Mark Hamer, Gavin Bradley, & David W Dunstan. (2015) The sedentary office: a growing case for change towards better health and productivity. Expert statement commissioned by Public Health England and the Active Working Community Interest Company. British Journal of Sports Medicine. info:/10.1136/bjsports-2015-094618

  • June 21, 2015
  • 03:31 PM
  • 103 views

Autism: The value of an integrated approach to diagnosis

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Researchers at Inserm (Inserm Unit 930 “Imaging and Brain”) attached to François-Rabelais University and Tours Regional University Hospital have combined three clinical, neurophysiological and genetic approaches in order to better understand the brain mechanisms that cause autism. When tested on two families, this strategy enabled the researchers to identify specific gene combinations in autistic patients that distinguished them from patients with intellectual disabilities.... Read more »

  • June 20, 2015
  • 02:47 PM
  • 125 views

Liar, Liar: Children with good memories are better liars

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Children who benefit from a good memory are much better at covering up lies, researchers from the University of Sheffield have discovered. Experts found a link between verbal memory and covering up lies following a study which investigated the role of working memory in verbal deception amongst children.... Read more »

  • June 19, 2015
  • 06:30 PM
  • 139 views

Fibonacci Numbers And Odd Lungs

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Most people think that because they have a pair of lungs, they must be symmetrical – but they’re far from it. The Fibonacci sequence has a lot to do with structural asymmetries in the lungs. On the other hand, some animals have only one lung, some have three lungs, and some have no lungs at all.... Read more »

Wilkinson M, Kok PJ, Ahmed F, & Gower DJ. (2014) Caecilita Wake . Zootaxa, 383-8. PMID: 24871732  

Bickford, D., Iskandar, D., & Barlian, A. (2008) A lungless frog discovered on Borneo. Current Biology, 18(9). DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2008.03.010  

Goldberger AL, West BJ, Dresselhaus T, & Bhargava V. (1985) Bronchial asymmetry and Fibonacci scaling. Experientia, 41(12), 1537-8. PMID: 4076397  

  • June 19, 2015
  • 04:00 PM
  • 123 views

Study links heartbeat to female libido

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Sexual dysfunction in women can be linked to low resting heart rate variability, a finding that could help clinicians treat the condition, according to a study by psychologists from The University of Texas at Austin.... Read more »

Stanton, A., Lorenz, T., Pulverman, C., & Meston, C. (2015) Heart Rate Variability: A Risk Factor for Female Sexual Dysfunction. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. DOI: 10.1007/s10484-015-9286-9  

  • June 19, 2015
  • 11:19 AM
  • 117 views

Starfish Ruin an Experiment and Reveal a Superpower

by Elizabeth Preston in Inkfish



Scientists already knew starfish have superpowers. They can regenerate entire lost limbs or organs; some can even regrow a whole body from one arm. And these animals have just revealed another bizarre ability. To two Danish students, it first appeared as the power to really wreck an experiment.

At the University of Southern Denmark, students Frederik Ekholm Gaardsted Christensen and Trine Bottos Olsen were asked to tag some starfish. The task was simple: inject the Asterias rubens with mi... Read more »

Olsen TB, Christensen FE, Lundgreen K, Dunn PH, & Levitis DA. (2015) Coelomic Transport and Clearance of Durable Foreign Bodies by Starfish (Asterias rubens). The Biological bulletin, 228(2), 156-62. PMID: 25920718  

