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  • June 1, 2017
  • 04:43 AM
  • 1,038 views

Differentiating between autism and ADHD the machine learning way (again)

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

So: "These results support the potential of creating a quick, accurate and widely accessible method for differentiating risks between ASD [autism spectrum disorder] and ADHD [attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]."That was a conclusion reached in the paper by Marlena Duda and colleagues [1] (open-access) building on their previous foray into this important research area (see here). Last time around [2] this research group - the Duda/Wall et al research combination - set t........ Read more »

  • May 31, 2017
  • 10:34 PM
  • 785 views

Cities Are Bad for Bumblebees—Except Detroit

by Elizabeth Preston in Inkfish



For bumblebees, big cities are a bummer. Layers of asphalt, concrete, brick and metal add up to fewer places for the insects to nest. But one big city—Detroit—reverses that trend. That means shrinking cities might be a growing opportunity for at-risk pollinators.

Bumblebees (species with the genus name Bombus) are, like other bees, in trouble. Their numbers and diversity are decreasing across North America. Other native wild bees—the insects that have been living here and pollinatin........ Read more »

  • May 31, 2017
  • 05:44 AM
  • 772 views

On migration status and offspring autism severity

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Black women from East Africa had more than 3.5 times the odds of autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability in their children than Caucasian nonimmigrant women."So said the study results reported by Jenny Fairthorn and colleagues [1] (open-access available here) providing yet more evidence for the need for much greater scrutiny as to why children of immigrant parents from East Africa are seemingly at higher risk of 'more severe' autism than other groups (see here and see here).B........ Read more »

  • May 30, 2017
  • 04:57 AM
  • 790 views

Healthcare use before, during and after a diagnosis of CFS/ME

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Adults and children with CFS/ME [chronic fatigue syndrome / myalgic encephalomyelitis] have greater health care needs than the rest of the population for at least ten years before their diagnosis, and these higher levels of health care resource use continue for at least ten years after diagnosis."So concluded the study published by Simon Collin and colleagues [1] (open-access available here) who once again (see here) relied on data derived from the "Clinical Practice Research Datalink........ Read more »

  • May 29, 2017
  • 05:08 AM
  • 704 views

Assisted reproductive technology and risk of offspring autism meta-analysed

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Our study indicated that the use of ART [assisted reproductive technology] may [be] associated with higher risk of ASD [autism spectrum disorder] in the offspring. However, further prospective, large, and high-quality studies are still required."So said the results of the meta-analysis published by Liang Lui and colleagues [1] (open-access) surveying the peer-reviewed research literature - "11 records (3 cohort studies and 8 case-control studies)" - between 2006 and 201........ Read more »

  • May 27, 2017
  • 04:59 AM
  • 771 views

Low dose suramin and autism: a small RCT with potentially big results

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

'Low dose' has been a feature of my autism research reading this week; first starting with the results from Dan Quintana and colleagues [1] talking about some important effects following intranasal delivery of low dose oxytocin and then moving on to the primary reason for this entry with results from Robert Naviaux and colleagues [2] (open-access) continuing a research theme looking at suramin and autism (see here for some background).For those interested in the oxytocin-autism research bas........ Read more »

Naviaux, R., Curtis, B., Li, K., Naviaux, J., Bright, A., Reiner, G., Westerfield, M., Goh, S., Alaynick, W., Wang, L.... (2017) Low-dose suramin in autism spectrum disorder: a small, phase I/II, randomized clinical trial. Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology. DOI: 10.1002/acn3.424  

  • May 26, 2017
  • 06:08 AM
  • 736 views

The PI3K/mTOR inhibitor GSK2126458 is effective for treating TSC solid renal tumours

by Joana Guedes in BHD Research Blog

Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is an inherited tumour syndrome that shares clinical similarities with Birt-Hogg-Dube Syndrome. It is caused by mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 that lead to aberrant activation of mTOR, affecting multiple organs, including the kidney and lung. In the kidney, lesions such as multiple renal cysts and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) can occur. Tumour reduction in TSC patients after treatment with rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR, is partial and reversible probably due to feedback activ........ Read more »

