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  • August 15, 2014
  • 04:07 AM
  • 81 views

Psychotic experience following childhood neurodevelopmental diagnosis

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

The paper by Golam Khandaker and colleagues [1] suggesting a higher risk of psychotic episodes (PEs) in early adolescence among those with a diagnosed childhood neurodevelopmental disorder (ND) makes for some interesting reading. Detailing several diagnoses as falling under the banner of neurodevelopmental disorder (autism spectrum, dyslexia, dyspraxia, dysgraphia, dysorthographia, dyscalculia), researchers concluded that: "The risk of PEs was higher in those with, compared with those without, NDs". IQ also seemed to show some connection to risk.The Flower Seller @ Wikipedia A few further details:Based on a cohort of over 8000 children, researchers reported that approximately 6% (487) were "reported to have NDs at age 9 years". By 'reported' they meant that parent's reported these via a questionnaire.PEs "were assessed by semi-structured interviews at age 13 years". IQ and a specific focus on working memory "were measured between ages 9 and 11 years".The authors suggested that the elevated risk of PEs accompanying a diagnosis of ND "is consistent with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia".With specific focus on autism as one of the NDs mentioned in the Khandaker study, I was taken back to some interesting work looking at both the overlap between the autism and schizophrenia spectrums (see here) and the initial data talking about Asperger syndrome and first-episode psychosis (see here). Both these areas of work seem to tie into the neurodevelopmental hypothesis talked about by authors, accepting that I am not trying to promote any reunification of the conditions nor making any sweeping generalisations.I might also bring to your attention another piece of work by Khandaker and colleagues [2] which has been covered on this blog talking about the risk of psychotic episodes in cases of atopic disease such as asthma and eczema. Alongside other work by this group [3] talking about "Early-life exposure to EBV [Epstein-Barr virus]" and prenatal exposure to "a range of infections and inflammatory responses" [4] the emphasis is on how various somatic processes might be involved in bringing someone to a PE, particularly with the immune system as a potentially important player. Perhaps more evidence for a role for inflammation in psychiatry and possibly with overlapping issues [5]. As I've said before on this blog, autism and inflammation is a bit of a growth area in research terms.I'd like to think that the latest Khandaker findings might be further investigated with a view to looking at both potential mechanism(s) involved in that neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia [6] (including genetic and non-genetic factors [7]) and also how prevalent the range of factors the authors have previously identified as being linked to PEs are in conditions such as autism and dyslexia for example. The additional question of whether targeting something like the immune system during 'inflammatory' phases might offset the risk of PEs is a tantalising one.And speaking of Khandaker, I'm minded to talk soon about even more recent findings from this group [8] on inflammation and psychiatry...Music then to close. The late Amy Winehouse and Back to Black.----------[1] Khandaker GM. et al. A population-based longitudinal study of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, IQ and subsequent risk of psychotic experiences in adolescence. Psychol Med. 2014 Apr 25:1-10.[2] Khandaker GM. et al. A population-based study of atopic disorders and inflammatory markers in childhood before psychotic experiences in adolescence. Schizophr Res. 2014 Jan;152(1):139-45.[3] Khandaker GM. et al. Childhood Epstein-Barr Virus infection and subsequent risk of psychotic experiences in adolescence: A population-based prospective serological study. Schizophr Res. 2014 Jul 18. pii: S0920-9964(14)00251-5.[4] Khandaker GM. et al. Prenatal maternal infection, neurodevelopment and adult schizophrenia: a systematic review of population-based studies. Psychol Med. 2013 Feb;43(2):239-57.[5] Meyer U. et al. Schizophrenia and Autism: Both Shared and Disorder-Specific Pathogenesis Via Perinatal Inflammation? Pediatric Res. 2011; 69: 26R-33R.[6] Owen MJ. et al. Neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry. 2011 Mar;198(3):173-5.[7] Zavos HMS. et al. Consistent Etiology of Severe, Frequent Psychotic Experiences and Milder, Less Frequent Manifestations. JAMA Psychiatry. 2014. 30 July.[8] Khandaker GM. et al. Association of Serum Interleukin 6 and C-Reactive Protein in Childhood With Depression and Psychosis in Young Adult Life. JAMA Psychiatry. 2014. August 13.----------Khandaker GM, Stochl J, Zammit S, Lewis G, & Jones PB (2014). A population-based longitudinal study of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, IQ and subsequent risk of psychotic experiences in adolescence. Psychological medicine, 1-10 PMID: 25066026... Read more »

