A very quick post today to direct you to the paper by Amy Hewitt and colleagues  who seem to have finally published their findings on autism prevalence in the Somali population in Minneapolis in the peer-reviewed domain. I had previously covered their report on this blog (see here) and the suggestion that: "Somali (1 in 32) and White (1 in 36) children were about equally likely to be identified with ASD [autism spectrum disorder], but more likely to be identified with ASD than Black and Hispanic children."The additional point made by the authors that: "Somali children with ASD were significantly more likely to have an intellectual disability than children with ASD in all other racial and ethnic groups" is also worth reiterating in light of similar reports from other parts of the globe . Again, I can't readily provide a definitive reason for this particular observation but one might entertain suggestions that either the Somali 'genetic' blueprint might be more prone to this 'type' of autism presentation or that environmental issues could somehow play a role (e.g. vitamin D). And on the specific topic of vitamin D, I'll direct you to the paper by Fernell and colleagues . By saying this, I don't doubt that such elevated risk of autism + learning disability is likely to be complicated; it does however offer autism research something of an important phenotype to focus any further investigations on in these days of plural autisms.---------- Hewitt A. et al. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Prevalence in Somali and Non-Somali Children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2016. April 22. Barnevik-Olsson M. et al. Prevalence of autism in children born to Somali parents living in Sweden: a brief report. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2008 Aug;50(8):598-601. Fernell E. et al. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in mothers of Swedish and of Somali origin who have children with and without autism. Acta Paediatr. 2010 May;99(5):743-7.----------Hewitt, A., Hall-Lande, J., Hamre, K., Esler, A., Punyko, J., Reichle, J., & Gulaid, A. (2016). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Prevalence in Somali and Non-Somali Children Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders DOI: 10.1007/s10803-016-2793-6... Read more »
Hewitt, A., Hall-Lande, J., Hamre, K., Esler, A., Punyko, J., Reichle, J., & Gulaid, A. (2016) Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Prevalence in Somali and Non-Somali Children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. DOI: 10.1007/s10803-016-2793-6
"The results of this trial indicate that NAC [N-acetylcysteine] treatment was well tolerated, had the expected effect of boosting GSH [glutathione] production, but had no significant impact on social impairment in youth with ASD [autism spectrum disorder]."So said the results reported by Logan Wink and colleagues  (open-access) who, continuing an autism research theme, looked at whether this important L-cysteine prodrug might have more to give when it comes to at least some facets of some autism. Their trial registration entry can be found here. Reporting results from "a 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral NAC in youth with ASD" researchers followed some 30 children (aged 4-12 years) diagnosed with autism based on their use of NAC or a placebo. Alongside various biological measures including blood levels of "reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG)" and the big 'H' (homocysteine), the primary outcome was the effect on "the CGI-I scale anchored to study physician assessment of core social impairment considering the individuals’ overall level of cognitive, adaptive, and social functioning." I might add that other secondary behavioural outcomes were also included for study.Bearing in mind the loss (dropping out) of some participants during the study period including details that "three withdrew due to irritability (NAC), diarrhea and encopresis (placebo), and defiant and self-injurious behavior (placebo), respectively" the authors report data on 25 study completers. Titrated doses of NAC depending on tolerance and body weight of participants did seem to do what they were supposed to in terms of an effect on levels of glutathione: "had the expected effect of boosting GSH production in peripheral blood" at 12 weeks.But... on every other measure - biological and behavioural - there were no significant differences between the NAC and placebo groups leading the authors to conclude that their results "do not support the use of NAC for treatment of core social impairment of ASD." The research door does however remain open as they also comment that: "the health impact of the resultant increase on GSH remains unclear."These are interesting results. NAC has seemingly found something of a research place in quite a few areas of psychiatry including 'some' autism (see here) and 'some' schizophrenia (see here). The focus has tended to be more on the 'irritability' side of things (see here) which makes it all the more surprising that one of the participants in the Wink trial receiving NAC actually withdrew 'due to irritability'. That being said, the very controlled nature of the Wink study cannot be readily ignored assuming no influence from the placebo .I would like to see a little more on the whole NAC -- cysteine -- glutathione connection given previous discussions with autism in mind (see here). This includes the idea that blood levels of the various compounds involved might not be the same as 'brain levels' and taking into 'level of functioning' into account (see here). But in the context of the Wink data, one has to perhaps realise that NAC is not likely to be a panacea when it comes to autism...---------- Wink LK. et al. A randomized placebo-controlled pilot study of N-acetylcysteine in youth with autism spectrum disorder. Molecular Autism. 2016; 7:26. Masi A. et al. Predictors of placebo response in pharmacological and dietary supplement treatment trials in pediatric autism spectrum disorder: a meta-analysis. Transl Psychiatry. 2015 Sep 22;5:e640.----------Wink, L., Adams, R., Wang, Z., Klaunig, J., Plawecki, M., Posey, D., McDougle, C., & Erickson, C. (2016). A randomized placebo-controlled pilot study of N-acetylcysteine in youth with autism spectrum disorder Molecular Autism, 7 (1) DOI: 10.1186/s13229-016-0088-6... Read more »