  • June 19, 2015
  • 04:27 AM
  • 163 views

Autoimmune disease or anti-nuclear antibodies and non-coeliac wheat sensitivity

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Higher proportions of patients with NCWS [wheat sensitivity among people without celiac disease] or celiac disease develop autoimmune disorders, are ANA [anti-nuclear antibodies] positive, and showed DQ2/DQ8 haplotypes compared to patients with IBS [irritable bowel syndrome]."Those were the conclusions reached in the paper by Antonio Carroccio and colleagues [1] who sought to evaluate: "the prevalence of autoimmune diseases among patients with NCWS, and investigated whether they carry anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA)." Continuing a theme that the classic autoimmune condition known as coeliac (celiac) disease (CD) may be only one part of a 'issues with gluten' spectrum, researchers reviewed the files of over 100 participants diagnosed with NCWS (or even NCGS) "to identify those with autoimmune diseases" and compare rates with those diagnosed with CD and/or IBS. Further, serum samples were analysed prospectively for 42 participants diagnosed with NCWS and "ANA levels were measured by immunofluorescence analysis" again, compared with CD / IBS control data. ANA by the way, are antibodies against 'self' tissue and in particular, antibodies against the contents of the cell nucleus.Results. The rates of autoimmune disease in cases of NCWS were comparable with those reported in CD, hovering around the 20-30% frequency mark in each case. The frequency rates for autoimmune disease in the IBS group were quite a bit lower; between 2-4%.Testing positive for ANA was however a slightly different ballgame as per the findings that those with NCWS were quite a bit more likely to show ANA than either CD or IBS participants. Depending on which arm of the study was used (retrospective vs. prospective) researchers reported that: "serum samples tested positive for ANA in 46% of subjects with NCWS..., 24% of subjects with celiac disease..., and 2% of subjects IBS... ; in the prospective study, serum samples were positive for ANA in 28% of subjects with NCWS, 7.5% of subjects with celiac disease..., and 6% of subjects with IBS." They also noted a relationship between ANA positivity and the presence of DQ2/DQ8 haplotypes (part of the so-called genetics of CD).These are interesting results. Not only because of the overlap between autoimmune diseases and CD and NCWS (birds of an autoimmune feather flocking together and all that) but also that a higher burden of anti-nuclear antibody positivity might accompany NCWS in even greater frequency than CD. That Hashimoto's thyroiditis was the most common autoimmune condition identified is also an interesting prospect and ripe for further study in light of some research history in this area [2].Wearing my autism research hat, I might also forward the idea that the Carroccio data intersects with quite a few potentially important papers published with [some] autism in mind. So, NCGS as a feature of some autism... well, there have been some hints of this in the peer-reviewed research literature as per the 'not quite coeliac disease' paper (see here) and other commentaries (see here). What I will also say is that although there are some gaps in the research in this area including how one clinically defines NCGS, we can perhaps assume that autism is not protective against developing something like NCGS. ANA and autism... I can direct you to the paper by Mostafa and colleagues [3] covered in a previous post (see here) and how: "anti-ds-DNA antibodies and ANA were found in the sera of a subgroup of autistic children." It strikes me that further study of NCGS, autoimmune comorbidty and anti-nuclear antibodies in cases of autism is a way to resolve any correlation or not.Music: Oasis - Champagne Supernova.----------[1] Carroccio A. et al. High Proportions of People with Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity Have Autoimmune Disease or Anti-nuclear Antibodies. Gastroenterology. 2015 May 27. pii: S0016-5085(15)00767-2.[2] Hakanen M. et al. Clinical and subclinical autoimmune thyroid disease in adult celiac disease. Dig Dis Sci. 2001 Dec;46(12):2631-5.[3] Mostafa GA. et al. Systemic auto-antibodies in children with autism. J Neuroimmunology. 2014; 272: 94-98.----------Carroccio A, D'Alcamo A, Cavataio F, Soresi M, Seidita A, Sciumè C, Geraci G, Iacono G, & Mansueto P (2015). High Proportions of People with Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity Have Autoimmune Disease or Anti-nuclear Antibodies. Gastroenterology PMID: 26026392... Read more »

  • June 18, 2015
  • 01:22 PM
  • 154 views

Musicians don’t just hear in tune, they also see in tune

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Musicians don’t just hear in tune, they also see in tune. That is the conclusion of the latest scientific experiment designed to puzzle out how the brain creates an apparently seamless view of the external world based on the information it receives from the eyes.... Read more »