  • August 15, 2014
  • 02:00 AM
  • 6 views

Guidelines for HLRCC kidney cancer risk, surveillance and treatment published

by Lizzie Perdeaux in BHD Research Blog

Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is a rare kidney cancer susceptibility syndrome caused by autosomal dominant mutations in the FH gene. The three main symptoms of HLRCC are red skin papules called cutaneous piloleiomyomas; multiple early-onset uterine leiomyomas; … Continue reading →... Read more »

  • August 14, 2014
  • 03:54 PM
  • 74 views

August 14, 2014

by Erin Campbell in HighMag Blog

Astrocytes used to be the red-headed stepchild of the neurology world, but no more! Once considered to be just filler material, astrocytes are now known to function in the development and function of synapses, though the mechanisms are unclear. Today’s stunning image is from a paper showing how astrocytes can stabilize synapses, possibly serving as an important component of learning and memory. The synapses of neurons in the central nervous system are dynamic in response to learning and memory. The synapses are enveloped by perisynaptic astrocytic processes (PAPs), which are intricate processes of astrocytes. This close association of PAPs with synapses suggests an important role for astrocytes in synaptic development, transmission, and plasticity—the focus of a recent paper by Bernardinelli and colleagues. In this study, time-lapse imaging of brain slices revealed that long-term potentiation increased PAP motility and astrocyte coverage of the synapse. In vivo imaging of the somatosensory cortex of adult mice after whisker stimulation showed an increase in PAP motility, and later dendritic spine stability. From these results, Bernardinelli and colleagues identify a novel bidirectional interaction between PAPs and synapses, in which synaptic activity regulates PAP plasticity, which in turn regulates PAP coverage of synapses and long-term spine survival. The image above shows CA1 neurons (green) and stratum radiatum astroctyes (red) in mouse hippocampal tissue. Bernardinelli, Y., Randall, J., Janett, E., Nikonenko, I., König, S., Jones, E., Flores, C., Murai, K., Bochet, C., Holtmaat, A., & Muller, D. (2014). Activity-Dependent Structural Plasticity of Perisynaptic Astrocytic Domains Promotes Excitatory Synapse Stability Current Biology, 24 (15), 1679-1688 DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.06.025Copyright ©2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. ... Read more »

Bernardinelli, Y., Randall, J., Janett, E., Nikonenko, I., König, S., Jones, E., Flores, C., Murai, K., Bochet, C., Holtmaat, A.... (2014) Activity-Dependent Structural Plasticity of Perisynaptic Astrocytic Domains Promotes Excitatory Synapse Stability. Current Biology, 24(15), 1679-1688. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.06.025  

  • August 14, 2014
  • 03:35 PM
  • 109 views

Bringing the Fight to hidden HIV

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

We’ve got even more news for the HIV cure front. Yesterday we talked about broadly neutralizing antibodies, today we are going to be touching on that yet again,so if you […]... Read more »

Ariel Halper-Stromberg, Ching-Lan Lu, Florian Klein, Joshua A. Horwitz, Stylianos Bournazos, Lilian Nogueira, Thomas R. Eisenreich, Cassie Liu, Anna Gazumyan, Uwe Schaefer, Rebecca C. Furze, Michael S. Seaman.... (2014) Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies and Viral Inducers Decrease Rebound from HIV-1 Latent Reservoirs in Humanized Mice. Cell. info:/10.1016/j.cell.2014.07.043

  • August 14, 2014
  • 02:00 PM
  • 115 views

Dying To Make Us Laugh

by Mark E. Lasbury in The 'Scope

Robin William’s suicide was a tragic, but all too familiar happening amongst humorists of this period. New research is showing that comedians, performers in the arts, and even people with better senses of humor are prone to more health problems as adults. Depression , cardiovascular, pulmonary and stress related problem are not uncommon in comedians, and even children and adults that have better sense of humor are susceptible to obesity and cardiovascular disease.