Wink, L., Adams, R., Wang, Z., Klaunig, J., Plawecki, M., Posey, D., McDougle, C., & Erickson, C. (2016) A randomized placebo-controlled pilot study of N-acetylcysteine in youth with autism spectrum disorder. Molecular Autism, 7(1). DOI: 10.1186/s13229-016-0088-6
Until recently, clinical manifestations of ZIKV infection ranged from asymptomatic infections to mild dengue-like symptoms characterised by mild fever, rash, muscle/joint pain and headache. Following the 2007 epidemic however neurological complications following ZIKV infection including Guillan-Barre Syndrome (GBS) have been reported and during the current outbreak, ZIKV has been implicating to cause microcephaly and ocular malformations in foetuses born to ZIKV positive mothers. In the absence of a suitable animal model however an association between ZIKV infection and (foetal) neurological anomalies has not been definitively proven although the infection of both brain organoids and human neural precursor cells (hNPC) with ZIKV induces apoptosis, thus suggesting that ZIKV might cause neuronal anomalies in the foetus by inducing apoptosis. Since placental cells however probably do notsupport viral replication the mode of transmission is still elusive. The connection between ZIKV infection and neuronal anomalies is further complicated by the co-circulation of other viruses such Dengue Virus (DENV) that may enhance ZIKV replication or the severity of symptoms. Here the recent AG129 mice model is discussed andZIKV pathogenesis is compared to SINV infection. ... Read more »
Ioos, S., Mallet, H., Leparc Goffart, I., Gauthier, V., Cardoso, T., & Herida, M. (2014) Current Zika virus epidemiology and recent epidemics. Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses, 44(7), 302-307. DOI: 10.1016/j.medmal.2014.04.008
Sarno M, Sacramento GA, Khouri R, do Rosário MS, Costa F, Archanjo G, Santos LA, Nery N Jr, Vasilakis N, Ko AI.... (2016) Zika Virus Infection and Stillbirths: A Case of Hydrops Fetalis, Hydranencephaly and Fetal Demise. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 10(2). PMID: 26914330
Chan JF, Choi GK, Yip CC, Cheng VC, & Yuen KY. (2016) Zika fever and congenital Zika syndrome: An unexpected emerging arboviral disease. The Journal of infection, 72(5), 507-24. PMID: 26940504
Hamel R, Liégeois F, Wichit S, Pompon J, Diop F, Talignani L, Thomas F, Desprès P, Yssel H, & Missé D. (2016) Zika virus: epidemiology, clinical features and host-virus interactions. Microbes and infection / Institut Pasteur. PMID: 27012221
Lazear HM, & Diamond MS. (2016) Zika Virus: New Clinical Syndromes and Its Emergence in the Western Hemisphere. Journal of virology, 90(10), 4864-75. PMID: 26962217
de Paula Freitas B, de Oliveira Dias JR, Prazeres J, Sacramento GA, Ko AI, Maia M, & Belfort R Jr. (2016) Ocular Findings in Infants With Microcephaly Associated With Presumed Zika Virus Congenital Infection in Salvador, Brazil. JAMA ophthalmology. PMID: 26865554
Hazin AN, Poretti A, Cruz DD, Tenorio M, van der Linden A, Pena LJ, Brito C, Gil LH, Miranda-Filho DB, Marques ET.... (2016) Computed Tomographic Findings in Microcephaly Associated with Zika Virus. The New England journal of medicine. PMID: 27050112
Broutet N, Krauer F, Riesen M, Khalakdina A, Almiron M, Aldighieri S, Espinal M, Low N, & Dye C. (2016) Zika Virus as a Cause of Neurologic Disorders. The New England journal of medicine, 374(16), 1506-9. PMID: 26959308
Lednicky J, Beau De Rochars VM, El Badry M, Loeb J, Telisma T, Chavannes S, Anilis G, Cella E, Ciccozzi M, Rashid M.... (2016) Zika Virus Outbreak in Haiti in 2014: Molecular and Clinical Data. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 10(4). PMID: 27111294
Faria NR, Azevedo Rdo S, Kraemer MU, Souza R, Cunha MS, Hill SC, Thézé J, Bonsall MB, Bowden TA, Rissanen I.... (2016) Zika virus in the Americas: Early epidemiological and genetic findings. Science (New York, N.Y.), 352(6283), 345-9. PMID: 27013429
Garcez PP, Loiola EC, Madeiro da Costa R, Higa LM, Trindade P, Delvecchio R, Nascimento JM, Brindeiro R, Tanuri A, & Rehen SK. (2016) Zika virus impairs growth in human neurospheres and brain organoids. Science (New York, N.Y.). PMID: 27064148
Tang H, Hammack C, Ogden SC, Wen Z, Qian X, Li Y, Yao B, Shin J, Zhang F, Lee EM.... (2016) Zika Virus Infects Human Cortical Neural Progenitors and Attenuates Their Growth. Cell stem cell. PMID: 26952870
Brown, M., McAlpine, S., Huang, Y., Haidl, I., Al-Afif, A., Marshall, J., & Anderson, R. (2012) RNA Sensors Enable Human Mast Cell Anti-Viral Chemokine Production and IFN-Mediated Protection in Response to Antibody-Enhanced Dengue Virus Infection. PLoS ONE, 7(3). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034055
Wahala, W., & de Silva, A. (2011) The Human Antibody Response to Dengue Virus Infection. Viruses, 3(12), 2374-2395. DOI: 10.3390/v3122374
Dejnirattisai W, Jumnainsong A, Onsirisakul N, Fitton P, Vasanawathana S, Limpitikul W, Puttikhunt C, Edwards C, Duangchinda T, Supasa S.... (2010) Cross-reacting antibodies enhance dengue virus infection in humans. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5979), 745-8. PMID: 20448183
Schultz KL, Vernon PS, & Griffin DE. (2015) Differentiation of neurons restricts Arbovirus replication and increases expression of the alpha isoform of IRF-7. Journal of virology, 89(1), 48-60. PMID: 25320290
Kulcsar KA, Baxter VK, Abraham R, Nelson A, & Griffin DE. (2015) Distinct Immune Responses in Resistant and Susceptible Strains of Mice during Neurovirulent Alphavirus Encephalomyelitis. Journal of virology, 89(16), 8280-91. PMID: 26041298
Atkins GJ, & Sheahan BJ. (2016) Molecular Determinants of Alphavirus Neuropathogenesis in Mice. The Journal of general virology. PMID: 27028153
Adibi JJ, Marques ET Jr, Cartus A, & Beigi RH. (2016) Teratogenic effects of the Zika virus and the role of the placenta. Lancet (London, England), 387(10027), 1587-90. PMID: 26952548
Did you know this is Hedgehog Awareness Week? The British Hedgehog Preservation Society has dedicated May 1 through 7 to the spiny garden animal. The society won't go so far as to call it Hedgehog Appreciation Week—perhaps that would be too much of an imposition?—but it does want to highlight some of the problems faced by hedgehogs. For example, weed whackers, which apparently in the U.K. are called "strimmers."