  • May 26, 2017
  • 04:06 AM
  • 342 views

On ADHD medication and motor vehicle crashes

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Among patients with ADHD [attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder], rates of MVCs [motor vehicle crashes] were lower during periods when they received ADHD medication."That was the research bottom-line discussed by Zheng Chang and colleagues [1] who continue a theme on how managing/treating the symptoms of ADHD can often have some profound effects on those diagnosed with ADHD and also the wider population.The outcome measure on this occasion was MVCs; in particular: "E........ Read more »

  • May 25, 2017
  • 04:02 AM
  • 333 views

Blood heavy metal levels and autism (yet again)

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Data showed that the children with ASD [autism spectrum disorder] had significantly (p < 0.001) higher levels of mercury and arsenic and a lower level of cadmium."And... "It is desirable to continue future research into the relationship between ASD and heavy metal exposure."Those sentences come from the study by Huamei Li and colleagues [1] continuing a research theme regarding (generally) elevated levels of heavy metals being detected in those on the autism spectrum (see here). Ye........ Read more »

  • May 24, 2017
  • 11:21 AM
  • 331 views

Unreliability of fMRI Emotional Biomarkers

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover

Brain responses to emotion stimuli are highly variable even within the same individual, and this could be a problem for researchers who seek to use these responses as biomarkers to help diagnose and treat disorders such as depression.

That's according to a new paper in Neuroimage, from University College London neuroscientists Camilla Nord and colleagues.



Nord et al. had 29 volunteers perform three tasks during fMRI scanning. All of the tasks involved pictures of emotional faces, which... Read more »

  • May 24, 2017
  • 05:33 AM
  • 334 views

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) as a risk factor for bipolar disorder

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Only irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) emerged as a risk factor for BD [bipolar disorder] supported by convincing evidence."So said the results of the umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses by Beatrice Bortolato and colleagues [1] looking at the various environmental risk factors potentially linked to the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. I might add that this is a topic that has been discussed before on this blog (see here and see here for examples).If the systematic ........ Read more »

  • May 23, 2017
  • 03:54 AM
  • 364 views

"there is no single way for a brain to be normal" (or how 'neurotypical' is a nonsense)

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

I'm not usually so forthright with my posts on this blog, but today I'm being a little more bullish as I talk about an editorial from Simon Baron-Cohen [1] titled: "Neurodiversity – a revolutionary concept for autism and psychiatry."The crux of the SBC paper is the suggestion that use of the term 'disorder' specifically with autism in mind might have certain connotations - "Disorder should be used when there is nothing positive about the condition" - and until the "biomedical mechanistic cause........ Read more »

  • May 22, 2017
  • 04:00 PM
  • 435 views

Unraveling the Mysteries of Mischievous Microbiome

by Aurametrix team in Aurametrix Blog

Science explains why some people smell worse than others despite keeping themselves squeaky clean. The body is crawling with bacteria increasing the risk for diseases for which we have unreserved levels of sympathy. It can also lead to ​unlikable conditions such as unpredictable and embarrassing outbursts of body odor - so bad it ruins social lives and careers.  But there is no cure for metabolic body odor ... Read more »

  • May 22, 2017
  • 06:13 AM
  • 345 views

"a gluten-related subgroup of schizophrenia"?

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

A quote to begin this post: "this preliminary study demonstrates that altered AGDA [antibodies against gliadin-derived antigen] levels in the circulation are associated with schizophrenia and could serve as biomarkers for the identification of a schizophrenia subgroup that may need an alternative therapy or precision treatment."So said the findings reported by McLean and colleagues [1] (open-access) looking at an area of some interest to this blog (see here) on how dietary gluten might........ Read more »