The irony is that this occurs in the very people that are helping our health by making us laugh. Several recent studies and reviews indicate that mirthful laughter has health benefits, from increased immune function to improving vascular wall stiffness. Reduced cortisol and increased endorphin release improve both our mental and physical health, although no studies have directly linked laughing to increased longevity.
... Read more »

C.R. Epstein, R.J. Epstein. (2013) Death in The New York Times: the price of fame is a faster flame . QJM: monthly journal of the Association of Physicians, 106(6), 517-521. info:/

Greengross G. (2013) Humor and aging - a mini-review. Gerontology, 59(5), 448-53. PMID: 23689078  

Bennett MP, & Lengacher C. (2009) Humor and Laughter May Influence Health IV. Humor and Immune Function. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM, 6(2), 159-64. PMID: 18955287  

  • August 14, 2014
  • 01:55 PM
  • 83 views

Getting High On Life

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Living organisms can survive and thrive in all kinds of rough environments. This would include the edges of space. There are bird species that can fly at almost 40,000 ft., as high as the highest clouds. New research is showing just how the bar headed goose is able to fly when the air is thin and the oxygen is scarce. But more impressive are the bacteria. They can actually live their whole lives in the air, dividing and growing nearly 25 miles (41 km) above the surface of the Earth. A study from India has now presented a draft genome for Janibacter hoylei, an organism found only in extremely high air. A 2009 paper presented evidence of two additional bacteria that have not been identified on Earth, only above it. These organisms could provide clues for astrobiologists looking to see how life might travel from planet to planet.... Read more »

Pawar SP, Dhotre DP, Shetty SA, Chowdhury SP, Chaudhari BL, & Shouche YS. (2012) Genome sequence of Janibacter hoylei MTCC8307, isolated from the stratospheric air. Journal of bacteriology, 194(23), 6629-30. PMID: 23144385  

Hawkes LA, Balachandran S, Batbayar N, Butler PJ, Chua B, Douglas DC, Frappell PB, Hou Y, Milsom WK, Newman SH.... (2013) The paradox of extreme high-altitude migration in bar-headed geese Anser indicus. Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society, 280(1750), 20122114. PMID: 23118436  

  • August 14, 2014
  • 12:20 PM
  • 72 views

Video Tip of the Week: EpiViz Genome Browsing (and more)

by Mary in OpenHelix

This is the browser I’ve been waiting for. Stop what you are doing right now and look at EpiViz. I’ll wait.

I spend a lot of time looking at visualizations of various types of -omics data, from a number of different sources. I’ve never believed in the “one browser to rule them all” sort of thing–I think it’s important for groups to focus on special areas of data collection, curation, and visualizion. Although some parts can be reused and shared, of course, some stuff just should be viewed win certain species or strategies that don’t always end up nicely in a “track” of data that you can slap on some browser.... Read more »

Chelaru Florin, Smith Llewellyn, Goldstein Naomi, & Bravo Héctor Corrada. (2014) Epiviz: interactive visual analytics for functional genomics data. Nature methods. PMID: 25086505  

  • August 14, 2014
  • 12:10 PM
  • 86 views

HIV Vaccine One Step Closer to Reality

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

The war on HIV, that tricky little guy has avoided every thing we could throw at it in a broad sense. Sure a few people here and there get lucky, but we have yet to actually make any sort of we're going to kick your ass headway [don't worry it's the technical term for it]. That is hopefully going to change with a new scientific discovery that has enormous implications for HIV vaccine development. Researchers have uncovered novel properties of special HIV antibodies that promise to help eliminate HIV.[...]... Read more »

  • August 14, 2014
  • 09:30 AM
  • 74 views

Competition for ecological niches limits evolution of new species | @GrrlScientist

by GrrlScientist in GrrlScientist

A recently published study finds that competition for ecological niches limits the evolution of new species. Further, this study finds that speciation rate slows or even stops as available ecological niches fill up. Continue reading...... Read more »