The society suggests posting pro-hedgehog leaflets around your neighborhood, ... Read more »
Recio, M. (2016) Crowded house: nest sharing among solitary European hedgehogs in New Zealand. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 14(4), 225-226. DOI: 10.1002/fee.1269
As I mentioned last week, I am watching a lot of farmers on twitter talk about this year’s North American growing season. To get a taste of that yourself, have a look at #Plant16 + wheat as a search. This is where the rubber of tractor tires and plant genomics hits the…well…rows. And just coincidentally […]... Read more »
Philippa Borrill, Ricardo Ramirez-Gonzalez, & Cristobal Uauy. (2016) expVIP: a customisable RNA-seq data analysis and visualisation platform. Plant Physiology, 2172-2186. info:/10.1104/pp.15.01667
Can I just get it out of the way? May the 4th be with you.OK. The results from Mark Strom & Jonathan Silverberg  caught my eye recently and further evidence of a 'correlation' between asthma and developmental and/or behavioural outcomes. This time around it was "caregiver-reported speech disorders in US children" and how the appearance of asthma, hay fever and/or food allergy might show some important relationships with something like speech disorder. This follows other, similar work from this research tag-team that has previously graced this blog (see here).Based on the analysis of "cross-sectional data on 337,285 children aged 2-17 from 19 US population-based studies, including the 1997-2013 National Health Interview Survey and the 2003/4 and 2007/8 National Survey of Children's Health" researchers engaged in some number-crunching to ascertain how physiology and behaviour might be linked. When controlling for various other important variables such as age and a history of eczema, authors reported some interesting correlations based again on those household survey results. "Future prospective studies are needed to characterize the associations.I've zoomed in on the specific condition called asthma as being tied into parent (caregiver) -reported speech disorders because I'm mighty interested in the behavioural correlates that might follow this inflammatory condition (see here and see here for example). As Strom & Silverberg mention: "In one study that assessed caregiver-reported asthma severity, mild (1.58 [1.20-2.08], P=0.001) and moderate (2.99 [1.54-3.41], P<0.0001) asthma were associated with increased odds of speech disorder, however severe asthma was associated with the highest odds of speech disorder (5.70 [2.36-13.78], P=0.0001)." The idea therefore that severity of asthma might correlate with the odds of reporting (caregiver-reporting) a speech disorder, is seemingly an important one.I could speculate all-day as to what might be the important driver(s) in any association between asthma and speech disorder (genetics, immune function, gut bacteria, medication and/or pollutants) but I don't think it would be particularly helpful at this point. Not any more helpful than reiterating that we do need a lot more investigation into this proposed association and that preferential screening for one or other condition when the other has been diagnosed might be a rather good idea.And while I'm on the topic of immune function and behavioural correlates, how about another recent paper from this research tag-team  and more scientific evidence for a possible important association between atopic dermatitis and ADHD...---------- Strom MA. & Silverberg JI. Asthma, hay fever and food allergy are associated with caregiver-reported speech disorders in US children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2016 Apr 19. Strom MA. et al. Association between AD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in US Children and Adults. Br J Dermatol. 2016 Apr 23.----------Strom MA, & Silverberg JI (2016). Asthma, hay fever and food allergy are associated with caregiver-reported speech disorders in US children. Pediatric allergy and immunology : official publication of the European Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology PMID: 27091599... Read more »
Strom MA, & Silverberg JI. (2016) Asthma, hay fever and food allergy are associated with caregiver-reported speech disorders in US children. Pediatric allergy and immunology : official publication of the European Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. PMID: 27091599
Is anybody out there? Where are all the alien civilizations? Even if (intelligent) life is very unlikely, the sheer size and age of the universe means that even long odds might have produced space faring civilizations. Yet, so far, nada. When people are considering the (im)probability of non-human space travellers, one thing always comes up: […]... Read more »
Frank A, & Sullivan WT 3rd. (2016) A New Empirical Constraint on the Prevalence of Technological Species in the Universe. Astrobiology. PMID: 27105054
Machine learning, when machines, er.. learn, is of growing interest to the autism research field. The names Wall and Duda have filled quite a few posts on this blog (see here and see here for example) on this topic and their suggesting that applying machine learning algorithms to something like autism screening and detection could cut down on time taken and resources used.As per the publication of the paper by Daniel Bone and colleagues  it appears that others working in autism research are also waking up to the idea that this might be a useful area to investigate. So: "In this work, we fastidiously utilize ML [machine learning] to derive autism spectrum disorder (ASD) instrument algorithms in an attempt to improve upon widely used ASD screening and diagnostic tools." Fastidiously is such a lovely word (particularly in the context of science).The tools in question were the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) (both of which have already been machine learning 'applied') and their scores "for 1,264 verbal individuals with ASD [autism spectrum disorder] and 462 verbal individuals with non-ASD developmental or psychiatric disorders, split at age 10." And the results... well, let's just say that the authors were not disappointed - or at least less disappointed than on previous research occasions  - as they reported on created algorithms that "were more effective (higher performing) than the current algorithms, were tunable (sensitivity and specificity can be differentially weighted), and were more efficient (achieving near-peak performance with five or fewer codes)." Indeed: "We present a screener algorithm for below (above) age 10 that reached 89.2% (86.7%) sensitivity and 59.0% (53.4%) specificity with only five behavioral codes." Sensitivity and specificity are important concepts when it comes to something like screening instruments in terms of identifying 'all' those with a specific condition and making sure that no 'not-cases' aren't mistakenly identified as 'cases'. The nearly 90% sensitivity rate presented by Bone et al on the basis of 5 behavioural codes is not to be sniffed at.The addition of one Cathy Lord to the authorship of the Bone paper also adds an air of inevitability that applying machine learning to autism research (and practice) is going to continue and increase. Not only because of her historical connection to the ADI-R  (which is a hefty document in anyone's book) but also given her very prominent role in autism research history. Who knows, I might one day be blogging about more big autism research names talking about Wall/Duda things including autism screening triage by YouTube? The final question is: outside of just behavioural variables, who would be brave enough to talk genetics/epigenetics/biology machine learning as the next step in autism screening and/or assessment?