  • May 20, 2017
  • 07:12 AM
  • 337 views

Gastrin-releasing peptide and autism continued

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

Yet another 'continued' or 'part 2' short post for you today, building on some previous - very preliminary research - talking about the use of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and autism (see here).The authors included on the paper by Josemar Marchezan and colleagues [1] are familiar ones to this part of the autism research landscape as per the other occasions that members of this group have looked at / talked about GRP and autism in the peer-reviewed domain.GRP is all about a compound that 'does........ Read more »

Marchezan, J., Becker, M., Schwartsmann, G., Ohlweiler, L., Roesler, R., Renck, L., Gonçalves, M., Ranzan, J., & Riesgo, R. (2017) A Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial of Gastrin-Releasing Peptide in Childhood Autism. Clinical Neuropharmacology, 1. DOI: 10.1097/WNF.0000000000000213  

  • May 19, 2017
  • 11:21 PM
  • 296 views

The warmer the dangerouser, at least if you are a caterpillar

by Piter Boll in Earthling Nature

by Piter Kehoma Boll Scientist all over the world agree that species diversity is higher at the tropics than at polar regions, i.e., the closer you get to the equator, more species you will find. But apart from making food … Continue reading →... Read more »

Roslin, T., Hardwick, B., Novotny, V., Petry, W., Andrew, N., Asmus, A., Barrio, I., Basset, Y., Boesing, A., Bonebrake, T.... (2017) Higher predation risk for insect prey at low latitudes and elevations. Science, 356(6339), 742-744. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaj1631  

  • May 19, 2017
  • 08:00 AM
  • 310 views

Friday Fellow: Common Stinkhorn

by Piter Boll in Earthling Nature

by Piter Kehoma Boll Today things are getting sort of pornographic again. Some time ago I introduced a plant whose flowers resemble a woman’s vulva, the asian pigeonwing, and now is time to look at something of the other sex. … Continue reading →... Read more »

  • May 19, 2017
  • 06:13 AM
  • 298 views

Characterization of a FLCN mutation associated with RCC

by Joana Guedes in BHD Research Blog

Mutations in the FLCN gene are the cause of Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome, a rare disease characterized by renal cell carcinoma (RCC), pneumothorax and fibrofolliculomas. In their new study, Bartram et al. (2017) identify a heterozygous mutation in the FLCN gene in a patient with RCC. DNA from tumour and a metastasis was analysed and the authors demonstrated skipping of exon 11 as the consequence of this mutation leading to a shift in the reading frame and the insertion of a premature sto........ Read more »

Bartram MP, Mishra T, Reintjes N, Fabretti F, Gharbi H, Adam AC, Göbel H, Franke M, Schermer B, Haneder S.... (2017) Characterization of a splice-site mutation in the tumor suppressor gene FLCN associated with renal cancer. BMC medical genetics, 18(1), 53. PMID: 28499369  

  • May 19, 2017
  • 05:26 AM
  • 312 views

Injury risk and ADHD: part 2

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

Consider this short post a sort of follow-on to a previous entry on this blog concerning the elevated risk of injury following a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The paper in question today is that by Wu-Chien Chien and colleagues [1] who yet again [2], brought the quite significant scientific weight of the "National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan" to bear on this topic.In this latest paper, Chien et al relied on data from a 'subset' of the main in........ Read more »

  • May 18, 2017
  • 05:40 AM
  • 331 views

On vaccinated and un-vaccinated homeschooled children: the disappearing-reappearing-disappearing-reappearing studies

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

I originally began writing this post in the last week of November 2016 following first sight of the study abstract by Anthony Mawson and colleagues [1] and their journey into a topic that has had its fair share of discussion/argument* (*delete as appropriate) with autism in mind down the years: are vaccines or immunisation patterns potentially linked to [some] autism?As it happened, this post was shelved for some time because (a) only an abstract appeared despite a publication date accompan........ Read more »

Anthony R Mawson, Brian D Ray, Azad R Bhuiyan, & Binu Jacob. (2017) Pilot comparative study on the health of vaccinated and unvaccinated 6- to 12-year-old U.S. children. Journal of Translational Science. info:/10.15761/JTS.1000186

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