Price Trevor D., Hooper Daniel M., Buchanan Caitlyn D., Johansson Ulf S., Tietze D. Thomas, Alström Per, Olsson Urban, Ghosh-Harihar Mousumi, Ishtiaq Farah, & Gupta Sandeep K. (2014) Niche filling slows the diversification of Himalayan songbirds. Nature. DOI: 10.1038/nature13272  

Kennedy Jonathan D., Weir Jason T., Hooper Daniel M. , Tietze D. Thomas, Martens Jochen, & Price Trevor D. (2012) Ecological limits on diversification of the Himalayan core Corvoidea. Evolution, 66(8), 2599-2613. DOI: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2012.01618.x  

Harmon Luke J., Schulte James A., Larson Allan, & Losos Jonathan B. (2003) Tempo and Mode of Evolutionary Radiation in Iguanian Lizards. Science, 301(5635), 961-964. DOI: 10.1126/science.1084786  

  • August 14, 2014
  • 04:09 AM
  • 83 views

Learning disability in autism: how prevalent is it?

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Results showed that 36.8 % of the children met the criteria for ID [intellectual disability], with 60.2 % of these in the mild range (IQ 50-69) and 39.8 % in the moderate range (IQ 35-49)".That was the finding reported by Mélina Rivard and colleagues [1] looking at the co-occurrence of intellectual disability (also called learning disability here in Blighty) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) "in young children". Based on an analysis of over 200 children diagnosed with an ASD, researchers recorded various details before participants entry into an "early behavioral intervention program" including those relating to IQ and adaptive behaviours. Most of those children falling into the category of ID were in the 'mild' range (IQ 50-69) as opposed to the moderate range (IQ 35-49).Roses @ Wikipedia This is an important paper insofar as presenting some further details about how widespread ID is in cases of autism. Indeed, a figure hovering somewhere around 30-40% of all cases of autism (accepting the issue of variations in subtypes on the autism spectrum) presenting with ID is pretty much what many people have discussed on the basis of other research in this area [2]. That being said, the recent CDC prevalence estimates (yes, estimates) of autism (see here) kinda hinted that the rates of ID in autism might be on the move as per their reporting: "31% of children with ASD were classified as having IQ scores in the range of intellectual disability (IQ ≤70)" [3]. We'll have to wait and see how this goes alongside the introduction of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria (see here).Having reliable data on the rate of ID in autism also goes beyond just knowing how many people fall into that category. When present alongside each other, one might assume that there may be shared factors at work in terms of aetiology as for example, discussed by Srivastava & Schwartz [4]. I've talked a few times on this blog about another triad of symptoms (autism, epilepsy & learning disability) appearing in some quite rare genetic conditions (see here) which provides some interesting details about possible onset and indeed intervention.That there may also be a greater risk of autism and ID in specific populations is another detail to bear in mind. Take for example the 2013 report on autism in the Somali population in Minneapolis (see here) and the finding: "Somali children with ASD were more likely to also have an intellectual disability than children with ASD in all other racial and ethnic groups in Minneapolis". I say this acknowledging that inferring causation from such epidemiology is not necessarily going to be straight forward.Perhaps also important is mention of the impact that comorbid ID can have on various other outcomes with autism in mind. Yes, we know that this probably means a greater requirement for service provision (see here) and inevitably this will have an economic cost attached to it (see here). But then there are issues like self-injurious behaviour (see here) and the topic no-one really likes to talk about, early mortality (see here) which might also be differentially affected by the presence of ID, or at least some behaviours which might place someone at greater risk of danger (see here). I personally see these as some of the more important effects of ID on autism.Eliza Doolittle to finish, and Pack Up.----------[1] Rivard M. et al. Indicators of Intellectual Disabilities in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2014 Jul 29.[2] Chakrabarti S. & Fombonne E. Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children: confirmation of high prevalence. Am J Psychiatry. 2005 Jun;162(6):1133-41.[3] Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network Surveillance Year 2010 Principal Investigators. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years - autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2010. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2014 Mar 28;63(2):1-21.[4] Srivastava AK. & Schwartz CE. Intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders: Causal genes and molecular mechanisms. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2014 Apr 4. pii: S0149-7634(14)00077-3.----------Rivard M, Terroux A, Mercier C, & Parent-Boursier C (2014). Indicators of Intellectual Disabilities in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of autism and developmental disorders PMID: 25070470... Read more »