---------- Bone D. et al. Use of machine learning to improve autism screening and diagnostic instruments: effectiveness, efficiency, and multi-instrument fusion. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2016 Apr 19. Bone D. et al. Applying machine learning to facilitate autism diagnostics: pitfalls and promises. J Autism Dev Disord. 2015 May;45(5):1121-36. Lord C. et al. Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: a revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 1994 Oct;24(5):659-85.----------Bone D, Bishop S, Black MP, Goodwin MS, Lord C, & Narayanan SS (2016). Use of machine learning to improve autism screening and diagnostic instruments: effectiveness, efficiency, and multi-instrument fusion. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines PMID: 27090613... Read more »
Bone D, Bishop S, Black MP, Goodwin MS, Lord C, & Narayanan SS. (2016) Use of machine learning to improve autism screening and diagnostic instruments: effectiveness, efficiency, and multi-instrument fusion. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. PMID: 27090613
Vaccines don't cause autism, but because the brain is so complex, we still don't know how much of it works so figuring out the real causes (as in more than one) of autism has been slow going. Well, researchers have identified a brain receptor that appears to initiate adolescent synaptic pruning, a process believed necessary for learning, but in this case it is one that appears to go awry in both autism and schizophrenia.... Read more »
Sonia Afroz, Julie Parato, Hui Shen Sheryl, & Sue Smith. (2016) Synaptic pruning in the female hippocampus is triggered at puberty by extrasynaptic GABAA receptors on dendritic spines . eLife. info:/
Psychiatric drugs come in many kinds: there are antidepressants, antipsychotics, anti-anxiety medications, and more. But what all of these categories have in common is that they're anti- something. This is how we classify these drugs - by what they treat.
Except there's a problem - very few psychiatric drugs are only used to treat one thing. Take "antipsychotics". They're used in psychosis, but they're also a key tool in the treatment of mania, a different disorder entirely. Many of these dru... Read more »
Zohar J, Stahl S, Moller HJ, Blier P, Kupfer D, Yamawaki S, Uchida H, Spedding M, Goodwin GM, & Nutt D. (2015) A review of the current nomenclature for psychotropic agents and an introduction to the Neuroscience-based Nomenclature. European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 25(12), 2318-25. PMID: 26527055
Most people who know a little bit about chronic fatigue syndrome / myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) will probably understand the potential importance of the findings reported by Leonard Jason and colleagues  (open-access available here). Suggesting that there may be "four groupings of patients" when it comes to how we "name and define the illnesses", this research group who surveyed over 500 people "in the United States, Great Britain, and Norway" report on one of the biggest challenges facing ME/CFS... how do we accurately define it?The problem of defining CFS/ME stems from the fact that there are currently several clinical presentations where CFS/ME might figure (or at least where patients fulfil ME/CFS criteria) and several different ways of clinically defining the condition(s) (see here and see here). That list of definitions may indeed also be growing (see here). With all that confusion about clinical overlap and what criteria are defining what patient group, it's little wonder that research is just starting to come to grips with some of the potential underlying biology of [some] CFS/ME (see here) after so many years in the scientific wilderness. Indeed, as with many conditions resting in that 'unexplained symptoms' category, not knowing can sometimes be fertile ground for various [unfounded] theorising...Jason et al (whose research has graced this blog before) set about categorising their participant group based on various case definitions and symptom presentations. They reported four groupings; by far the largest group of their participants (n=346) fell into a categorisation that "involves more specific criteria" defining CFS/ME including use of the relative new term SEID (Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease). Further: "efforts have specified domains of substantial reductions of activity, post-exertional malaise, neurocognitive impairment, and sleep dysfunction" and "Patients with these characteristics were more functionally impaired than those meeting just chronic fatigue criteria." The term used by authors for this group was Neuroendocrineimmune Dysfunction Syndrome (NDS) following on from previous work . Smaller numbers of people included on their study did meet criteria for chronic fatigue (greater than 6 months) with (n=47) or without (n=62) explanation "by medical or psychiatric conditions." Jason and colleagues also defined a smaller group who met the Ramsay ME criteria and who were described as an "even more impaired group." I wonder if this might include the 'housebound' group described in other research?The authors accept that there are 'limitations' to their research including issues around how they chose their sample(s) and some of the tools used relying on self-report; further work is indicated. But as a start trying to disentangle both the heterogeneity and issues with clinical classification when it comes to CFS/ME, their paper represents a good attempt to further focus minds on the spectrum of various overlapping fatigue conditions present and how we go about teasing apart phenotypes with a focus on core symptoms . Minus the psychiatry focus, perhaps it is time to also looking at applying something like the principles of RDoC to the issue of ME/CFS?---------- Jason LA. et al. Case definitions integrating empiric and consensus perspectives. Fatigue. 2016;4(1):1-23. Jason LA. et al. Factor Analysis of the DePaul Symptom Questionnaire: Identifying Core Domains. J Neurol Neurobiol. 2015 Sep;1(4).----------Jason LA, McManimen S, Sunnquist M, Brown A, Furst J, Newton JL, & Strand EB (2016). Case definitions integrating empiric and consensus perspectives. Fatigue : biomedicine, health & behavior, 4 (1), 1-23 PMID: 27088059... Read more »
Jason LA, McManimen S, Sunnquist M, Brown A, Furst J, Newton JL, & Strand EB. (2016) Case definitions integrating empiric and consensus perspectives. Fatigue : biomedicine, health , 4(1), 1-23. PMID: 27088059
Generally seen as antithetical to one another, evolution and religion can hardly fit in a scientific discourse simultaneously. However, in a new article, a biology researcher delves into observations on the influences a few major religions have had on evolutionists and their scientific thinking over the centuries.