  • June 18, 2015
  • 12:59 PM
  • 145 views

Not-so-guilty pleasure: Viewing cat videos boosts energy and positive emotions

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

If you get a warm, fuzzy feeling after watching cute cat videos online, the effect may be more profound than you think. The Internet phenomenon of watching cat videos, from Lil Bub to Grumpy Cat, does more than simply entertain; it boosts viewers’ energy and positive emotions and decreases negative feelings, according to a new study by an Indiana University Media School researcher.... Read more »

  • June 18, 2015
  • 04:43 AM
  • 164 views

Atypical enterovirus encephalitis and 'autism-like' (again)

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"The autism spectrum disorder or autism-like clinical symptoms are extremely rare, but they may be a clear manifestations of enterovirus encephalitis."That was the finding reported in a poster by Akcakaya and colleagues [1] submitted as part of the 11th European Paediatric Neurology Society Congress 2015. In it, they detail a case report of an adolescent young woman "who developed behavioural changes and autistic features such as impairment of communication, mutism and lack of eye contact" following "chronic, atypical enterovirus encephalitis."Providing only a few details about the young lady concerned and her clinical experiences, the authors highlight how the diagnosis for enterovirus was confirmed by PCR although not providing information on the specific serotype. The authors do report how her clinical picture "gradually improved" during her hospital stay, helped along (I assume) by administration of "IVIg [intravenous immunoglobulin] treatment of 20 mg/kg." Further: "At discharge the patient was able to speak and communicate. Six months after discharge, her clinical status was improved."Although the authors do emphasise the rarity of the enterovirus encephalitis / autism-like clinical picture, I was interested in this work because it is not the first time that it has cropped up in the peer-reviewed research arena. Indeed on a previous post (see here) covering the findings reported by Filipa Marques and colleagues [2] I talked about 'autism secondary to enterovirus encephalitis' and how a complicated relationship might exist between some of the autisms (plural) and various infective agents. This on top of other 'associations'.At the same conference as the poster from Akcakaya et al I also came across the offering from Gadian and colleagues [3] discussing some of the current literature on the use of IVIg "in paediatric neurological and neurodevelopmental conditions." They reported "growing evidence" for the usefulness of IVIg for a few neurological conditions including various types of encephalitis. That being said: "well designed, prospective, multi-centre studies with standardized outcome measures are now required to evaluate the efficacy and cost effectiveness of this expensive and resource limited therapeutic agent."Combined these posters, which I hope will eventually see the full peer-reviewed paper treatment at some point, provide further evidence for the ideas that (a) there may be many roads potentially leading to autism or autistic-like behaviours and (b) 'treatment' might be an option for specific cases based on the use of something like IVIg assuming no religious exemptions [4]. I might add that other examples of encephalitis-linked onset to autism (see here) might similarly benefit from quite a bit more investigation in this area particularly when one considers the limited study of IVIg and [some] autism [5].Music: Regina Spektor - Us.----------[1] Akcakaya H. et al. P103 – 2340: Atypical enterovirus encephalitis causing behavioral changes and autism-like clinical manifestations: Case report. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology. 2015; 19: suppl. 1: S123.[2] Marques F. et al. Autism Spectrum Disorder Secondary to Enterovirus Encephalitis. J Child Neurology. 2014; 29: 708-714.[3] Gadian J. et al. PP13.7 – 2337: Atypical enterovirus encephalitis causing behavioral changes and autism-like clinical manifestations: Case report. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology. 2015; 19: suppl. 1: S84.[4] Cleland N. et al. A 16-year-old girl with anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis and family history of psychotic disorders. Acta Neuropsychiatr. 2015 Jun 1:1-5.[5] Plioplys AV. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment of children with autism. J Child Neurol. 1998 Feb;13(2):79-82.----------Akcakaya, H., Tekturk, P., Tur, E., Eraksoy, M., & Yapici, Z. (2015). P103 – 2340: Atypical enterovirus encephalitis causing behavioral changes and autism-like clinical manifestations: Case report European Journal of Paediatric Neurology, 19 DOI: 10.1016/S1090-3798(15)30416-5... Read more »

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