  • August 13, 2014
  • 06:48 PM
  • 62 views

Coronavirus and Coxsackievirus B3: p62/SQSTM1and EDEM1

by thelonevirologist in Virology Tidbits

The cleavage of p62/SQSTM1 and NBR1 by the Coxsackievirus B3 proteases 2Apro and 3Cpro respectively raises the question if other viruses, in particular positive strand RNA viruses, also target p62/SQSTM1 and inhibit selective autophagy. Furthermore as outlined before the inactivation of p62/SQSTM1 raises the possibility that the subsequent ER stress may favour the formation of EDEMosomes via increased expression of EDEM1 and other components of the ERAD pathway, notably EDEM-2/-3 and OS-9, in addition to preventing the formation of mature lysosome and thus the degradation of viral components. The potential role of p62/SQSTM1 in Coronavirus and Coxsackievirus B3 infected in relation to the maturation of autophagosomes is discussed.... Read more »

Cottam EM, Whelband MC, & Wileman T. (2014) Coronavirus NSP6 restricts autophagosome expansion. Autophagy, 10(8), 1426-41. PMID: 24991833  

Le Fourn V, Park S, Jang I, Gaplovska-Kysela K, Guhl B, Lee Y, Cho JW, Zuber C, & Roth J. (2013) Large protein complexes retained in the ER are dislocated by non-COPII vesicles and degraded by selective autophagy. Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS, 70(11), 1985-2002. PMID: 23338832  

  • August 13, 2014
  • 08:00 AM
  • 81 views

Getting High On Life

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Living organisms can survive and thrive in all kinds of rough environments. This would include the edges of space. There are bird species that can fly at almost 40,000 ft., as high as the highest clouds. New research is showing just how the bar headed goose is able to fly when the air is thin and the oxygen is scarce. But more impressive are the bacteria. They can actually live their whole lives in the air, dividing and growing nearly 25 miles (41 km) above the surface of the Earth. A study from India has now presented a draft genome for Janibacter hoylei, an organism found only in extremely high air. A 2009 paper presented evidence of two additional bacteria that have not been identified on Earth, only above it. These organisms could provide clues for astrobiologists looking to see how life might travel from planet to planet.... Read more »

Pawar SP, Dhotre DP, Shetty SA, Chowdhury SP, Chaudhari BL, & Shouche YS. (2012) Genome sequence of Janibacter hoylei MTCC8307, isolated from the stratospheric air. Journal of bacteriology, 194(23), 6629-30. PMID: 23144385  

Hawkes LA, Balachandran S, Batbayar N, Butler PJ, Chua B, Douglas DC, Frappell PB, Hou Y, Milsom WK, Newman SH.... (2013) The paradox of extreme high-altitude migration in bar-headed geese Anser indicus. Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society, 280(1750), 20122114. PMID: 23118436  

  • August 13, 2014
  • 04:11 AM
  • 63 views

Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) survivors and greater risk of autism?