... Read more »
Romero Jr., A. (2016) The influence of religion on science: the case of the idea of predestination in biospeleology. Research Ideas and Outcomes. DOI: 10.3897/rio.2.e9015
Insomnia, fun fact those of us who have served or are serving in the military have a much higher incidence of sleep problems. So if you are like me and have ever been prescribed something to help you sleep, you know that there are some unwanted side effects. For instance the time I lost memory of a whole day of interacting with people to the ambien I had taken the night before, not fun. Thankfully Danish researchers found that the level of salts in the brain plays a critical role in whether we are asleep or awake.
... Read more »
Ding, F., ODonnell, J., Xu, Q., Kang, N., Goldman, N., & Nedergaard, M. (2016) Changes in the composition of brain interstitial ions control the sleep-wake cycle. Science, 352(6285), 550-555. DOI: 10.1126/science.aad4821
In a new Nature paper, Berkely neuroscientists Alexander G. Huth and colleagues present a 'semantic atlas' of the human brain. Huth et al. have mapped which brain areas respond to words, according to the semantics (meanings) of each word. It turns out that these maps are highly similar across individuals - which could have implications for 'mind reading' technology.
Huth et al. recorded brain activity with fMRI while seven volunteers listened to over two hours of audio narrative (taken fr... Read more »
Huth AG, de Heer WA, Griffiths TL, Theunissen FE, & Gallant JL. (2016) Natural speech reveals the semantic maps that tile human cerebral cortex. Nature, 532(7600), 453-8. PMID: 27121839
Whilst the package inserts of the various drugs that modern medicine has at its disposal provides important information on potential mode of action, there is a growing realisation that drugs generally have quite a few more molecular targets than are perhaps listed. Take for example the quite commonly used (in some parts of the world anyway) compound called melatonin that in some instances can provide almost miraculous relief when it comes to sleeping issues under certain circumstances. A derivative of the amino acid tryptophan, melatonin might however be quite the molecular handy-person when it comes to its biological targets including its actions on something called leaky gut for example...The paper by Lin Yuan and colleagues  similarly suggests that everyone's favourite 'cuddle hormone' (oxytocin) might also have a wider range of biological effects than has hitherto been fully appreciated. Drawing on cell line results and intra-nasal administration of oxytocin (OT) to [artificially] immune-stimulated mice, authors reported that "OT possesses anti-neuroinflammatory activity and might serve as a potential therapeutic agent for treating neuroinflammatory diseases."One of the primary analytical targets of the Yuan study were microglia, those 'constant gardeners' according to one description, and how administration of OT might have some interesting effects on the activation of microglia under certain circumstances. "BV-2 cells and primary microglia were pre-treated with OT (0.1, 1, and 10 μM) for 2 h followed by LPS [lipopolysaccharides] treatment" we are told, and microglia activation and "pro-inflammatory mediators" subsequently monitored. The results tallied with those 'anti-neuroinflammatory' sentiments previously expressed as authors report on various possible reasons for such an effect: "OT suppressed the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2, and iNOS at the mRNA and proteins levels and reduced the elevation of [Ca2+]i in LPS-stimulated microglia cells." If that wasn't enough, researchers also looked at what happened following OT pre-treatment when a certain strain of mouse was 'immune stimulated' again in terms of microglia activation and those pro-inflammatory mediators. We are similarly told that: "pre-treatment with OT showed marked attenuation of microglial activation and pro-inflammatory factor levels." So we have something of a match in the lab and in an animal model.These are interesting results. Yet again, one has to be a little cautious about the use of mouse models or indeed, cell lines (humans are so much more than a group of cells in a petri dish) and further, independent investigations are indicated. But: "These data suggested that OT would be a potential therapeutic agent for alleviating neuroinflammatory processes in neurodegenerative diseases."I was inclined to talk about the Yuan paper because of the various 'connections' that have been made between oxytocin and autism (see here). With a growing interest in the oxytocin-autism connection in the peer-reviewed literature, this nonapeptide (9 amino acids long) has attracted quite a few researchers to its cause  as a function of the idea that: "Oxytocin increases the salience of social stimuli and promotes parental nurturing and social bonds" . As per my interpretation of the current state of the oxytocin-autism research base, there are some interesting results available but once again, universal 'effects' are nowhere to be seen - Autisms, people. Autisms. The Yuan and other results focusing on the 'anti-neuroinflammatory' activity of oxytocin perhaps add another dimension to the possible hows and whys of efficacy when it comes to a label like autism. That also a growing number of people are coming around to the idea that neuroinflammation might be a facet of 'some' autism (see here) and including some mention of microglia (see here) offers an additional correlate to add into the future research mix. Could those with autism who have more prominent signs of neuroinflammatory issues potentially be 'best responders' to oxytocin for example? I did also wonder whether the idea that inflammation or inflammatory issues might feature in complex behaviours like social cognitive processing (see here) could provide another explanation for some of the reported results observed following use of oxytocin in [some] autism?Much more research is indicated but again the message is... don't be too dogmatic when it comes to pharmacological targets and actions of medicines indicated for conditions such as autism. You might just end up being surprised...---------- Yuan L. et al. Oxytocin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in microglial cells and attenuates microglial activation in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice. Journal of Neuroinflammation. 2016; 13:77. Okamoto Y. et al. The Potential of Nasal Oxytocin Administration for Remediation of Autism Spectrum Disorders. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2016 Apr 13. Young LJ. & Barrett CE. Neuroscience. Can oxytocin treat autism? Science. 2015 Feb 20;347(6224):825-6.----------Yuan L, Liu S, Bai X, Gao Y, Liu G, Wang X, Liu D, Li T, Hao A, & Wang Z (2016). Oxytocin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in microglial cells and attenuates microglial activation in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice. Journal of neuroinflammation, 13 (1) PMID: 27075756... Read more »
Yuan L, Liu S, Bai X, Gao Y, Liu G, Wang X, Liu D, Li T, Hao A, & Wang Z. (2016) Oxytocin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in microglial cells and attenuates microglial activation in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice. Journal of neuroinflammation, 13(1), 77. PMID: 27075756
The whole of human intelligence, right at your fingertips. Sure it might not make the layman an engineer or physicist, but if we want to learn about a particular topic the internet can give us that information. But you better hold on tight before you lose it. New research finds retweeting or otherwise sharing information creates a “cognitive overload” that interferes with learning and retaining what you’ve just seen.