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"In term NICU [neonatal intensive care unit] survivors, ASD [autism spectrum disorder] occurs with a greater frequency than in the general population and often develops alongside comorbid conditions". That was the conclusion from the study by Alexander Winkler-Schwartz and colleagues [1] looking at term at-risk infants who survived NICU."You were only meant to blow the bloody doors off"'Surviving' their earliest days spent in NICU brings a bit of lump to my throat. As a parent, I can only imagine how worrying and daunting a prospect it must be to watch your child, your baby, spending what is meant to be the very happiest of occasions housed in an incubator with every aspect of their being monitored and controlled. I appreciate that with the technology and medical advances available these days, the prospects for many infants 'surviving' NICU are pretty good compared to even a few decades ago. But still, I imagine it can be an overwhelming prospect.The Winkler-Schwartz paper reported that out of 180 infants analysed as part of their study, 12 of them (6%) were later diagnosed with an ASD. This compared with ~40% diagnosed with global developmental delay and between 25-30% diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP) and epilepsy. The authors also noted that: "Nine patients with ASD (75%) were diagnosed with at least one other adverse outcome", a point which ties in with their comorbidity finding.At least one of the authors on the Winkler-Schwartz paper has some interest in looking at the cognitive-behavioural profile of neonates under adverse conditions. A quick trawl of the peer-reviewed literature base confirms that Michael Shevell has some research form specifically focused in areas such as neurodevelopment associated with congenital heart defects for example [2]. The word 'autism' has also been discussed in some of his previous research investigations too [3].Aside from the primary conclusion included in the Winkler-Schwartz paper on NICU survivors and autism risk, the other important message is on how comorbidities might fit in with the presentation of autism. Autism and epilepsy has been an oft-discussed topic on this blog so I don't really need to say much more there. CP and autism is something of increasing interest (see here) particularly so when taking into account the findings from Christensen and colleagues [4] seemingly suggesting different autism risk profiles according to different types of CP.I close with another quote from the Winkler-Schwartz paper on: "the importance of screening term NICU survivors for ASD, particularly when comorbidities are present". Yes another group where screening for autism might be preferentially indicated...----------[1] Winkler-Schwartz A. et al. Autism spectrum disorder in a term birth neonatal intensive care unit population. Pediatric Neurology. 2014. July 16.[2] Limperopoulos C. et al. Neurologic status of newborns with congenital heart defects before open heart surgery. Pediatrics. 1999 Feb;103(2):402-8.[3] Webster RI. et al. The clinical spectrum of developmental language impairment in school-aged children: language, cognitive, and motor findings. Pediatrics. 2006 Nov;118(5):e1541-9.[4] Christensen D. et al. Prevalence of cerebral palsy, co-occurring autism spectrum disorders, and motor functioning - Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, USA, 2008. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2014 Jan;56(1):59-65.----------Winkler-Schwartz, A., Garfinkle, J., & Shevell, M. (2014). Autism spectrum disorder in a term birth neonatal intensive care unit population Pediatric Neurology DOI: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2014.07.009... Read more »

  • August 12, 2014
  • 05:15 PM
  • 66 views

Coxsackievirus B3: autophagy, p62, ER stress, and apoptosis

by thelonevirologist in Virology Tidbits

The induction of autophagy by cells infected with viruses can play an important strategy to prevent viral replication - or alternatively, can be subverted by viral proteins to allow the formation of viral particles as it is the case for many positive strand RNA viruses and discussed previously for Corona- and Arteriviruses. Enteroviruses are no different, and indeed the modulation of autophagy by Poliovirus has been studied extensively. Recent data suggest that the viral proteases cleave the cellular p62/SQSTM1 and NBR1 proteins and the impact of this discovery for Coxsackievirus B3 replication are discussed.... Read more »

Wong J, Zhang J, Si X, Gao G, Mao I, McManus BM, & Luo H. (2008) Autophagosome supports coxsackievirus B3 replication in host cells. Journal of virology, 82(18), 9143-53. PMID: 18596087  

Robinson SM, Tsueng G, Sin J, Mangale V, Rahawi S, McIntyre LL, Williams W, Kha N, Cruz C, Hancock BM.... (2014) Coxsackievirus B exits the host cell in shed microvesicles displaying autophagosomal markers. PLoS pathogens, 10(4). PMID: 24722773  

Pankiv S, Clausen TH, Lamark T, Brech A, Bruun JA, Outzen H, Øvervatn A, Bjørkøy G, & Johansen T. (2007) p62/SQSTM1 binds directly to Atg8/LC3 to facilitate degradation of ubiquitinated protein aggregates by autophagy. The Journal of biological chemistry, 282(33), 24131-45. PMID: 17580304  

Kirkin V, Lamark T, Sou YS, Bjørkøy G, Nunn JL, Bruun JA, Shvets E, McEwan DG, Clausen TH, Wild P.... (2009) A role for NBR1 in autophagosomal degradation of ubiquitinated substrates. Molecular cell, 33(4), 505-16. PMID: 19250911  

Moscat J, Diaz-Meco MT, Albert A, & Campuzano S. (2006) Cell signaling and function organized by PB1 domain interactions. Molecular cell, 23(5), 631-40. PMID: 16949360  

Saura, M., Lizarbe, T., Rama-Pacheco, C., Lowenstein, C., & Zaragoza, C. (2007) Inhibitor of NFκB Alpha is a Host Sensor of Coxsackievirus Infection. Cell Cycle, 6(5), 503-506. DOI: 10.4161/cc.6.5.3918  

Durán A, Serrano M, Leitges M, Flores JM, Picard S, Brown JP, Moscat J, & Diaz-Meco MT. (2004) The atypical PKC-interacting protein p62 is an important mediator of RANK-activated osteoclastogenesis. Developmental cell, 6(2), 303-9. PMID: 14960283  

Komatsu M, Kageyama S, & Ichimura Y. (2012) p62/SQSTM1/A170: physiology and pathology. Pharmacological research : the official journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society, 66(6), 457-62. PMID: 22841931  

Amitava Mukherjee,, Stefanie A. Morosky,, Elizabeth Delorme-Axford,, Naomi Dybdahl-Sissoko,, M. Steven Oberste,, Tianyi Wang,, & Carolyn B. Coyne. (2011) The Coxsackievirus B 3Cpro Protease Cleaves MAVS and TRIF to Attenuate Host Type I Interferon and Apoptotic Signaling. PLOS pathogens. info:/

Duran A, Amanchy R, Linares JF, Joshi J, Abu-Baker S, Porollo A, Hansen M, Moscat J, & Diaz-Meco MT. (2011) p62 is a key regulator of nutrient sensing in the mTORC1 pathway. Molecular cell, 44(1), 134-46. PMID: 21981924  

Xi X, Zhang X, Wang B, Wang T, Wang J, Huang H, Wang J, Jin Q, & Zhao Z. (2013) The interplays between autophagy and apoptosis induced by enterovirus 71. PloS one, 8(2). PMID: 23437282  

  • August 12, 2014
  • 02:07 PM
  • 78 views

Treatment and Prevention of PTSD

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

It’s no secret for anyone who follows me that I am a Marine veteran. It’s also no secret for anyone who follows me that I’ve had my own ups and downs in life because of my experiences. PTSD is a nightmare, one that you can’t quite shake no matter how hard you try. Then again, not everyone reacts the same way to the trauma that typically causes PTSD, not everyone walks away from war with it. The big question that scientists set out to answer was, why? And now they might just have an answer.[…]... Read more »

Nikolaos P. Daskalakis, Hagit Cohen, Guiqing Caia, Joseph D. Buxbaum, & Rachel Yehuda. (2014) Expression profiling associates blood and brain glucocorticoid receptor signaling with trauma-related individual differences in both sexes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(32). info:/10.1073/pnas.1401660111

  • August 12, 2014
  • 10:47 AM
  • 59 views

Even Kindergarteners Can Rate Their Own Confidence

by Elizabeth Preston in Inkfish

Do you remember on Who Wants to Be a Millionaire—apparently this show is still on, but I’ll assume no one else has seen it this decade—how after contestants picked an answer, Regis Philbin sometimes asked, “How sure are you?” They’d pull a number seemingly out of the air: “Oh, eighty-five percent.” This trick of estimating our […]The post Even Kindergarteners Can Rate Their Own Confidence appeared first on Inkfish.... Read more »