... Read more »
Jiang, T., Hou, Y., & Wang, Q. (2016) Does micro-blogging make us “shallow”? Sharing information online interferes with information comprehension. Computers in Human Behavior, 210-214. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2016.02.008
Treating immune disorders might have gotten easier with a new mouse model.... Read more »
Beura, L., Hamilton, S., Bi, K., Schenkel, J., Odumade, O., Casey, K., Thompson, E., Fraser, K., Rosato, P., Filali-Mouhim, A.... (2016) Normalizing the environment recapitulates adult human immune traits in laboratory mice. Nature, 532(7600), 512-516. DOI: 10.1038/nature17655
Mestas, J., & Hughes, C. (2004) Of Mice and Not Men: Differences between Mouse and Human Immunology. The Journal of Immunology, 172(5), 2731-2738. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.172.5.2731
Signatures of Mutational Processes Extracted from the Mutational Catalogs of 21 Breast Cancer Genomes. Credit:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2012.12.008Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide, with approximately 14 million new cases and 8.2 million cancer related deaths each year (Source: WHO). A family history of cancer typically increases a person's risk of developing the disease, yet most cancer cases have no family history at all. This suggests that a combination of both genetics and environmental exposures contribute to the etiology of cancer. In this context, "genetics" means the genetic make-up we are born with and inherited from our parents. For example, women born with specific mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are known to have a much higher risk of developing breast cancer later in life.However, besides the genetic make-up we carry from birth, there are many geographical and environmental factors that contribute to the risk of cancer. For example, the incidence of breast cancer is over 4 times higher in North and West Europe compared to Asia and Africa (Source: WHO). Stomach cancer, on the other hand, is much more prevalent in Asia than the US. If you think that this may be linked to the genetic differences across ethnicities, think again. The National Cancer Institute published a summary of several studies that compared the incidence of first and second generation immigrants in the US with the local population. They found that:"cancer incidence patterns among first-generation immigrants were nearly identical to those of their native country, but through subsequent generations, these patterns evolved to resemble those found in the United States. This was true especially for cancers related to hormones, such as breast, prostate, and ovarian cancer and neoplasms of the uterine corpus and cancers attributable to westernized diets, such as colorectal malignancies."According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "around one third of cancer deaths are due to the 5 leading behavioral and dietary risks: high body mass index, low fruit and vegetable intake, lack of physical activity, tobacco use, alcohol use."Cancer is the result of a series of cellular mechanisms gone awry: every time a cell divides, somatic mutations accumulate in the cell's genome. These are not mutations we are born with, inherited from our parents. Rather, these are changes that accumulate in certain cells as we grow old and are not the same across all cells in the body. Many environmental exposures contribute to this process and affect the rate at which these mutations accumulate. However, cells have various mechanisms that are normally able to repair harmful mutations or, when the damage is beyond repair, to trigger cell death. The immune system is also "trained" to recognize cancer cells and destroy them.When all these defense mechanisms fail, cancer cells start dividing uncontrollably.As a result, all cancer cells carry a number of somatic mutations that set them apart from healthy cells, and some tend to be the same across different cancer patients: for example, specific mutational patterns found in lung cancer have been attributed to tobacco exposure and were indeed reproduced in animal models. Another set of mutations has been attributed to UV exposure and has been found in skin cancers [1, 2].This prompts the ambitious question: can we find common mutations across individuals with the same cancer? And how many of these mutational patterns that are common across individuals can we attribute to particular exposures and/or biological processes? Distinguished postdoctoral researcher Ludmil Alexandrov, from the Los Alamos National Laboratory, has been working on this problem since his he was a PhD student at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute."It's like lifting fingerprints," Alexandrov explains. "The mutations are the fingerprints, but now we have to do the investigative work and find the 'perpetrator', i.e., the carcinogens that caused them." During his graduate studies, under the supervision of Mike Stratton of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Alexandrov developed a mathematical model that, given the cancer genomes from a number of patients, is able to pick the "common signals" across the patients -- i.e. mutation patterns that are common across the patients -- and classify them into "signatures." "When formulated mathematically," Alexandrov explains, "the question can be expressed as the classic 'cocktail party' problem, where multiple people in a room are speaking simultaneously while several microphones placed at different locations are recording the conversations. Each microphone captures a combination of all sounds and the problem is to identify the individual conversations from all the recordings." Taking from this analogy, each cancer genome is a "recording", and the task of the mathematical model is to reconstruct each conversation, in other words, the mutational patterns. These are sets of somatic mutations that are the observed across the cancer genomes and that characterize certain types of cancers.In 2013, Alexandrov and colleagues analyzed 4,938,362 mutations from 7,042 patients, spanning 30 different cancers, and extracted more than 20 distinct mutational signatures . "Some patterns were expected, like the known ones caused by tobacco and UV light," Alexandrov says. "Others were completely new."Of the new signatures found, many are involved in defective DNA repair mechanisms, suggesting that drugs targeting these specific mechanisms may benefit cancers exhibiting these signatures . But the most exciting part of this research will be finding the 'perpetrator' or, as Alexandrov explains, the mutations triggered by carcinogens like tobacco, UV radiation, obesity, and so on. The challenge will be to experimentally associate these mutational patterns to the exposures that caused them. In order to do this, the scientists will have to expose cultured cells and model organisms to known carcinogens and then analyze the genomes of the experimentally induced cancers.In the meantime, the signatures found so far are only the beginning: Alexandrov and colleagues have teamed up with the Los Alamos High Performance Computing Organization in order to analyze the genomes of almost 30,000 cancer patients. "The amount of data we will have to handle for this task is enormous, on the order of petabytes," Alexandrov says. "Few places in the world have the capability to handle this many data. Under normal circumstances, it takes months to answer a question on 10 petabytes of data. The supercomputing facility at Los Alamos can provide an answer within a day." Because of his research, in 2014 Alexandrov was listed by Forbes magazine as one of the “30 brightest stars under the age of 30” in the field of Science and Healthcare. In 2015 he was awardedthe AAAS Science & SciLifeLab Prize for Young Scientists in the category Genomics and Proteomics  and the Weintraub Award for Graduate Research. He is now the recipient of the prestigious Oppenheimer fellowship at Los Alamos National Laboratory.Disclaimer: Elena E. Giorgi is a computational biologist in the Theoretical Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. She does not represent her employer’s views. LA-UR-16-xxxx.ReferencesSiegel, R., Miller, K., & Jemal, A. (2015). Cancer statistics, 2015 ... Read more »
Alexandrov LB, Nik-Zainal S, Wedge DC, Aparicio SA, Behjati S, Biankin AV, Bignell GR, Bolli N, Borg A, Børresen-Dale AL.... (2013) Signatures of mutational processes in human cancer. Nature, 500(7463), 415-21. PMID: 23945592
Alexandrov LB, Nik-Zainal S, Siu HC, Leung SY, & Stratton MR. (2015) A mutational signature in gastric cancer suggests therapeutic strategies. Nature communications, 8683. PMID: 26511885
"Children with higher urinary DMP [dimethylphosphate] concentrations may have a twofold to threefold increased risk of being diagnosed with ADHD [attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]."So said the results presented in the paper by Yu and colleagues  who looking at "97 doctor-diagnosed ADHD cases and 110 non-ADHD controls who were 4-15 years of age" examined urine and blood samples for various factors including "biomarkers of OP [organophosphate] pesticide exposure." They concluded that, adjusting for creatinine, urine levels of DMP but not other dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites were higher in the ADHD group compared with the non-ADHD group. Further: "Organophosphate pesticide exposure may have deleterious effects on children's neurodevelopment, particularly the development of ADHD." At the same time, Yu et al also reported nothing very much to see when it came to blood lead levels (BLLs) between the groups.This is not the first time that examination of urinary metabolites of OPs have turned up something of a potential relationship with behavioural outcomes related to ADHD. The paper by Bouchard and colleagues  also reported a possible connection supporting a "hypothesis that organophosphate exposure, at levels common among US children, may contribute to ADHD prevalence." There too urine was the analytical medium and dialkylphosphate concentrations the target compounds. This and other research looking at this issue have led to statements  to the effect that: "Children's exposures to pesticides should be limited as much as possible." I don't think many people would disagree with that sentiment.I've talked about OPs quite a bit on this blog (see here and see here) and how various conditions/labels might be 'associated' with this class of compounds either when used as insecticides or as something rather more ominous. I've tried not to be too alarmist about the possibility of a connection with health because OPs do serve an important purpose (as an insecticide) and have probably saved quite a few lives as a result. But it is getting increasingly difficult to ignore the possibility that this and other classes of pesticides either alone or in combination with other factors, seem to be implicated in various conditions/labels and more needs to be done looking at the hows and whys. This can however be done without scaremongering.The Yu results whilst interesting are not however without some cautions. DAP metabolites as markers for OP exposure still requires further investigations , not least from which specific OP they are derived from. That other factors such as exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke might also link into the presentation of specific metabolites such as DMP  is another consideration. Continuing the theme that combinatorial exposures might also exert an effect  other research illustrates how difficult it might be to pin one specific type of exposure to specific behavioural outcomes. And then also we have the added layer of complexity that is the genetics of xenobiotic metabolism with specific focus on OPs. Relationships are likely to be pretty complicated as a result.Having said all that does not however mean that results like the ones from Yu et al can be just brushed under the carpet...Music to close, and having watched Guardians of the Galaxy for the Nth time last evening, all I can say is the film soundtrack is kinda cool...---------- Yu CJ. et al. Increased risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder associated with exposure to organophosphate pesticide in Taiwanese children. Andrology. 2016 Apr 12. Bouchard MF. et al. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and urinary metabolites of organophosphate pesticides. Pediatrics. 2010 Jun;125(6):e1270-7. Roberts JR. et al. Pesticide exposure in children. Pediatrics. 2012 Dec;130(6):e1765-88. Sudakin DL. & Stone DL. Dialkyl phosphates as biomarkers of organophosphates: the current divide between epidemiology and clinical toxicology. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2011 Nov;49(9):771-81. Jain RB. Levels of dialkylphosphate metabolites in urine among general U.S. population. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2016 Feb 26;43:74-82. Osaka A. et al. Exposure characterization of three major insecticide lines in urine of young children in Japan-neonicotinoids, organophosphates, and pyrethroids. Environ Res. 2016 May;147:89-96.----------Yu CJ, Du JC, Chiou HC, Chung MY, Yang W, Chen YS, Fuh MR, Chien LC, Hwang B, & Chen ML (2016). Increased risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder associated with exposure to organophosphate pesticide in Taiwanese children. Andrology PMID: 27070915... Read more »
Yu CJ, Du JC, Chiou HC, Chung MY, Yang W, Chen YS, Fuh MR, Chien LC, Hwang B, & Chen ML. (2016) Increased risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder associated with exposure to organophosphate pesticide in Taiwanese children. Andrology. PMID: 27070915
Coronaviruses (CoV) are positive sense RNA viruses with a genome size of 29-32 kb with four genera (Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma- and Delta CoV) belonging to the family of the Coronaviridae within the order of Nidovirales, with the Betacoronaviruses further divided into four lineages (A-D).