  • August 12, 2014
  • 04:04 AM
  • 61 views

Neonatal jaundice and increased risk of ADHD

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

The findings from Chang-Ching Wei and colleagues [1] suggesting an over-representation of the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) following a history of neonatal jaundice provides fodder for today's brief post. Based in Taiwan, one of the most impressive countries when it comes to the use and analysis of 'big data' (see here), researchers were able to identify some 25,000 participants diagnosed with neonatal jaundice and compare them with almost 70,000 non-jaundiced controls to calculate: "the incidence rate and hazard ratios (HRs) of physician-diagnosed ADHD"."Imperial troops have entered the base"They observed that the "incidence of ADHD was 2.48-fold greater in the jaundice cohort than in the nonjaundice cohort (3.84 vs. 1.51 per 100,000 person-years) in the study period" between 2000 and 2008. Several other variables also seemed to affect the HR of ADHD including being male, being born preterm and being a low birth weight infant. To my mind, finding such variables already potentially connected to a heightened risk for a diagnosis of ADHD [2] strengthens the Wei results when it comes to jaundice potentially also being a risk factor. The authors conclude: "A risk alert regarding neurologic consequences is urgently required after a neonatal jaundice diagnosis" bearing in mind the need for further research on the potential mechanisms at work in this proposed relationship.I'm becoming pretty interested in the cognitive and developmental outcomes associated with cases of neonatal jaundice. As per previous posts on this blog on jaundice and autism (see here and more recently here), there are definitely grounds for quite a bit more investigation in this area. The overlap between something like ADHD with autism (at least some of the autisms) also begs the question whether there may be some tie up between the various diagnoses and something like neonatal jaundice. It certainly wouldn't be the first time that ADHD and autism have been mentioned with the same risk factors in mind as for example, with the increasingly interesting area of asthma and childhood neurodevelopmental issues (see here and see here)...Music to finish. I assume most people have heard the very sad news about actor and comedian Robin Williams this morning. Just the other day I was introducing my brood to Mork and Mindy... RIP.----------[1] Wei CC. et al. Neonatal jaundice and increased risk of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a population-based cohort study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2014 Jul 24.[2] Chu SM. et al. The relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and premature infants in Taiwanese: a case control study. BMC Psychiatry. 2012 Jul 23;12:85.----------Wei CC, Chang CH, Lin CL, Chang SN, Li TC, & Kao CH (2014). Neonatal jaundice and increased risk of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a population-based cohort study. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines PMID: 25056274... Read more »

  • August 11, 2014
  • 01:30 PM
  • 127 views

New Hope for Autoimmune Diseases

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

Autoimmune diseases are on the rise. Since I have a history of over sharing, my Uncle suffered from a form of lupus. It caused him intense and — in my opinion — unbearable pain although he shouldered it like the incredible man he was and never complained. My sister unfortunately is suffering from a rare disease that has yet to be diagnosed, which in my opinion has autoimmune dysfunction as the root cause. If you or anyone you know suffers in a similar fashion then you know that the treatments for such things are, expensive, moderately effective at best, and are overall inadequate.[…]... Read more »

Chhabra S, Chang SC, Nguyen HM, Huq R, Tanner MR, Londono LM, Estrada R, Dhawan V, Chauhan S, Upadhyay SK.... (2014) Kv1.3 channel-blocking immunomodulatory peptides from parasitic worms: implications for autoimmune diseases. FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. PMID: 24891519  

  • August 11, 2014
  • 12:00 PM
  • 25 views

IT’S NEVER LUPUS? THINK AGAIN…

by Robb Hollis in Antisense Science

Those of you familiar with a certain misanthropic maverick MD will no doubt be familiar with the phrase “it’s never lupus”. Unfortunately, in the real world, it IS sometimes lupus – but what is lupus and how does it arise?
... Read more »

  • August 11, 2014
  • 10:42 AM
  • 84 views

Attraction in the World of Bats

by Denise O'Meara in Denise O'Meara

We spend much of our lives attempting to figure out the opposite sex in the hopes that it will lead to increased opportunities to attract a mate. But even when in a relationship, looking back to see how it all kicked off can still leave you scratching your head for answers. Understanding attraction and the rules (or lack of them) that govern it are complicated, but there is no shortage of purported help out there to be found in books, cinema and online. Midst the cloud of confusion, we sometimes forget that attraction is not unique to humans, but our instincts to attract a mate are seen throughout the animal kingdom, and scientists have recently figured out how one species of male bat is standing or flying out from the crowd.... Read more »

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