Most CoV identified until now are causing severe disease only in animals including agricultural important animals such as chicken, cattle, and pigs. To date only six human CoV (HCoV) have been identified, namely HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, Severe Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV and most recently Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV, although a SARS-like CoV, WIV1-CoV, replicates in primary human epithelial cells at low levels as well as in mice expressing the human SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 albeit at lower levels compared to SARS-CoV.
Here recent advances concerning the inhibition of the antiviral response with a focus on the viral orf4b and M proteins derived from MERS-CoV are discussed. ... Read more »
Chan JF, Lau SK, To KK, Cheng VC, Woo PC, & Yuen KY. (2015) Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: another zoonotic betacoronavirus causing SARS-like disease. Clinical microbiology reviews, 28(2), 465-522. PMID: 25810418
Han HJ, Yu H, & Yu XJ. (2016) Evidence for zoonotic origins of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The Journal of general virology, 97(2), 274-80. PMID: 26572912
Han, H., Wen, H., Zhou, C., Chen, F., Luo, L., Liu, J., & Yu, X. (2015) Bats as reservoirs of severe emerging infectious diseases. Virus Research, 1-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.virusres.2015.05.006
Wong LY, Lui PY, & Jin DY. (2016) A molecular arms race between host innate antiviral response and emerging human coronaviruses. Virologica Sinica, 31(1), 12-23. PMID: 26786772
Lin R, Heylbroeck C, Pitha PM, & Hiscott J. (1998) Virus-dependent phosphorylation of the IRF-3 transcription factor regulates nuclear translocation, transactivation potential, and proteasome-mediated degradation. Molecular and cellular biology, 18(5), 2986-96. PMID: 9566918
Yang XL, Hu B, Wang B, Wang MN, Zhang Q, Zhang W, Wu LJ, Ge XY, Zhang YZ, Daszak P.... (2015) Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Bat Coronavirus Closely Related to the Direct Progenitor of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. Journal of virology, 90(6), 3253-6. PMID: 26719272
Menachery VD, Yount BL Jr, Sims AC, Debbink K, Agnihothram SS, Gralinski LE, Graham RL, Scobey T, Plante JA, Royal SR.... (2016) SARS-like WIV1-CoV poised for human emergence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. PMID: 26976607
Munster, V., Adney, D., van Doremalen, N., Brown, V., Miazgowicz, K., Milne-Price, S., Bushmaker, T., Rosenke, R., Scott, D., Hawkinson, A.... (2016) Replication and shedding of MERS-CoV in Jamaican fruit bats (Artibeus jamaicensis). Scientific Reports, 21878. DOI: 10.1038/srep21878
Yang Y, Ye F, Zhu N, Wang W, Deng Y, Zhao Z, & Tan W. (2015) Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus ORF4b protein inhibits type I interferon production through both cytoplasmic and nuclear targets. Scientific reports, 17554. PMID: 26631542
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Matthews, K., Schäfer, A., Pham, A., & Frieman, M. (2014) The SARS coronavirus papain like protease can inhibit IRF3 at a post activation step that requires deubiquitination activity. Virology Journal, 11(1). DOI: 10.1186/s12985-014-0209-9
Siu, K., Yeung, M., Kok, K., Yuen, K., Kew, C., Lui, P., Chan, C., Tse, H., Woo, P., Yuen, K.... (2014) Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 4a Protein Is a Double-Stranded RNA-Binding Protein That Suppresses PACT-Induced Activation of RIG-I and MDA5 in the Innate Antiviral Response. Journal of Virology, 88(9), 4866-4876. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.03649-13
Lui PY, Wong LY, Fung CL, Siu KL, Yeung ML, Yuen KS, Chan CP, Woo PC, Yuen KY, & Jin DY. (2016) Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus M protein suppresses type I interferon expression through the inhibition of TBK1-dependent phosphorylation of IRF3. Emerging microbes . PMID: 27094905
Matthews KL, Coleman CM, van der Meer Y, Snijder EJ, & Frieman MB. (2014) The ORF4b-encoded accessory proteins of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and two related bat coronaviruses localize to the nucleus and inhibit innate immune signalling. The Journal of general virology, 95(Pt 4), 874-82. PMID: 24443473
Thornbrough JM, Jha BK, Yount B, Goldstein SA, Li Y, Elliott R, Sims AC, Baric RS, Silverman RH, & Weiss SR. (2016) Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus NS4b Protein Inhibits Host RNase L Activation. mBio, 7(2). PMID: 27025250
Li Y, Banerjee S, Wang Y, Goldstein SA, Dong B, Gaughan C, Silverman RH, & Weiss SR. (2016) Activation of RNase L is dependent on OAS3 expression during infection with diverse human viruses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113(8), 2241-6. PMID: 26858407
Banerjee S, Chakrabarti A, Jha BK, Weiss SR, & Silverman RH. (2014) Cell-type-specific effects of RNase L on viral induction of beta interferon. mBio, 5(2). PMID: 24570368
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